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SMITHSONIAN 





———MISCELLANKOUS COLLECTIONS. 








“EVERY MAN IS A VALUABLE MEMBER OF SOCTETY WHO BY HIS OBSERVATIONS, RESEARCHES, 


AND EXPERIMENTS PROCURES KNOWLEDGE FOR MEN.’’—SMITHSON. 


WASHINGTON: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 
1873. 














CONTENTS. 


Advertisement . 


ARTICLE I. Tue Moutvsxs or Western Norra AMERICA. By 
Pump P. Carpenter, B.A., Ph.D. Embracing the 
Second Report made to the British Association on 
this subject, with other papers ; reprinted by per- 
mission, with a General Index. December, 1872. 
Pp. 446. 


ARTICLE Il. ARRANGEMENT OF THE Famitres or Motiusks. Pre- 
pared for the Smithsonian Institution by THEODORE 
Git, M.D., Ph.D. February, 1871. Pp. 65. 


ARTICLE III. INSTRUCTIONS FOR OBSERVATIONS OF THUNDER STORMS. 
By Prof. Josepa HENRY. IP, Ite 


ARTICLE IV. CircULAR RELATIVE TO Heicurs. By Prof. JosEPpH 
Henry. Pp. 2. 


ARTICLE VV. Drrecrions FOR CONSTRUCTING Licutninc-Rops. By 
Prof. JosepH Henry. Pp. 3. 


ARTICLE VI. QUERIES RELATIVE TO TornapoEs. By Prof. JosePH 
Henry. Pp. 4. 


ARTICLE VII. QuESTIONS RELATIVE TO THE Foop FisHes oF THE UNI- 
rep States. By Prof. 5. F. Barrp. Pp. 7. 


ARTICLE VIII. MemorANDA OF INQUIRY RELATIVE TO THE Foop FIsHES 
or tHE Unitep Srarss. By Prof. 8. F. Barb. 


Pp. 5. 

ARTICLE IX. List or THE INSTITUTIONS, LIBRARIES, COLLEGES, AND 
orner ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES IN 
CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 
July, 1872. Pp. 255. 


ARTICLE X. List or FoREIGN CoRRESPONDENTS OF THE SMITHSONIAN 
Institution. Corrected to January, 1872. [Fourth 
Edition.] April, 1872. Pp. 96. 


ARTICLE XI. Cuecx List oF PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN In- 
grituTion, Juny, 1872. Pp. 22. 


PAGE 


S Wills 














ADVERTISEMENT. 


THE present series, entitled ‘‘Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections,” is intended to embrace all the publications issued directly 
by the Smithsonian Institution in octavo form ; those in quarto con- 
stituting the “Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge.” The 
quarto series includes memoirs embracing the records of extended 
original investigations and researches resulting in what are be- 
lieved to be new truths, and constituting positive additions to the 
sum of human knowledge. The octavo series is designed to con- 
tain reports on the present state of our knowledge of particular 
branches of science : instructions for collecting and digesting facts 
and materials for research: lists and synopses of species of the 
organic and inorganic world: museum catalogues: reports of ex- 
plorations : aids to bibliographical investigations, etc., generally 
prepared at the express request of the Institution, and at its 
expense. 

The position of a work in one or the other of the two series will 
sometimes depend upon whether the required illustrations can be 
presented more conveniently in the quarto or the octavo form. 

In the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, as well as in the 
present series, each article is separately paged and indexed, and 
the actual date of its publication is that given on its special title- 
page, and not that of the volume in which it is placed. In many 
cases, works have been published, and largely distributed, years 
before their combination into volumes. 

While due care is taken on the part of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution to insure a proper standard of excellence in its publications, 
it will be readily understood that it cannot hold itself responsible 
for the facts and conclusions of the authors, as it is impossible in 
most cases to verify their statements. 

JOSEPH HENRY, 
Secretary S. I. 


( vii ) 

















SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS. 
——_—__—_— 9§3 ——__ 


THE 


MOLLUSKS 


Or 


WESTERN NORTH AMERICA. 


BY 
PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pu.D. 


EMBRACING THE SECOND REPORT MADE TO THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION 
ON THIS SUBJECT, WITH OTHER PAPERS; REPRINTED BY 
PERMISSION, WITH A GENERAL INDEX. 





WASHINGTON: 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 


DECEMBER, 1872. 





ADVERTISEMENT. 


THE opportunity afforded by Mr. Carpenter’s visit in 1859-60 
to the United States, was embraced to secure his services in 
naming and arranging the shells collected by the United States 
Exploring Expedition and other parties on the Pacific Coast of 
North America. Mr. Carpenter, having previoysly presented to 
the British Association a report on the state of knowledge in 
regard to the mollusks of the west coast of North America, 
embodied the additional information which he obtained, chiefly 
through the Smithsonian Institution, in a second report to the 
same Association ; and now, in order to facilitate the study of 
this class of animals by the American student, this work is re- 
published with supplementary papers, from stereotype copies of 
the original pages. 

JOSEPH HENRY, 
Secretary S. I. 


SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 
Wasuineton, November, 1872. 


PHILADELPHIA: 
COLLINS, PRINTER, 











eee So eds os 








PAGE 
Advertisement ° . ‘< 5 . . . ii 
Tatcoduction rw oie: S : ss ; % a 
List OF PAPERS REPRINTED IN THIS VOLUME . S . ee 
ce Oe NOT REPRINTED IN THIS VOLUME . - ° . xi 
ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF SPECIES ° . : 3 Sa tele 








INTRODUCTION. 


Arter the publication of my first ‘Report on the present state 
of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the West Coast 
of North America,” undertaken at the request of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, and printed in their 
Report for 1856, I visited America in order to arrange the first 
duplicate series of the great Reigen Collection of Mazatlan Shells 
which I had presented to the New York State Museum at 
Albany. It was one of the special objects of my visit to ex- 
amine the types of previously described species in the United 
States, that I might compare them with those known in England. 
Having visited Washington to examine the types of the United 
States Exploring Expedition (Wilkes’), I was requested to spend 
the winter of 1859-60 in unpacking and arranging the shells 
belonging to the National Museum under its charge; and after 
my return to England I received from time to time the various 
collections sent to the Institution from the West Coast as they 
arrived; all of these were duly compared with the types in the 
Cumingian and other British collections. 

Being thus in a position to correct a large number of unavoid- 
able errors in my first Report, and to add a great deal of fresh 
information from American sources (chiefly obtained through the 
Smithsonian Institution), I was requested by the British Asso- 
ciation to embody the material in a “Supplementary Report” on 
the same subject as the first. Knowing how difficult it is for 
American students to obtain access to serial publications, I ob- 
tained permission, in behalf of the Institution, to stereotype this 
second report, and the papers connected with it, which appeared 
in the ‘Proceedings of the Zoological Society,” the “ Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History,” and the “Journal de Conchy- 
liologie.” 


C~) 





vi INTRODUCTION. 


The present volume consists, therefore, of a reprint from these 
stereotype plates, with the original paging at the top, and the 
Smithsonian paging at the bottom; and of a general index of 
species. 

The index was prepared (at the expense of the Smithsonian 
Institution) by Mr. E. Taylor, Student at McGill College. It 
includes not only the present volume but all my previous English 
publications on the subject, of which the principal are the First 
British Association Report and the British Museum Mazatlan 
Catalogue. All references to these works not reprinted have 
the page-number prefixed by a Roman Capital (O to X), by 
which they can be at once distinguished from the simple num- 
bers which refer to the foot-page in this volume. Students who 
want an index to the First Report will fix the eye on the initial 
O; to the Mazatlan Catalogue on P. 

In an accompanying list will be found an enumeration of all 
my papers published in European journals relative to American 
conchology, and for the most part reprinted in the present col- 
lection. In this, however, is not included any of the contribu- 
tions to American serials, as the Journal of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the Proceedings of the Cali- 
fornia Academy, or the American Journal of Conchology. 

My principal object in the preparation of these works has been 
to make out and compare the writings of previous naturalists, so 
that it might be possible for succeeding students to begin where 
I left off, without being obliged to waste so large an amount of 
time as I have been compelled to do in analyzing the (often inac- 
curate) work of their predecessors. 

As the work of previous writers, whether satisfactory or other- 
wise, is duly tabulated in my Reports, so that others may judge 
of its value as well as J, it is not fair (as is often done) to quote 
from these Reports as on my authority. I was simply the his- 
torian, not the original writer. In the First Report I was a 
novice in the scientific world, and rarely ventured on criticisms ; 
in the second, I allowed myself with more confidence to state 
my own conclusions, because I found that others had not enjoyed 
the remarkable facilities of comparing types which fell to my lot, 
and which (in many instances) cannot be renewed. Since that 
time, Nuttall, Gould, Rich, Judge Cooper, and especially Hugh 
Cuming, have been called to another world; their collections 











INTRODUCTION. Vil 


have changed hands, and fresh causes of error have crept in. The 
present condition of the Cumingian Collection has been faithfully 
described by Dr. Gray in the Proceedings of the Zoological So- 
ciety; and those who will take the trouble to compare his review 
of the Calyptrxide, after the destruction of original labels conse- 
quent on Reeve’s Monograph, with that which I gave in the 
Mazatlan Catalogue, while these labels were still fixed to the 
shells, will appreciate the advantages which I formerly enjoyed. 

Readers who may discover any uncorrected errors in this 
volume, or in any of my other works, are urgently requested 
to apprise me of them (Box 1934 P. O., Montreal, C. E.), in 
order that they may be corrected in the Report of the Mollusca 
which Prof. Whitney has requested me to prepare for the Cali- 
fornia Geological Survey. 

PHILIP P. CARPENTER. 
MontrEAL, July 17, 1872. 


ty 











LIST OF PAPERS 


ON 


AMERICAN MOLLUSCA 


PUBLISHED IN EUROPEAN WORKS BY 


Pp. P. CARPENTER. 


REPRINTED. 


ses 


Supplementary Report on the Present State of our Knowledge 
with Regard to the Mollusca of the West Coast of North 
America. Page 1.’ 


From the Report of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, for 1863, pp. 517—686. Published in August, 1864. 


Extra copies, with title-page, dated 1864. 


B: 


Review of Prof. C. B. Adams’ ‘‘Catalogue of the Shells of Pan- 
ama,” from the Type Specimens. Page 173. 
From the Proceedings of the Zovdlogical Society of London, June 23, 
1863, pp. 339—369. 
C. 
Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusks collected at Cape St. Lucas, 
Lower California. By Mr. J. Xantus. Page 207. 


From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, 
Vol. XIII, pp. 311—315, April, 1864. Ibid. (Nos. 15—36) pp. 
474—479, June, 1864. Ibid. Vol. XIV. (Nos. 37—52), pp. 45— 


49, July, 1864. 


D. 


Contributions towards a Monograph of the Pandoride. Page 223. 
From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 596— 
603, November 22, 1864. 


1 The references are to the bottom paging. 
(ix ) 


x LIST OF PAPERS. 


E. 


Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusca from the Vancouver Dis- 
trict. Page 233. 


From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, 
Vol. XIV. (Nos. 5—37), pp. 423—429, December, 1864. Ibid. 
Vol. XV. (Nos. 37—56), pp. 28—32, January, 1865. 


if 


Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusca from the Vancouver Dis- 
trict. Page 247. 


From the Proceedings of the Zoélogical Society of London, pp. 201— 
204, February 14, 1865. 


G 


Diagnoses of New Species and a New Genus of Mollusks, from 
the Reigen Mazatlan Collection; with an Account of Addi- 
tional Specimens presented to the British Museum. Page 253. 


From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 
268—273, March 14, 1865. : 


EH, 


Descriptions of New Species and Varieties of Chitonide and 
Acmeide, from the Panama Collection of the late Prof. C. B. 
Adams. Page 263. 


From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 
274—277, March 14, 1865 


i. 


Diagnoses of New Species of Mollusks, from the West Tropical 
Region of North America, principally collected by the Rev. J. 
Rowell, of San Francisco. Page 269 


From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 
278—282, March 14, 1865. 


K: 


Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusca, from the West coast of 
North America, first collected by Col. E. Jewett. . Page 277. 
From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, 
Vol. XV., pp. 177—182 (Nos. 373—386), March, 1865. Ibid. 
pp. 394—399 (Mangelia variegata to end), May, 1865. 








LIST OF PAPERS. xi 


ie 


Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusea, collected by Col. E. Jewett, 
on the West Tropical shores of North America. Page 291. 


From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series 
Vol. XV., pp. 399—400, May, 1865. 


M. 


Diagnoses des Mollusques nouveaux provenant de Californie et 
faisant partie du Musée de |’Institution Smithsonienne. Page 
297. 


From the Journal de Conchyliologie, Vol. XII. (Third Series, Vol. 
V.) pp. 129—149, April, 1865. 


IN. 


On the Pleistocene Fossils collected by Col. E. Jewett, at Santa 
Barbara, California; with Descriptions of New Species. Page 
319. 


From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Third Series, 
Vol. XVII., pp. 274—278, April, 1866. 


NOT REPRINTED, 


O. 


Report ou the Present State of our Knowledge with Regard to 
the Mollusca of the West Coast of North America. 

From the Report of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, for 1856, pp. 159—368. Published in 1857. Extra copies 
with title-page, list of plates with references to figures (4 pages), 
dated 1857. Not reprinted, but referred to under ‘‘O” in the 
general index. 


P. 


Catalogue of the Reigen Collection of Mazatlan Mollusca in the 
British Museum. 


Each sheet dated: July, 1855—June, 1857. The Bryozoa, by G. 
Busk, Esq. Printed by order of the Trustees at the Oberlin 
Press, Warrington. 552 pp. First Edition, with Preface as 
arranged by Dr. J. E. Gray, on sale at the British Museum, price 
8s. Second Edition, with Author’s Preface, accompanying dupli- 
cate collections of the shells, published simultaneously. 


xii LIST OF PAPERS. 


NOT REPRINTED (continued). 


Q. 
Descriptions of (supposed) New Species and Varieties of Shells, 
from the Californian and West Mexican Coasts, principally in 


the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq. 
Proceedings Zodlogical Society, Part xxiii, 1855, pp. 228—235. 


3 
Notes on the Species of Mipponyx inhabiting the American 
Coasts, with Descriptions of New Species. 
Ditto, Part xxiv, 1856, pp. 3—5. 


S. 


Description of New Species of Shells collected by Mr. T. 
Bridges in the Bay of Panama and its vicinity, in the Collec- 
tion of Hugh Cuming, Esq. 

Ditto, pp. 159—166. 
-. 

Description of New Species and Varieties of Calyptreide, Tro- 
chide and Pyramidellide, principally in the Collection of Hugh 
Cuming, Esq. [From American and other seas. ] 

Ditto, pp. 166—171. 
1 Oe 

Descriptions of Shells from the Gulf of California, and the Pa- 
cific Coasts of Mexico and California, Part Il. By A. A. 
Gould, M.D., and Philip P. Carpenter. 

Ditto, pp. 198—208. 
Vi: 


Monograph of the Shells collected by T. Nuttall, Esq., on the 
Californian Coast, in the years 1834-5, 
Ditto, pp. 209—229. 
W., 
First Steps towards a Monograph of the Recent Species of Petalo-. 
conchus, a genus of Vermetide. 
Ditto, pp. 313—317. (With wood-cuts.) 
xe 
First Steps towards a Monograph of the Cecide, a Family of the 
Rostriferous Gasteropoda.” [Chiefly from the American seas. ] 
Ditto, Part xxvi, 1858, pp. 413—444, 








SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT 


ON THE 


PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE 


WITH REGARD TO 
THE MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pu. D. 


From the Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
for 1863, pp. 517—686. Published in August, 1864, Extra copies, with 
title-page, dated 1864. 











Supplementary Report on the Present State of our Knowledge with 
regard to the Mollusca of the West Coast of North America, By 
Puitre P. CARPENTER, B.A., Ph.D.* 


THE object of the present Report is (1) to correct the errors which have been 
observed in the first Report (‘‘ Report &c.” 1856, pp. 159-368); and (2) to 
point out the fresh sources of information which have been rendered avail- 
able since that period. For convenience of comparison, the paragraph num- _ 
bers refer to those of the first Report in the corrections, and are continued 

from them in the addenda. In the bibliographical portion, the criticisms by 
the writer of this Report are inserted in [ ]; a distinction not always attended 
to in the former volume, in consequence of which erroneous names and local- 
ities have been attributed to the reviewer, instead of to the authors quoted. 

22. Introduction —(Line 4 from bottom.) The river Willamette flows 
northwards (Gld.). : 

23. Early Writers ——The only Californian shell described by Linnzeus is 
Turbo sanguineus,=T. coccineus, Desh.; v. Hanl. Ips. Linn. Conch. p. 334. 
The types are too much worn to decide whether they came from the North 
Pacific or (as is more probable) from the Mediterranean. In Gmelin’s edition 
of Linneus, Zipsix, 1788-1790,—which is, in great measure, a translation 
from a German work published a few years in advance [teste Hanley],—the 
following species are assigned to the ‘“ West Coast of America,” probably on 
the authority of Martyn :——page 3529, Murex foliatus : 3702, Patella pecten : 
3712, Patella calyptra. The last two seem exotic. 

Many West-coast species had found their way into English collections 
during the last century, at a much earlier date than was expected at the time 
of the first Report. They were mainly derived from the voyages of Capt. 
Cook and other circumnavigators. Capt. Cook was accompanied by Solander, 
as naturalist, at the instance of Sir Joseph Banks. His shells passed into 
the hands of Mr. Humphrey, the dealer, at whose death the remainder, a 
thousand boxes, became the property of the elder Sowerby, and (in part) of 
Mawe [teste Hanley]. They took their chance of being figured or described 
by the early conchologists. The localities are (as might be expected) often 
interchanged, but have been quoted by later authors, who have not thought 
fit to avail themselves of more correct sources of information. 

The first accurate delineations are by Thomas Martyn, in his ‘ Universal 
Conchologist,’ London, 1784. Those who only know this book from Chenu’s 
reprint, Paris, 1845, can form but a poor idea of the exquisite beauty of the 
original work. Of this, very few copies are accessible ; but it may be consulted 
at the British Museum, the Royal Society, and the Royal College of Surgeons. 
No. Plate. Fig. 

16 5 3. Patella tramoserica, Mart. N.W.C. America, very rare. [N. Zealand. ] 
18 6 1. Patella calyptra, Mart. N.W. Coast of America, very rare. [Not 


identified: resembles Crep. adunca, without deck. Han], con- 
siders it a Hipponyz, like australis. | 


31 8 4. Trochus incequalis, Mart. Friendly Isles, common. [Does not 
closely resemble the Japan and Vancouver species,=Pachypoma 
gibberosum, Chemn. 

382 10 1. Trochus canaliculatus, Mart. N. Zealand, rare. 

33. 10 2. Trochus annulatus, Mart. N. Zealand, very rare. 

384 10 3. Trochus costatus, Mart. St. George’s Sound, rare. [=Calliostoma 


Jilosum, castaneum, ligatum, and modestum. | 
* In consequence of the expected arrival of fresh materials, this report has been 
corrected and continued up to the period of going to press. 
Warrington Free Museum and Library, Aug. 1st, 1864. 
3 





518 REPORT—1863. 


No. Plate. Fig. ; 
43 13,14 rhs Buceinum liratum, Mart. St. George’s Sound, most rare. [= F. de- 


cemcostatus (Say), Midd., = Middendorffii, Cooper. | 


44. 13 2. Buccinum plicatum, Mart. (non Linn.] St. George’s Sound, common. 
[ =crispatum, + compositum, Chemn., =lactuca, &c., Esch. | 

46 15 1. Buecinumlima, Mart. St. George’s Sound, rare. [Probably P. decem- 
costata, Midd. ; the variety with numerous ribs and flattened spire. } 

47 15 2. Buccinum saturum, Mart. St. George’s Sound, most rare. [Like 
Chr, liratus, with keels evanescent. | : 

62 20 2. Haliotis pulcherrima, Mart. St. George’s Sound, most rare. [Pacific 
Is. 

66 24 1. Pusbre foliata, Mart. North-west Coast of N. America, rare. 

76 26 4. Trochus pulligo, Mart. St. George’s Sound, common. : 

80 28 2. Pectunculus corbis, Mart. Pulo-Condore, most rare. [= Cardium Nut- 


tallii, Conr., teste Desh. Cum. The figure is not so accurate as most 
of the others; but the colouring is characteristic. | 

153 53 1. Pecten rubidus, Mart. [non Hds.] Newfoundland, rare. [ =P. Islan= 
dicus, Mull. ] 


Many of the figures of Martyn were reproduced by Chemnitz, in his com- 
prehensive continuation of Martini’s ‘ Conchylien Cabinet,’ 1780-1795. Un- 
happily, though often quoted for generic and specific names, he did not adopt 
the binomial nomenclature (except in vol. xi.), but described each shell in 
two or more words, as it happened. For this reason he appears to have had 
no scruple in altering previous designations, as follows :— 


Fig. 

1538, 1539. Murex Purpura alata, “Mart. Conch. Un. vol. ii. f. 66, Leaved Purpura 
foliata from N.W. coast of America.” 

1634 .. Murex Glomus cereus, seu Cereus conglomeratus, “ Mart. vol. ii. f. 45, 
Ridged Buccinum hratum from King George’s Sound.” 

Vign. 21, f. A, B. Buccinum compositum, “ Mart. Un. Conch. vol. ii. f. 44; Plaited 
Buccinum from King George’s Sound.” 

Vign. 23, f. A, B. Trochus gibberosus Nove Zelandie. “Forster's Cat. no. 1374; La 
Raboteuse de la nouvelle Zélande.—Mart. Un. Conch. vol. i. f. 31; 
Rugged Trochus tnequalis from Friendly Is.” 

1579, 1580. Trochus doliarius, ‘ Mart. vol. i. f.32, Fluted Zrochus canaliculatus from 
N. Zealand.” 

1581, 1582. Trochus virgineus, “ Fayanne, Conch. pl. 79. f. 1. vol. ii. p. 342; id. Cat. 
Rais. no. 1352, p. 269; Le Sabot Magellanique.—Mart. Un. Conch. 
vol. i. f. 33; Ringed Trochus annulatus from N. Zealand.—Cab. Mus. 
Portl. no. 1240; the Purpled-edged Trochus; item, no. 1970, a large 
and fine specimen of the Purple-edged Zrochus from the N.W. coast 
of America; rare.” [= 7. celatus, var. 8. Gmel., teste Dillw. vol. ii. 

. 800. 

1802, 1803. Boicimad crispatum. ‘The furbelowed Whelk.” [=B. plicatun, 
Mart., non Ln.] 

1841, 1842, Murex amplustre. N.W. coast of America. {This erroneous locality 
is copied from the Portland Cat.. The species is quoted from Byc- 
cinum (Latirus) aplustre, Mart., no. 3. pl. 1. f. 8, where it is rightly 
assigned to the Friendly Is. =M. argus, var. y. Gmel., teste Dillw. 
vol. ii. p. 735. | 

The assignment of West American species to New Zealand, begun by 
Martyn, has continued a source of error to the present time. It occurs in 
Dr. Gould’s ‘Exploring Expedition Mollusca,’ in the Cumingian Collection, 
and in the British Museum. 

In the ‘Travels in New Zealand,’ by Ernest Dieffenbach, M.D.. London, 
1848, vol. i. pp. 228-264, is given a “Catalogue of the Species of Mollusca 
and their Shells, which have hitherto been recorded as found at New Zealand,” 
&e., byJ.E. Gray. The author premises that some of the species [marked *] 

4 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 519 


assigned by the older writers may be found erroneously placed. The follow- 

ing are probably from the West coast of North America, with the synonymy 

as understood by Dr. Gray :— 

Page. No. 

229 8. Murex foliatus, Gmel. 3329. = M. purpura alata, Chemn.x. pl. 169. f. 1538- 
9; Wood’s Cat. f. 13. Purpura foliata, Mart. U.C. ii. 66.— Hab. N. 
Zealand, Humnhreys. King George’s Sound, Martyn. [= M. tripterus, 
Kien.: non AL tripterus, Born et auct.=trialatus, Kien.” teste Hanl. | 

229 9. Murex lyratus, G.nel. 3531.= M. glomus cereus, Chem. x. pl. 169. f. 1634. 
—Buecinum lyratum, Martyn, U. C. ii. f. 43.—Hab. N. Zealand, King 
George’s Bay, Martyn. 

233 43. Purpura lamellosa,= Buccinum 1., Gmel., Wood’s Cat. f. 60.= Bue. pli- 
catum, Martyn, U. C. ii. f. 41. = Bue. compositum, Chemn. x. 179, vign. 
21. f. A, B.= Bue. crispatum, Chemn. xi. 84, pl. 187. f. 1802-3. Murex 
er., Lam. 174.—Hab. N. Zealand, King George’s Sound, Chemn., Mar- 
tyn. Coast of Columbia. 

237 = *71. Ziziphinus canaliculatus. Trochus c.. Martyn, U. C. pl. 32,= Tr. doliarius, 
Chemn. x. f. 1579-80; Wood’s Cat. f. 96.—Hab. N. Zealand, Martyn. 
California, Capt. Belcher, R.N. 

*72, Ziziphinus annulatus. Trochus a., Martyn, U. C. pl. 38.= T. virgineus, 

Chemn. x. f. 1581-2; Wood’s Cat. f. 98.= 77. celatus, 3., Gmel.— Hab, 
N. Zealand, Martyn. California, Capt. Belcher. 

243 115. Bulla Quoyit, Gray, n. s.=B. striata, Q. & G., Voy. Astr. ii, 354, pl. 26, 
f. 8, 9, non Lam.—Hab. N. Zealand, Quoy, Stanger. 

But the first authentic information on the molluscs of the North-western 
coast is given in the ‘ Voyage Round the World, but more particularly to the 
N.W. Coast of America,’ by Capt. George Dixon, London, 1789: to which is 
added a Natural History Appendix. 

Page 355, fig. 2. Solen patulus*. Cook’s River. [=Machera Nuttall, Cony. ] 

In the ‘ Conchology, or Natural History of Shells,’ by George Perry, Lon- 
don, 1811, a work of no little pretension, yet singularly inaccurate, are figured 
the following species, but without authorities for the assigned localities :— 





* As this extract is probably the first description on record of molluscs from the Pacific 
shores of N. America, by the original collector, and as the book is rarely to be met with; 
it may be interesting to quote the passage :— 

“At the mouth of Cook’s River [lat. 59°-61°] are many species of shell-fish, most of 
them, I presume, nondescript ; and of all which I should have endeavoured to have got 
specimens, had business permitted. Among the bivalves we noticed some of a large spe- 
cies, of the Cardium or cockle-genus [ Cardium corbis, Mart. ], half-a-dozen of which would 
have afforded a good supper for one person; but, for a repast of that kind, our men pre- 
ferred a large species of the Solen genus, which they got in quantity, and were easily dis- 
covered by their spouting up the water as the men walked over the sands where they in- 
habited: as I suppose it to be a new kind, I have given a figure of it in the annexed plate 
[ Solen patulus ; accurate external and internal views, size of life]. *Tis a thin brittle sheil, 
smooth within and without: one valve is furnished with two front and two lateral teeth 
[the ‘laterals’ are the nymphe for the ligament]; the other has one front and one side 
tooth, which slip in between the others in the opposite valve : from the teeth, in each vaive, 
proceeds a strong rib, which extends to above halfway across the shell, and gradually loses 
itself towards the edge, which is smooth and sharp. The colour of the outside is white, 
circularly, but faintly, zoned with violet, and is covered with a smooth yellowish-brown 
epidermis, which appears darkest where the zones are: the inside is white, slightly zoned, 
and tinted with violet and pink. The animal, as in all species of this genus, protrudes 
beyond the ends of the shell very much, and is exceeding good food.—A fine specimen of 
this kind is in the Collection of John Swainson, Esq., of the Custom House, London.—We 
saw also, on this coast, a kind of muscle, in colour and shape much like the common eat- 
able muscle of Europe, but differed in being circularly wrinkled, and a great deal larger 
[ Mytilus Californianus, Cony.}. One valve I saw at Queen Charlotte’s Islands measured 
above nine inches and a half in length.— With pieces of these muscles, sharpened to an ex- 
quisite edge and point, the Indians head their harpoons and other instruments for fishing 
Lhey fasten them on with a kind of resinous substance.’’— Dixon's ‘Voyage? 


5 


520 REPORT—1863. 


PL Fig. 
oi Polyplex gracilis [ = Trophon multicostatus, Esch.]. N. Zealand. : 
29 5, Melania striata. New California. {All the figures of + Melania’ on this plate 
represent large Budimi, perhaps from 8S. America. | 


85 4. Cerithium reticulatum. New California. 

44 2. Haustrum pictum [= Purpura planospira}. East Indies. 

44 3. Haustrum dentex | = P. columellaris|. Nootka Sound: only 2 sp. known, 
44 4, Haustrum tuberculatum | =P. patula, jun.]. ?— 

41 3. Oliva Leveriana [ =O. porphyria]. ?— 

47 2. Trochus decarinatus { = Calliostoma canaliculatum]. N. Zealand. 

58 2. Venus radiata { = Callista lupinaria}. N. Zealand. 


The common Californian Haliotis was, it seems, first described in the 
‘ Zoological Miscellany,’ by Dr. W. E. Leach, vol. 1. 1814 *. 
Page 131, pl. 58. Haliotis Cracherodii, Leach. California. 


Solander made use of the materials he had collected in Cook’s Voyage, in 
compiling a work on Conchology of considerable merit. Dillwyn made a copy 
of it, and used it in preparing his own, allowing priority to its specific names ; 
but it was never published. The types were lately parted-with by the Lin- 
nean Society, who had determined not to keep any collections except those of 
Jinneus. The ‘ Descriptive Catalogue of Recent Shells,’ &c., by L. W. Dill- 
wyn: London, 1817, is considered by Dr. Gray to be the best conchological 
work arranged according to the old system. ‘The following are quoted from 
the West Coast :— 

Vol. Page. 

i. 801. Mytilus frons, Linn.= Ostrea frons, Sol. Callone. Acapulco, Humphreys; 
West Indies, auct. 

i. 469. Cyprea pustulata, Sol. Acapulco. 

i. 617. Buceinum plumbeum, Chemn. California. [Monoceros, PS. America. ] 


me 


Following Dillwyn, and nearly eclipsing his fame through the originality 
and excellence of his classification, appeared Lamarck’s ‘ Animaux sans Ver- 
tébres,’ 1818-1822. Coordinate with or preceding this work are his Articles 
in the ‘ Annales du Muséam’ and the ‘ Encyclopédie.’ The fresh sources of 
his information are quoted in the first Report, p. 169. 

In Delessert’s ‘ Recueil,’ 1841, are figured 


Pl. 2, fig. 1. Solen ambiguus, Lam. | =S. rudis, C. B.Ad.] “Les mers d’Amérique.” 
Pl. 19, fig. 2. Cytherea semilamellosa, Gaudichaud | = C. lupinaria}, China Seas. 


In Deshayes’ invaluable edition of the ‘An. s. Vert.,’ Paris, 1835-45, are 
quoted a variety of West Coast species which have already appeared under 
their original authorities. The following may be added :— 

Vol. Page. 

villi. 252. Bulimus Mexicanus, Lam.= Helix vittata, Fér. Mexico. 

ix. 383. Haliots Californiensis, Swains.= H. glabra, Desh. California. 

ix. 857. Pleurotoma tuberculifera, Br. & Sby. California. 

ix, 584. Murex radix, Gmel.=M. melanomathos (pars), Dillw. Acapulco. 

ix. 605. Murex foliatus, Gmel.=M. tripterus, Kien. “N.W. America. “? India.” 


The last of the early writers whose works should here be quoted, and whose 
ideas on the relations of genera were considerably in adyance of the age, though 
somewhat fanciful, is Swainson, in his-‘ Zoological Illustrations,’ 1820-1833 ; 
‘ Appendix to the Sale Catalogue of Mrs. Bligh’s Shells,’ 1822; and « Exotia 
Conchology,’ 1821-1835, reissued by Hanley, 1841. These works contain 
the following West Coast species :— 


* This work has been translated into French, and republished, by Chenu; where the 
same spsr:ce 1s found on page 8, pl. 3. f. 2. 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. bat 


Bligh Cat. Page. 
2. Haliotis rufescens, Swains. (Ditto in Exot. Conch. ed. ii. p. 34.) Galapagos [? | 
and California. 
4. Cassis { Malea] ringens, Swains. ?— 
5. Cassis corrugata, Swains. Native of the Galapagos. 
5. Harpa crenata, Swains. ?— 
8. Strombus granuatus, Swains. ?— 
Exot. Conch. Plate. 
86. Conus princeps, Ln.= C. regius, Martini, Lam. (C. P. var. 8., Ln.=C. ebreus.) 
Asiatic Ocean. 
97 (middle figure). Marginella prunum, Gmel., Martini= Voluta plumbea, Sol. MS. 
Africa. [The pinched W. Indian eo 
182. Cyprea spadicea, Swains., Tilloch’s Phil. Mag. vol. lxi. p. 876. South Seas 
Mawe). 
80. Hiltous Californiensis, Swains. [Figured with 9 small holes.] 1821. 
55. Solen ambiguus, Lam. N. America, 1820. [This shell is conspecific with the 
“8. medius, Alashka,” of the B. M. Coll.; differing somewhat from the S. 
ambiguus as figured by Delessert. The B. M. locality is perhaps erroneous. ] 


24. Valenciennes’ Memoir on Humb. and Bonpl., 1833.—The following 
notes are from a study of the complete copy in the Libr. Roy. Coll. Surgeons. 
Page. 

231. Donax radiata { =var. of D. punctatostriatus, Hanl. 1843). 

219. Venus succincta | = Chione Californicnsis, Brod. 1835}. 

245. Bulimus undatus. {The Caribbean, not the Mexican, type is here figured. ] 

267. Haliotis Californiana | =H. rufescens, Swains., not H. Californiensis, Swains. |. 

267. (Add) Haliotis interrupta, Val. Tropical America. [The description accords 
with the young of H. Cracherodii, Leach. | 

277. Cerithium musica. [Description accords with C. maculosum, Kien. ] 

278. Cerithium granosum | = Cerithidea varicosa }. 

279. Cerithium fragaria | = Rhinoclavis gemmata, Hs. }. 

282. Cerithium varicosum | = Cerithidea varicosa, Sby. |. 

808. Strombus cancellatus. Closely resembles Rostellaria fissurella, from Grignon. 
[Probably E. Indian. } 

338. Conus scalaris [= C. gradatus (Mawe), Wood’s Suppl. }. 

270. Solarium bicanaliculatum. Small species, like S. Herberti, Desh. Enc. 

265. Natica Bonplandi. [The figure exactly represents Neverita patula, Sby.] 

266. (Add) Natica uber, Val. Cumana. 

317. Purpura semi-imbricata, Lam. {An. 8s. Vert. vol. x. p. 84, no. 39; not since 
identified from the brief description. Perhaps = Cuma costata, Blainv. | 

287. Fusus turris [ =F. Dupetithouarsi, Kien. }. 

290. Fusus Magellanicus “ = Buc. Geversranum, Pallas, = Murex Peruvianus, Ene. 
Méth.” 

295. Ficula ficoides [? =decussata]. 

296. Pyrula spirata [? = Rapa, jun. }. 


25. Coquille.—All the limpets quote! are South American. 
26. Hschscholtz.—The following observations may be useful to the student: 





Page. 

10. Murex ferrugineus{ = Purp. crispata, Chemn., var. ; varices few, scarcely frilled ]. 

ll. Murex lactuca [= Purpura crispata, Chemn. |. 

Jl. Murex multicostatus [1s not Trephon clathratus, as supposed by Midd. ; but pro- 
bably = 7. Gunneri. It resembles 7. laciniatum, Mart. (Falkland Is.) on a 
small scale; varices coronated, without spiral sculpture ]. 

16. Acmea. [Genus described in the Appendix to Kotzebue’s Second Voyage, 1830, 
p- 350; somewhat before Tectura, teste Woodward. | 

18. Acmea mamillata. [The ‘crowded tubercles’ were perhaps due to nullipore. | 

19. Acmea cassis [if a northern shell, is perhaps the strongly ribbed var. of pelta- 
but the figure accords best with the Cape Horn species, P. cnea, Mart. ]. i 

20. Acmea digitalis {is perhaps distinct from the variable persona; but passes inta 
it by easy transitions J. 

7 








52 BEPORT—1863. 


Page. ae fs 
Ql. Fissurella aspera [= Glyphis Lincoln’, Gray, =cratitia, Gld. But Gl. densicla- 
thrata, Rve, is probably distinct ; Sta Barbara, Jewett, Cooper |. 
27. Tankerville Cat., 1825.—The following species are also from the West 
Coast. The prices are added from the British Museum copy, as a record of 
their former rarity :— 


No. App. page Price. 
70 10s. Solen ambiguus, 


161 15s. Tellina operculata. 
162 5s. Tellina punicea. ; f 
, 206 £10 10s. LucinaChildreni [described by Grayin Ann. Phil.1824; v. also 


Zool. Journ. vol. i. 1825, pp. 221-2. There is no authority 
for the statement that it came from Brazil. The Br. Mus. 
specimens are from “ Mus. Cracherode,” and are probably 
West Coast. The only known locality is Cape St. Lucas. J 


1293 30s. Trochus annulatus. 

1294 20s. Trochus doliarius, 

1690 10s. Murex crispatus. 

1842 15s. Purpura patula. 

1855 20s. Purpura planospira, 

1896 45s. Harpa crenata. 

2240 15s. Cyprea spadicea. 

2251 2s. Cyprea albuginosa. 

2330 xxxii 15s. Ohva splendidula. Hab. P— 
2332 xxxiii Qs. 6d. Oliva biplicata. West Coast North America, 
2333 XXXIV 2s. Oliva columellaris. ?— 
2347 £5 5s. Conus regius. 


The ,, in Rep., p. 174, should have been omitted, except at no. 808, p. vi. No. 
1401 is described, on p. xii, as from Newfoundland, No. 1786 should have no 
page-reference. 


In the ‘ Zoological Journal,’ London, 1824-1829, appear descriptions of the 
following species :— 


Pagy 
Vol. i, March 1824, 60. Natica patula, Sby. “ Brought from 8S. America by 
M. de Humboldt. 2 specimens only known.” * 
3 Oct. 1824, 369. Cyprea subrostrata, Gray. Nehoue (Mus. Sby.). 


|‘ Probably fossil’ (Gray): a white, smooth spe- 
cies, not to be confounded with Trivia subrostrata. } 
” ‘Jan. 1825, 510. Cyprea albuginosa, Mawe, pl.7. f.2; pl. 12. £2. Cali- 
fornia. Named, without description, in Mawe’s 

Cat. (=C. poraria, var., Ducl.: Z. J. iv. p. 68.) 
518. Cyprea pustulata, Sol. 8. Coast of Mexico. China. 
Vol. iii. Jan. 1827, 70. Hinnites giganteus (Sby.). ?—[ =H. Poulsoni, Cour. 
Calif. |= Hinnita gigantea, Gray, Ann. Phil. Aug. 
1826. = Lima gigantea, Id. in loc. cit. [non J. Sby. } 

» sept. 1827, 363. Cyprea subrostrata, Gray (bis, Trivia]. ?— 
364. Cyprea radians, Lam.= C. oniscus, Dillw.= C. pedi- 
culus, B., Gmel.+ C. costata, Dillw. W. Coast of 
Mexico, ? Adriatic. 

365. Cyprea Californiana, Gray [ Trivia]. California. 
Vol. iv. Jan. 1828, 145-162. Monograph of Ovulum, by G. B. Sowerby, containing 
the species afterwards figured in the Spec. Conch. 


28. Beechey’s Voyage.—Increased study has supplied the following cor- 
rections :— 


* At p. 511, note *, Dr. Gray states that the Natica patula, Barnes, Ann. Lyc. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., Sept. 1824, i. 133, is “the shell described under that name by Sby. As there 
is another N. patula [? ubi], must be ealled by Mr. Barnes’s MS. name of NV. helicoides? 
Also that Doliwm dentatum, Barnes, loc. cit.=D. ringens, Sby. 





ON M 


Page. 
Z. J. 372. 
372. 
372. 
378. 


379, 


379. 
Z.B.V. 180. 
119. 
132. 
147. 


148, 


150. 


151. 
182. 


OLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 525 


Natica pallida { = Lunatia caurina, Gld.,+ soluta, G1d.}. 

Natica otis. | Var.= Polinices fusca, ee 

Natica clausa [= N. Beverlii, Leach, MS. in B. M.}. 

Fusus lapillus= Bue. subrostratum, Gray. {Resembles the smooth, 
stumpy form of Purpwra plicata, Mart.: “ pertectly distinct,” 
teste Hanl. | 

Conus arcuatus [as figured in Z. B. V., is a very different shell from 
that in Mus, Cum. and the monographs ; the latter is ailied to C. 
tornatus |. 

Conus interruptus [resembles the broad form of C. mahogant]. 

(Add) Oliva semistriata, Gray, pl. 36. f. 10. Hab. ?—{ Panama, &c. | 

Conus Ximenes (scarcely differs from C. mahogani, var. in Mus. Cum. |. 

[Should be] Agaronia | et passim}. 

(Add) Mouretia Peruviana, Sby. (P. Z.8. 1835, p. 6) pl. 89. £.6, 6. 
[Also Margarita Bay, teste eed 

Patella Muzatlandica. {This is the Sandwich Islands species, = P. 
exarata, Nutt., teste Hanl, The large specimens quoted are pro- 
bably P. talcosa, Gld. | 

Chama echinata. [Further series of specimens make it doubtful 
whether this be not a distinct species from C. frondosa, var. The 
original sculpture has not yet been detected. | 

Should be] Cytherea biradiata. 
Add) Cardita borealis, Conr. (=“ Arcturus rudis, Humphr.”’) pl. 44. 
f. 1. [Probably from near icy Cape. Mus. Belcher. ] 


The types of the species described from this important voyage have been 
scattered. Some have been identified from Admiral Sir E. Belcher’s Collec- 
tion, which he kindly allowed me to examine for that purpose; others are 
in the possession of Mr, Hanley ; but many appear hopelessly lost. 


29. Wood's 


Ind. Test—In Hanley’s Revised Edition of this important 


work (London, 1856), several new localities are added from the writer’s 
varied experience, and the synonymy is most ¢arefully elaborated. No other 


book contains 
small a compa 
for locality or 


such a mass of trustworthy information on the old species in so 
ss. The following are quoted, either as original authorities, or 
synonymy :— 


Page. Fig. 

"2 102 Chiton tunicatus, Wood, Gen. Conch. 1815, pl. 2. f. 1 [ = Katherina 
Douglasie, Gray |. Sitka. 

3 18. Chiton lineatus, Wood, Gen. Conch. 1815, pl. 2. f. 4, 5. Sitcha, 
North Calif. {Mr. Hanley believes that Sitka is the island in 
lat. 58°, and that Sitcha is in the district now known as Wash- 
ington Territory, olim Oregon. | 

3 20. Chiton sulcatus, Wood, Gen. Conch. 1815, pl. 3. f. 1. Galapagos. 

19 16. Solen maximus, Wood, Gen. Conch. 1815, pl. 31. f.3 [=S. patulus, 
Dixon. N.W. America]. Sandw. Is. 
21 8. Tellina rugosa, Born. Is. of Opara, New California. [ Pacific Is. ] 
27 73. Tellina muricata, Chemn.= Lucina scabra, Rve. Mexico. 
&2 97. Conus pusillus, Wood: non Chemn. nec Lam. {nec Gld.}] = C. puie- 
ticulatus, var., Lam. (quasi Brug.) Mexico. 
88 31. Cyprea onyx, Gray (quasi Lin.) = C.adusta, Chemn. [ Pacific Is. The 
San Diegan shell is closely allied, = Zaponia spadicea.| ‘ Calif.’ 
29 35. Voluta incrassata, Dillw. ; posterior to O. angulata,Lam. Centr. Am. 
183 14. Haliotis Cracherodi, Leach= H. glabra, Schub. 1829, non Chenin. 
et auct. Calif. 
Suppl. 201 3. Zellina lutea, Gray=T. alternidentata, Br. & Sby.=T. Guilfordie 
Gray, in Griff. Cuv. pl. 19. f. 2. Icy Cape. 
202. 1. Donax scalpellum, Gray, Ann. hil. 1825, ix. 166; =D. elongata 


Mawe, Conch. pl. 9, f. 6, 1828, Calif, 
9 





or 
© 
ney 


Page. 


Suppl. 202 
204 


205 
208 
211 
211 


211 
212 


212 
212 


218 
215 
213 
213 
218 


253 


31. Voy. 


5 


11. 


25. 


= 


26. 
38. 
10. 
UL 
12. 
13. 
15. 


10. 
14. 


45. 


6. 


9 
Vv. 


Fig. : 
. Donar stultorum, Mawe, |. c. pl. 9. £.7; = Trigona st., Gray, Analyst, 


REPORT—1863. 


1838. 2S. America [ =7r. crassatellovdes, jun. Calif. }. 
Chama crassicostata= Venerteardia e., Sby., Tank. Cat. p. 4. = Car- 
dita Cuviert, Brod., P. Z.S. 1832. = C. Michelini, Val. Acapulco. 
Arca pectiniformis, Gray (Pectunculus), non Lam. = P.inequalis, Sby. 


. Conus gradatus, Mawe. Calif. [=C. sealaris, Val.] Pan. 


Voluta lens, Mawe. Pan. 

Voluta harpa, Mawe, Conch. Front. f. 2. 1823; = V. nucleus, Lam, 
S. Pacific. 

Voluta nux, B.M.= Oliva biplicata, Sby., Tank. Cat. Calif. 

Voluta tenebrosa, Mawe= O. undatella, Ducl. (Lam.) Pan. 


. Buccinum tenue, Mawe= Cassis Massene, Kien. Galapagos. 
. Buccinum distortum, Swains., Bligh’s Cat.= Columbella triumphalis, 


Duel. [ Clavella}. W. Columbia. 


Buccinum brevidentatum, Mawe= Purp. cornigera, Blainv.= P. ocel= 
lata, Kien. W. Columbia. 

Buceinum denticulatum, Mawe | = Monoceros lugubre, Sby. Gen. 

Buccinum armatum, Mawe Calif. 


Buccinum tectum, Mawe= Purp. callosa, Sby. Gen., non Lam.=P, 
angulifera, Kien. (Ducl.)= Cuma suleata, Swains. Mal. Pan. 
Buccinum planaxis, Mawe= Pl. planicosta, Shy.=P. canaliculata, 
Duval, Rey. Zool. 1840, p. 107. Pan. [ Purp. canaliculata, Ducl., 

is quite distinct. | 


. Buccinum elongatum, Mawe= Terebra strigata, Sby., Tank. Cat.= 


T. zebra, Kien. Pan. 


. Strombus bituberculatus, B.M., non auct.= Str. Peruvianus, Swains., 


Phil. Mag. 62. W. Columb. 


. Murex rigidus, B.M.= Buc. nodatum, Martyn= Murex n., Gmel., 


Dillw.= Turbinella rigida, Gray. Pan. { Probably the Pacific sp. ] 
Murex sanguneus, Mawe= Turbinella varicosa, Rve. Galapagos. 
Murex salno, Mawe = Fasciolaria granosa, Kien., as of Brod., P.Z.S. 

1832. Panama. 


. Trochus undosus,,Wood= T. undatus, Mawe, Conch. no. 146 (not 


described) ; = 7. balenarum, Val. Calif. 


. Trochis pellis-serpentis, Mawe = Tegula elegans, Less., Tl. Zool. pl.50; 


=1*. strigilatus, Phil. (quasi Anton) Abbild. pl. 2. f.9. Pan. 

Turbo saxosus, Mawe = Marmorostoma undulata, Swains., Zool. Il. 
s.2. Pan. 

Haliotis corrugata, Mawe, Conch. no. 181. ?=H. nodosa, Phil. Abbil. 
pl. 2. Calif. 

Patella pexiza, Gray = Dispotea Byronensis, Gray, Enc. Metr. Moll. 
pl. 4. f. 4 =[? Crucibulum spnosum, var.]. Chili. 


Beagle—The Triton scaber is rightly assigned to 8. America: 


there is no satisfactory evidence for its appearance on the N.W. coast. The 
shells so quoted are probably either imported from the Magellan district, or 
are Priene Oregonensis, yun., or Ocinebra, var. aspera. 


36. Duclos——The original article is in the ‘ Annales Nat. Sc.,’ May 1832, 
and contains the following species :— 


Page. Plate. 
104 1 
105 1 
109 2 
111, 32 


Fig. 


1. Purpura canaliculata, Duel., resembles P. succincta on a small scale. 


Cal.; very rare. [Figured with 10 principal and a few intercalary 
ribs. = P. decemcostata, Midd. ] 


2. Purpura melones, Ducl. ?— [ Panama. 
8. Purpura centiquadra, Val. MS. [Ducl. states that Val. altered his 


own name to speciosa while the sheet was passing through the 
press. The latter, however, bears date 1833. 


10. Purpura spheridia, Ducl. Cal. [A well-known Sistrum from the 


Pacific Is. ] 


10 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. BoD 


The species quoted in the text from Guérin, which appear in the Mag, 
Zool. for 1844, also appear here with the early date. Oliva polpaster, a south- 
ern form, from Guayaquil, &e., is distinct from all varieties of the Gulf species, 
O. Cumingii; it bears date 1839. In the same vol. are described and figured— 
ao Calyptrea (Calypeopsis) rugosa, Less. Payta, Peru. [=Cruc. imbricatum, 

without pits. | 

23. Conus hieroglyphus, Ducl. Probably Cal. [A Pacific form, like C. abbre- 
viatus. 

27. Cyprea Dae Ducl. Cal. [Astarved var. of Aricia arabica, Pacific Is. } 

38. Lady Douglas (afterwards known as Lady Wigram).—Placunanomia 
eepio. [The type is an old shell, with faint ribs. | 

Placunanomia alope. [The type is a young shell, with small scars and 
faint ribs. The large series of specimens examined in the Smithsonian col- 
lections proves that these forms are among the many varieties of P. macro- 
schisma. The Indians have a superstitious dread of handling it. Many more 
species have since been detected in the Brit. Mus., from the late Lady 
Wigram’s valuable donations, including Macoma inquinata, Desh.. described 
from her specimens; but, as they are evidently from mixed localities, it has 
not been thought necessary to catalogue them. | 

29. Nuttall—The verification of Conrad’s species being of considerabie 
importance, I made diligent search for the original types during a recent 
tour in the United States. The supposed collection at Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass., has not been discovered by Professor Agassiz. The 
inquiries which Professor Longfellow kindly made at my request resulted in 
information that it was “in Dr. Wyman’s Mus. Nat. Hist., in the granite 
building on Howard Street ;” but no opportunity has been afforded of col- 
lating it, or even of verifying its existence. Dr. Jay rendered me every 
assistance in studying the types which he has catalogued in his collection, 
now rearranging in his residence at Memironeck, near New York, and gave 
such duplicates as could be spared for the Smithsonian Museum. Several 
species, however, were not to be found, and some were clearly erroneous, as 
e. g. Chama “ exogyra, Conr.,” which proved to be @. lobata, Brod.; W. L., 
teste Cuming; China, Brit. Mus. The most satisfactory information was 
derived from an interview with Mr. Conrad himself at the Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Philadelphia, where the honorary curator, Mr. W. G. Binney, afforded us 
all possible aid in eliminating types from the collections of the Academy and 
of private conchologists in the city. Mr. Nuttall’s death (the news of which 
was received soon after) prevented his revising the corrections thus cbtained. 
As he had previously presented a duplicate series of his shells to the Brit. 
Mus., which had been incorporated with the general collection, and had sig- 
nified to me his intention to leave the unique specimens to the nation, J at 
once communicated with the survivors and with Dr. Gray, who was fortunate 
cnough to stop the intended sale, and to secure the shells, which were kindly 
presented by the executors. They are now mounted, and kept in drawers 
adjoining the Reigen collection, the Vancouver collection, and the Stimp- 
sonian typical collection of East Coast N. American shells. The following 
is a résumé of corrections obtained from these different sources, numbered to 
correspoud with the list, Rep. pp. 194-201 :— 


“ Parapholas” penita [is a Pholadidea). 

. Platyodon cancellatus | = Cryptodonta myoides, Nutt. MS.}. 

4. Cryptodon Nuttall, Conr. [The author, finding the generic name preoecupied 
changed it to Schizotherus N.: 1852, teste Bin. Bibl.; 1854, Journ. A. N.S& 


ono 


e 
~ 


sue 


Phil. p. 189.=Lwutrarva capaz, Gld.=L. maxima, Midd.,= Tresus naxinus, 


REPORT—1863. 


Oa 
rw) 
oO 


Gray. Mr. Nuttall only brought home young specimens of this extraordinary 
shell. In its adult state it assumes either a transverse form (=capaxr) or 
the elongated cendition, redescribed in a fossil state as new. Between 
these there is every gradation, as can be traced in the magnificent series In 
the Smiths, Mus. ; and a caskful of the animals in spirits, of various ages, 
has affiliated the large shells to the original Nuttallian specimens. | 
* 40. Pandora punctata [is a Clidiophora. The series s0 named in the Nuttallian 
collection belongs, however, to the Atlantic Cl. trilineata]. 
11. Solecurtus lucidus [is almost certainly the young of no. 12. The amount of 
obliquity in the internal rib is extremely variable in the adult specimens]. 
12. Solecurtus Nuttallii [=Machera patula, Dixon,= Aulus grandis, Gmel., teste 
Has. in Mus. Cum. Mr. C.’s “grandis, var.,” from Monterey, suits in its 
roportions for the adult of S. dwcidus. The shell has been widely distri- 
ater by commerce, and appears to extend far in a northerly direction. The 
| animal is very beautifully fringed ]. 

14. Solecurtus Californianus [=S. Dombeyi, teste Mus. Cuming: non Hanl. MS. }. 
| 15. Psammobia Pacifica [is a Heterodonax, probably identical with the W. Indian 
| H. bimaculata, which is found abundantly in its many varieties at Aca- 
pulco ;= Tellina vieina, C. B, Ad.]. 
| 17. Sanguinolaria Californiana [=Macoma inconspicua, Brod. & Sby., and is a 
| northern species ]. 
| 18. Sanguinolaria rubroradiata [is the young of a large species of Psammoiia}. 

22. Tellina alta [ =(from types) ?Scrobicularia biangulata, Cpr. }. 

| 23. [= Macoma edulis, Nutt.; a northern variety of MM. secta, no. 25, and quite 

distinct from IL. edentula. | 

26. The locality is not confirmed, and is probably erroneous. 

27. [Dr. Gould considers his D. obesus a distinct species; from a large series, it 

appears identical. | : 

28, 29. These species of Standella, described from young specimens, were tound 

of very large size by Dr. Cooper, with what may prove a third species, 
perhaps S. nasuta, Gld., olim. | 

80b. Petricola carditoides [with P. arcuata+ cylindracea, Desh., are varieties of P. 

Californica. The series preserved in the Smithsonian Museum connects all 
the extreme forms]. 
82. Mysia tumida, Cony. MS. [ = Diplodonta orbella, Gld., and belongs to the section 
Spherella, Conr. The label had been assigned by accident to a young valve 
j of a Chione, probably from the Sandwich Is. ]. 
83. Tapes staminea. [This is the extreme southern form of a widely diffused and 
very variable species, of which the normal condition is Sazidomus Petitir, 
| Desh.,= Venus rigida, Gld. pars. The principal varieties have been named 
Tapes diversa, Sby.= Venus mundulus, Rve., and Venus ruderata, Desh. | 


£4. [The Calfornian Saridomi divide themselves into three groups: the large, 
southern, oval, grooved shells= 8. aratus, Gld.; the subquadrate, compara- 


tively smooth, northern shells=S. squalidus+ giganteus, Desh.; and an 
intermediate form, which is the true S. Nattallii, Conr. Some of Mr. Nut- 
tall’s specimens were, however, the young of S. aratus, of which the adult 
was not known till very recently. | 
35. [The young of this Pachydesma is “ Trigona stultorum, Gray,” Desh. MS. in 
| British Museum. | 
) 36. Cytherea callosa { =C. nobilis, Rve. Itis not a Dosinia, but the type of anew 
subgenus, Amiantis, differing from Callista as Mercenaria does from Venus]. 
87. Plate 19, fig. 16 (not 14 nor 15). [The true Venus Nuttallii of Cony. (teste 
Conr. ips. and types in Mus. Phil. Ac. and Jay) is not the shell here cata- 
logued, which generally goes by that name, but is a synonym for the V. 
Californiensis, Brod.,=sucencta, Val. The error was corrected in the Mus. 
Cum. in time for the right shell to be figured by Reeve in his recent mono- 
graph. It is doubtful what name Conrad intended for the shell here cata- 
logued, which belongs to the group of Stutchburyi, fluctifraga, &c. If really 
distinct from the latter, it may stand as Chione callosa, Sby. jun. (non Conr.) | 
58. Venus Californiana {(teste Conr. ips.) was intended for V. Californiensis. 
Brod. Not having access to the type, it could hardly be recognized by the 
12 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 527 


brief diagnosis. The name should therefore be dropped. The shell, pl. 19, 
fig. 15 (not 16)—Chione simillima, Sby., no. 39; a good Lower Californian 
species. It seems that the error was not in numbering of the figures, as 
Mr. Nuttall supposed, but in Conrad’s identification of Broderip’s species]. 
40. Chione excavata [is closely related to Ch. succincta ; the unique type, however, 
in Brit. Mus. displays characteristic differences of sculpture. It is singu- 
larly like the W. Indian Ch. cancellata, and may prove exotic]. 
41. Cypricardia Californica [=C. Guiniaca, Lam.,=C. Duperryi, Desh. Almost . 
certainly from the Sandwich Is. |. 
45, 45b. Cardium Californianun {= C. Nuttallii, var. The species is named “ C, 
corbis, Mart.,” by Desh. MS. in Mus. Brit. and Oana 
46, Cardium quadragenarium [= C. luteolabrum, Gld.}. 
51. v. antea, no. 32. 
56. Modiola recta. ee from very young specimens. The broad form i3 
M. flabellata, G1d. | 
69. Mytilus bifurcatus. |The type is lost; the figure and description would suit 
many species. It is allocated, in Mus. Cum., to the Californian Septifer 3 
| but by Pease to a Sandwich Island ee 
| €0. [None of Conrad’s species of Jsogn mon have been confirmed as from Califor- 
nia. They are known to inhabit the Pacific Islands. | 
626. [Mr. Nuttall also brought an oyster, which he named in MS. O. latecandata, 
= O. lurida, var.; and Hinnites giganteus, Gray, =H. Poulsoni, Conr. | 
64. [Dr. Gould states that H. Micklineana, Lea,= H. Californiensis, Pfr., Chemn., 
Rve.; but that ZZ. Californiensi:, Lea, is distinct. | 
69. Helix Townsendiana | = H. eruginosa, Gl\d. MS. }. 
74. Chiton Nuttallit [is an Ischnocluton]. 
75. Chiton acutus {is an aberrant form of Mopalia. “ Chiton consimilis,’ Nutt. MS, 
in Brit. Mus., appears to be Mopala Hindsi, var.‘ Chiton Califernicus” 
Nutt. MS., =“ Acanthopleura” scabra, Rve. |. 
77. Patella mamillata, Nutt. [(non Esch.) is now assigned in Mus. Cuming to 
Acmea scabra, Nutt., var. limatula). 
&3. Fissurella ornata, Nutt. [ =F: volcano, Rve. |. 
&4. Glyphis deniclathrata, Rve. [ V. antea, p. 522. The shell has been Jost. ] 
86. H. Cali orniensis, Swains. [ (not Californiana, Val.,=rufescens), isan extreme 
var. of H. Cracherodi. The ser.es in the Smithsonian Mus. have 5, 6, 7, 
8, and 9 holes; as soon as it has 10 and 11, it passes into Californiensis, 
which was figured in 1821 with 9 holes. When these are numerous, they 
are generally sma! in proportion }. 
91. Calliostoma doharium [=C. canaliculatum, Mart. This and C. annulatum, 
Mart., are quite distinct from C\ filosum, which= C. costatum, Mart. }. 
92. Omphalius ater [is the S. American species. The common Californian shell is] 
94. O. marginatus, Nutt. MS. [ =funebralis, A. Ad. }. 
976. The collection contains one specimen of Crepidula dorsata. 
108. [Is a Serpulorbis, without operc., teste Cooper. | 
106. Litorina tenebrata [should be patula, Gld. (non Jeffr.). Nuttall’s MS. name 
was published by Phil. in 1845]. 
107. Natica ? maroccana, var. Californica. [The varietal name must be dropped, 
The shell certainly came from the Sandwich Islands. } 
108. [The shell is Vitela:ta salebrosa, jun., and not] Ranella triquetra. 
109. Mitra maura Faas teste Rve. (P ubi) =. orientalis, Gray, = M. “ Chi- 
lensis,”’ Kien. }. 
110. Olivella glandinaria, Nutt. [ =O. biplicata, Sby. }. 
112, 113. Purpura aperta and P. harpa [are certainly from the Sandwich Islandsj, 
114. Purpwra emarginata [was described by Desh. from an immature specimen in 
which a half-formed knob caused an “emargination.”” The adult is one 
very extreme form; P. ostrina, Gld., is another ; .P. fuscata, Fbs., is a third. 
The normal condition is P. lapillus, Cooper (non Linn.),=saxicola, Val. 
Mr. Nuttall’s collection also contains] F. crispata, var. 
116. Monoceros brevidens [is an accidentally short-toothed form of M. lapilioides}, 
118. Cerostoma Nuttallii (with C. foliatwm and C. monoceros, Shy., belongs to Pure 


pure). 13 








EB 


SS 


— a > 


a 


i 


528 REPORT—1863. 


The specimens numbered 2, 5, 8, 9, 19, 21, 28-31, 36, 44, 46, 49, 50, 52-54, 56, 
59, 64-67, 70-72, 76, 84, 86-88, 98, 101, 103, 104, and 109 do not appear in the 
Brit. Mus. Nuttallian collection. 

41. Voy. Venus.—Reyv. Zool. and Guér. Mag. 


Arca trapexia [ =A. tuberculosa). 

Saxicava legumen { =8. pholadis ; ?from hole of Lithophagus]. 

Petricola arcuata [=the normal state of P. earditoides, Cony. )._ 

Petricola cylindracea [=a short form of the same sp., developing ridges of growth, 
like Tapes ruderata, Desh. }. 

Venerupis gigantea { = Saxidomus squalidus, Desh. }. tO ks ; 

Cyvricardia Duperreyt [= C. Guinaiaca, Lam.,= C. Californica, Cony, A Sandwich 
Island species, twice quoted, but not confirmed, from Cal. }. 

Cardium Laperoussii [is an Aphrodite, like Granlandicum, but more transverse, and 
with lateral teeth less developed. ‘This very rare and probably boreal shell has 
just been identified from Adm. Sir E. Belcher’s oe 

Cardium Californiense, Desh. {is not C. Californianum (= Nuttallii), Cony. ; but= C. 
pseudofossile, Rve., 1844. The name of Desh. is unfortunate, as his shell is the 
Kamtschatkan form with strong ribs. The Californian form is smaller, with 
fainter ribs,= C. blundum, Gld. }. 

Purpura Freycinetii [is figured from a very extreme form of the Japanese species, 
P. ostrina passes into similar varieties |. 

Velutina Miillert {probably = V. levigata, which reaches Vancouver]. 

Lucina cristata {= Tellidora linulata, Holmes; described from the Pleistocene of 8. 
Carolina, and lately dredged alive by Dr. Stimpson; not 7. Burnett]. 

The following may be added to Deshayes’ list:-— 


Pl. 81. Tellina igamentina, Desh., 1843. Hab. ?— { = Macoma secta, Cony. | 
Tellina Japonica, Desh., in Mus. Cum. [also appears to be M. secta, jun.}. 


In Valenciennes’ plates to the Voy. Ven. have been recognized the follow- 
ing West Coast species and synonyms, in addition to those quoted in Rep. 
pp. 203-204 :— 

Plate. Fig. 

3 2. Trochus diadematus, Val. [resembles Pomaulax undosus, jun., but the sur- 
face is faintly wrinkled all over; umbilical region not chiseled; and 
opere. not ridged. It is probably intended for Pachypoma gibberosum |. 

1. Trochus rubiginosus, Val. [probably = T. annulatus, Mart. ].’ 

2. Trochus pellucidus, Val. (resembles T. lima, Panama]. 

- Buceinum Prerostit, Val. [probably = Pisania pagodus |. 

. Purpura bufonides, Val. [appears one of the many vars. of P. bisertalis}. 

. Purpura rupestris, Val. | probably = Monoceros lugubre, jun. ]. 

» Murex aciculiger, Val. [is represented with labral tooth and closed canal ; 
but resembles C. festivus, Hds. }. 

- Murex tortuus (Brod.), Wal. [resembles Ph. princeps, with a very poor 
operc., badly drawn]. 

Venus Thouarsti, Val. [?=multicostata, Sby.; figured with very broad, 

smooth, close ribs, scarcely indented, except in the middle]. 

Vi enus pectunculordes, Val. [is probably 7. grata, not histrionica). 

. Cardium subelongatum (Rve.), Val. [appears= C. procerum, jun. }. 

. Pecten comatus, Val. (may be=hastatus, jun. ; but, although figured with 
out the red spot, it most resembles Hin. giganteus, jun. }. 

. Pecten excavatus, Val. | =Janira dentata, Sby. ]. 
7 pomatia, Val. [may be = P. ventricosus, jun. }. 

»,  rastelinum, Val. [= P. hastatus, jun, }. 

Ostrea gallus, Val. [ss Acapulco,” with large plates, = O. megcdon, Hanl.]. 
. Cardita arcella, Val. [? = Ven. radiata, Sby.]. 
»  modulosa (Lam.), Val. [ = Lazaria affinis |. 
»,  turgida (Lam.), Val. [= Ven. luticostata]. 
5. »  Michehini, Val. if V. Cuvieri), 


—_ 
CODD 


16 


17 
18 


19 


rong 0 Hero 


COLO ral cers 


23 2. Nucula divaricata, Val. {probably = N. castrensis |, 
24 1. Lenitella Conradi, Val. (may be = Pholadidea ovoidea}. 
14 


mL 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA, 529 


Plate. Fig. 
. Penitella xilophaga, Val. [may be the adult of fig. 4]. 


. Penitel a tuhigera, Val. [may possibly be intended for Ph. penita]. 
. Pholas rostrata, Val. {is probably = Netastoma Darwinit, Sby. ee 
. Ungulina hidicola,Val. [may be an extremely bad Petricola robusta 

. Corbula luticola, Val. [is probably = Sphenia fragilis]. 

. Bornia luticola, Val. ae Laperoussit |. 

. Saxicava clava, Val. | =S. legumen, Desh.,= 8. pholadis, var.]. 

The identification of these species is attended with great uncertainty, as 
the types have not been seen, and the artist appears to have studied effect 
rather than accuracy. 

42. Voyage of Sulphur.—The types of these species appear to have been 
scattered. Only a part are now to be found in the very valuable collection 
of Admiral Sir E. Belcher, in which most of the shells are, unfortunately, 
destitute both of names and of locality-marks. 

Murex Belcheri (belongs to Purpurid, and may be considered the type of 
the genus Chorus]. 

Ranella Californica. {After comparing a series with the Cumingian speci- 
mens of 2. ventricosa, it appears that the diagnostic characters are not con- 
stant. 

ae sapotilla. [The type in Mus. Cuming is much smaller than 
the ordinary condition of M. prunwm=cerulescens, Lam., to which species 
the common Panama shells were referred by Mr. Cuming. In his collection, 
however, they stand thus :—Ordinary Panamic type “ sapotilla, Hds.: 5-13 
fms., sandy mud, Panama, H.C.” Another tablet of the true Panama shells 
“ Marginella, n. sp., Panama,”—‘ San Domingo” having been crossed out. 
The small West Indian form, analogous to the typical sapotilla, is given as 
‘glans, Mke.” The large West Indian shells, with violet tinge behind the 
Jabrum, are “ cerulescens, Lam., Panama,” without authority. Another series 
of the W. Indian type is given as “ c@rulescens, var., Lam., 10 fms., sandy 
mud, Panama,” without authority. Either habitat-errors have crept into the 
Cumingian labels, or else Mr. Redpath’s observation will not hold, viz. that 
the Atlantic shells have a posteri:r pinch on the labrum, which is not seen 
in the Pacific. All the authentic series examined from the two coasts bear 
out his view. There will be two opinions as to whether this be more than 
a mere local distinction. | 

Solarium quadriceps. [On comparing suites of S. granulosum from the 
Texan coast with series from the Gulf of California, it appeared that on each 
side of the Peninsula the shells went through similar changes. in strength of 
sculpture, size of umbilicus, number of spiral granules, &c.; nor could any 
clue be obtained by which the coasts could be separated in a mixed collection. 
Hinds’s shell stands at the furthest extreme of removal from S. granuatum.] 

43. U.S. Exploring Expedition.—The shells of this collection were depo- 
sited in the Patent Office in Washington, D.C., where, notwithstanding the 
great care of Mr. Varden, the curator, they were not a little tampered-with. 
Dr. Gould laboured under great difficulties in his work of description; he 
had access only to that part of the collection which happened to be unpacked 
and exposed to view during the brief period that his professional engagements 
allowed of his visiting the capital; and his request to be allowed to take 
doubtful shells to Europe for identification was refused. The materials also 
were of an unsatisfactory kind, a large proportion of the specimens being 
much weathered, and many of the locality-marks being manifestly erroneous, 
If occasional errors have been detected in his great work, they may fairly be 
sect down to causes over which the author had no control. Many of these 

1863. 15 st 


COIS Or COD 
a 











a 











SSS 





530 REPORT—-1863. 


‘have been corrected by Dr. Gould himself, in his ¢ Otia Conchologiea,? 


Boston, 1862, which contains the various papers in the ‘Proceedings of tne 
Boston Soc. of Nat. Hist.,’ with an appendix. After the organization of the 
Smithsonian Institution, all the natural-history collections belonging to the 
Federal Government were transferred to its keeping, with liberty to exchange 
duplicates. The shells remamed unopened, and the types not accessible, till, 
at the request of Professor Henry, I undertook the arrangement of the col- 
lections. Fortunately, a considerable part of the shells professing to be 
the figured types of the new species were found together, with the artist’s 
marks corresponding with the plates and figures. The result of the exami- 
nation, so far as the general collection is concerned, will shortly be prepared 
for the press; it 1s sufficient here to tabulate the observations on the N.W. 
American species, which were, as it happened, the most satisfactorily pre- 
served in the whole series. The following additional particulars include the 
“* Rectifications ” in the ‘ Otia,’ the paging of which is continued from the 
‘«« Expedition Shells ” quoted in Rep. p. 209. The quarto volume quoted in 
p. 210 is distinguished as ‘‘ KE. E. Mollusca.” The folio atlas of plates bears 
date on title 1856, but was not published till 1861, teste Binn. Bibl. vol. i. 
p. 504. The comparisons of types were made in 1860, from a proof copy. 


Otia, Page. i 
5. Chiton lignosus=[Mopala| Mercku, Midd., test. Gld. E. E. Moll. [from 
worn specimens := Ch. Montereyensis, Cpr., from perfect shells. | 
230. Chiton (Chetopleura) vespertinus. Perhaps=Ch. lignosus, var. [A Mo- 
palia, differing slightly in the amount of posterior wave. The fig. in 
K. E. Moll. is made-up from broken specimens. 

6, 242. Chiton (Onithochiton) dentiens. [The shell sent as type of this species, 
and all the others seen from the coast, agree in belonging to Ischnochiton, 
and are not dentate, as would be presumed from the figures and diag- 
nosis. As Dr. Gould’s toothed Onithochiton may hereafter be found, the 
Smithsonian shells have been named Isch. pseudodentiens. } 

6, 242. Chiton (Chetopleura) muscosus. [= -Acanthopleura muscosa, H. & A. Ad. 
Gen., = Ch. ornatus, Nutt. P. ZS. 1855, p. 232,4+ Mopalia consimilis, 
Nutt. MS. in B. M. This beautiful species is a true Mopalia. | 

230. Chiton (Leptochiton) interstinctus. Resembles C. Sitchensis, Midd. [ = Cal- 
lochiton 2.,H. & A. Ad., Gen. It is a true Ischnochiton. The genera of 
Chitonidze cannot always be ascertained by external characters alone, as 
indicated in Messrs. Adams’s genera. All the species in the Smithsonian 
Museum have been dissected. 

7, 242. Patella (Tectura) fimbriata= P. cinis, Rve. [=Acmea pelta, Esch. }. 

9, 242. Patella (Nacella) instabilis. | Varies greatly in proportions. | 

9, 242. Lottia (Tectura) pintadina. {The types represent the normal condition of 

Acmea patina. One variety is A. cribraria, Gld. MS. The speci- 
mens of 4A. mesoleuca intermixed by Dr. G. in the Mexican War coilec- 
tions were, no doubt, affiliated by an oversight. | 

10, 2483. Patella (Tectura) teatilis is a var. of T. persona, Esch. [A well-marked 
form of delicate growth, passing from A. persona into A. pelta, var. ; 
from the young of which some specimens can hardly be distinguished, 
except by the fretted pattern. ] 

10, 243. Patella ( Tectura) scabra=spectrum (Nutt.), Rve., not scabra (Nutt.), Rve. 
[The type-specimens belong to two species, f. 456, 456a, being A. spec- 
trum, Nutt., while 4566 represents the flattened variety of .4. persona, 
Esch. (approaching the form digitalis, Esch.). As the diagnosis best 
accords with the latter shell, P. seabra, Gld., may stand as a synonym of 
persona, var. ; the intermixed specimen, accidentally figured as belonging 
to the species, being removed to spectrum, Nutt. Thus the name scabra, 
not being needed as first described, will remain for Nuttall’s species, 
described by Rve., but first named in print by Jay.] 

16 











ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 531 


Stia, Page. 
16. Crepidula lingulata. [Described from a worn specimen. Perfect shells 


cannot be separated from C. bilobata, Rve.,= C. ? dorsata, var. bilobata, 
Maz. Cat., nor from the suppos dC. dorsata in Mus. Cum. } 

Ld. Crepidula nummaria. [Described from an aberrant, worn, and rounded 
specimen. The normal state is C. navicelloides, Nutt. When grown 
in hollow bivalves, it becomes monmaria: the contrary extreme, grown 
in crypts of borers, with another shell or crab over it, is explanata, 
Gld., = exruviata, Nutt.,=perforans, Val. The Lessonoid form is C. 
fimbriata, Rve. The young appears to be C. minuta, Midd. But the 
“( nummaria, Gld.,” of Mus. Cum., is quite a distinct species, not known 
from the American coast. 

oy os Natica (Lunatia) Game's [=L. pallida, Br. & Sby.]. 

5), 244. Natica (Lunatia) soluta : 

50, 244. Natica (Lunatia) algida ; “ R. Negro,” E. E. Shells; “ Oregon,” E. E. Mo’l. 

i vere: =young of L. Lewisii, Gld., July 1847,=L. herculea, Mida., 1849}, 

Lacuna carinata, Gld., Nov. 1848 [ Z. solidula, Lov., 1846. Finmark |. 

, 245. Litorina patula, Gld. {non Jeffr.], Mar. 1849,=L. planaxis (Nutt. |, Phil. 

1847. 

52, 53. Litorina lepida, scutulata, et plena [are shown by large series to be varietics 
of one species }. 

99. Litorina cincta, Gld., Aug. 1847, Puget Sd. [=L. Siterand, Phil., 1845. 
This species appears to have been overlooked in the EK. E. Moll. ] 

61. Cerithium trroratum, Gld. [= C. obesum, Shy. sen., teste H. Cuming. The 
type proves this to be an E. I. species, and not the Panamic C. stercus- 
muscarum, Wal., as supposed by Dr. Gld.: v. C. P. Ad. i loco]. 

62. Cerithium filosum, Gld., May 1849 [= Turritella Eschrichtii, Midd., 1849, 
(Bittium). Comp. C. filosum, Phil. Z. f. M. 1848, p. 84. California }. 

G4, 245. Fusus (Bela) fidicula. 

64, 245. Fusus ( Trophon) Orpheus [(non Baird.) = 7. Fabricii, Moll., in Br. Mus. | 

67, 245. Buccinum (Nassa, s. g. Tritt) fossatum. Cesia in Ind. p. 253. aye 
elegans, Rve., 1842, non Dujardin: =Zaphon e., Add. }. 

70, 245. Nassa (Tritia) mendica = N. Woodwardi, Fbs., 1850 [from types:+™. 
Gibbesii, Coop. }. 

71, 245. Columbella (Aha) gausapata. [Belongs to the Nassoid group, Amycla. | 

79 Mya precisa |= M. truncata. Scarcely even a variety ; but approaches 
the form Aldrovandt. | 

76, 245. Lutraria ( Tresus) capax. [Dr.G. revives his excellent name; Z. maxima, 
Jonas, 1844, being anterior to Midd. Conrad’s name, Schizotherus 
Nuttallii, is, however, very much earlier. | 

{7, 246. Osteodesma (Lyonsia) bracteatum (+0. nitidum, Gid., in different states 
of preservation, = L. Californica, Conr. The “ olden nacre” of O. brac- 
teatum is due to incipient decay, as eenerally happens in A nomiads |. 

€3, 246. Cardita (Actinobolus) ventricosa. [Appears to be a local variety of the 
ancient Miocene species, Venericardia borealis ;+ C. occidentalis, Cour., 
+ C. subtenta, Conr. (fossil) probably. | 

83. Cardiwn blandum, 1850. [A finely grown Pvar. of C. Californiense, Desh., 
1839, Midd. (non C. Cal ifornianum, Conr., 1837, =corbis, var.) = C. pseudo= 
fossile, Rve., 1844. The name is so like the preoccupied Californianun 
that it may advantageously be dropped. | 

85. Venus rigida, 1850 [non Dillw. 1817. It is fortunate that the name is 
not needed, as the author has joined two very different species, both 
of which have other names. The original Latin diagnosis applies to the 
rough northern form of Tapes staminea, Conr., which is the Saxidonus 
Petitii. of Desh., and includes V. ruderata, Desh. But the “ specimen, 
33 in. long,” which modified the description in the E. E. Moll., and :s 
figured at f. 538, proves to be the adult form of Zapes tenerrima, Cpr., 
P. Z. S. July 1856, which is a Californian and not a Panamic species, 
as had been supposed from Col. J ewett’s label }. 

Q7, 246, Anodonta cognata= A. Oregonensis, Lea ( probab'y). 

oi. Anodonta feminalis | =A. angulata, var., teste Lea}. 

e 


2 LZ 














AR2 BEPORT—1863. 


Otia, Page. 
93. Mytilus (Modiola) flabellatus. [The northern form of Modiola recta, Cone, 
The “specimens from the Guif of California” must have been M. Bra- 
ziliensis, intermixed by accident. | 
94. Mytilus trossulus (is scarcely a variety of M. edulis, which is very abundant 
along the coast, under its usual modifications of form and colour ; but 
generally of small size}. 
95. Pecten hericeus, G\d. [=P. hastatus, Sby. sen.]. 
97, 246. Terebratula ( Waldhermia) pulvinata. 
97, 246. Terebratula (Terebratella) caurina. 
E. E. Moll. 
Page. 
113. Planorbis corpulentus is of Say. 
143. Melania plicifera is of Lea. 
436. Anodonta angulata is of Lea. 
206. Scalaria australis [is abundantly confirmed from the Vancouver district. 
It should be called Opala borealis, Gld. |. 
244. Purpura ostrina, Gld., ‘Otia,’ p. 225 [is an aberrant smooth var. of P, 
lapillus, Coop., non Ln.; the normal state being P. saxicola, Val.). 


The following species, described in the ‘ Otia’ and ¢ FE. E. Moll.’ as from « N. 

Zealand ’ and an unknown locality, are really from Puget Sound. 

Otia, Page. 

56 D4, Trochus pupillus, Gld., March 1849: N, Zealand (Ziziphinus in Index) := 
Margarita calostoma, A. Ad., 1851, Comp. 7. modestus, Midd. [which 
is, however,=ligatus, Gld.,=costatus, Mart. This species is named in 
the B. M. Col. “ IL costellata, Sby.,” but is distinct, teste A. Ad. & 
Mus. Cum. ]. 

64, 245. Fusus (Neptunea) incisus, Gld., May 1849. Hab.?— [= Tritonium 
(Fusus) Sitchense, Midd., 1849,= Buceinum dirum, Rve., 1846. | 


Oo 


oO 


210. Venus calcarea [is correctly described by Dr. G. as from N. Zealand; 
although quoted by him as the Uregon analogue of V. mercenaria]. 

211. Tellina Californica, Cony. {= Macoma inconspicua |. 

211. Triton tigrinum ie from Central America, not] Puget Sd. 

211. Pecten Fabricit, Phil. [is the young of Islandicus: Dr. G.’s shells are the 
young of P. (“ rubidus, ?var.”) Hindsit}. 

211. Fusus cancellinus. [Dr. G.’s shells are Ocinebra, var. aspera. | 

212. Purpura lagena, Gld. [MS., is probably saxicola, var. ]. 

213. Pecten Townsendi | has not been identified }. 

213. Venus ampliata [is believed by Dr. G. to have been first designated by him 
as a species, afterwards proved=rigida (Petitii), var. ]}. 

44. Middendorff.—The synonymy given in Rep. pp. 214-222 is that of 
the author, not of the writer of the Report, who is by no means prepared to 
accept the learned doctor’s identification of species. The three Chitons quoted 
with doubt from Tilesius have not been confirmed, as from Kamtschatka, by 
any other writer. The Ch. giganteus has the aspect of the large Ischnochiton 
Magdalensis ; the Ch. muricatus belongs to the Lophyrus group, which is not 
known so far north ; and the Ch. setosus has also a 8S. American aspect. The 
treatise “‘ De Chitone Giganteo Camtschatico additamentum ad Zoographiam 

tosso-Asiaticum, auctore Tilesio,” was read March 19, 1823, and published 
in 1824. It contains a very valuable and (for that period) remarkable account 
of the anatomy of Chitons, but it does not profess to name and describe species 
in the modern sense. The names, therefore, had better be dropped. Midden- 
dorff’s new species were first described in the ‘ Bulletin de la Classe Physico- 
Mathématique de Académie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg,’ a 
work of which few complete copies are known in England, under the follow- 
ing dates. 

April 20, 1847: vol. vi. No. 8 (total number 128), 

18 











ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 530 


Column. 


116. Chiton Steller, n. s.,=C. amiculatus, Sby., Rve., non Pallas. 

117. Chiton Pallasii, n. s. 

117. Chiton Brandtii, n. s. 

118. Chiton Mertensii, n. s. { Ischnochiton]. 

118. Chiton Eschscholtzii, n. s. 

119. Chiton Wosnessenshit, n.s. [A typical Mopalia: mantle indented behind. } 

120. Chiton Mercku, n.s. {= Ch. lignosus, Gld., July 1846:= Mopalia Montereyen- 
sts, Cpr. }. 

120. Chiton lividus, n. s. 

121. Chiton scrobiculatus, n. s., California. 

121. Chiton Sitchensis, n.s. 

Nov. 1847 (read April 28): vol. vi. No. 20 (total number 140). 

317. Patella (? Acmea) ancylordes,n.s. {Probably a delicately grown young patina : 
the diagnosis, however, suits textilis. Name afterwards altered to per- 
sonoides, to distinguish from Propilidiwn ancyloide, Fbs. | 

818. Patella (?Acmea) eruginosa, n.s. {Probably =tezxtilis, Gld., 1846; but the 
figure is more like scabra, Nutt. | 

318. Patella (? Acmea) pileolus, n.s. {Probably the young of A. pelta; but assigned 
in Mus. Cum. to a very different shell, =A. rosacea, Cpr. } 

318. Patella (? Acmea) Asmi,n.s. {A specimen of A. pelta, in Dr. Cooper’s col- 
lection, began life as 4. Asmz. | 

319. Patella (? Acmea) ceca; genuina, vertice erecto, Atlantic. 

319. Patella (? Acmea) ceca, var. concentrica; vertice subinflexo ; with crowded 
lamellee of growth. 

1849; read Oct. 6, 1848: vol. vii. No. 160. “ Vorliufige Anzeige einiger neuer 
Konchylien aus den Geschlechtern: Litorina, &e., von Dr. A. Th. v. Middendorff.” 
241no.1. Litorina grandis. |The specimens in B. M. and Mus. Cum. appear to 

represent a large var. of L. litorea.| ~ 


242 2. Intorina Kurila (like tenebrosa). 

242 38. Litorina subtenebrosa. {Probably an extreme var. of Z. Sttchana. | 

243 4. Tritonium (Fusus) antiquum, Lu., var. Behringiana. 

243 5. Tritonium (Fusus) Behringit. 

243 6. Tritonium (Fusus) Baerit. 

244 7. Tritonium (Fusus) Sitchense [probably = Chr. dirus, Rve., var. ; but stated 
to be “e livido viridescente ; columella szepius umbilicata” ]. 

244 8, Tritonium (Fusus) luridum [| = Vitularia aspera, Baird, smooth form]. 

244 9. Tritoniwm (Buecinum) simpler. 


244 10. Tritonium (Buccinum) Ochotense. 

245 11. Tritonium (Buccinum) undatum, Linn., var. Schantarica. 

245 12. Tritoniwn (Buccinum) oordes. 

245 15. Bullia ampullacea (is the genus Voliharpa of Fischer}. 

246 15. Natica herculea, North California | =L. Lewisi, Gld., July 1847]. 
246 16. Margarita arctica, Leach, var. major. 


In the text of the 4to volumes, the following corrections are suggested, the 
numbers referring to the page in the B. A. Report which contains the abstrast. 


Report, 215. Acmea scutum, D’Orb. [is quite distinct from A. persona, Esch. The 
latter, as figured by Midd., is a very young shell, not certainly be- 
longing to the species |. 

216. Turritella Eschrichtii. | = Bittium filosum, G\d., May 1849. There 
being no month-date to Midd.’s species, the excellent name of Gld., 
which may also be of Phil. 1848, should be retained. | 

216. Trochus ater and mestus [are well-marked South American species. 
Probably the shells intended are Chlorostoma funebrale, A. Ad., 
and its congeners. | 

216. Trochus euryomphalus | = Phorcus priligo, Mart., teste Dohrn]. 

216. Trochus modestus, Md. | =filosus,Wd.,= Calliostoma costatum, Martyn). 

216. Trochus (Turbo) Fokkesit [is trom the peninsula of Lower Cal.].° ~ 

216. Natica flava, Gld. [is entirely different from any of the synonyms 
under it,” teste Gld. ]. 

19 









































534 REPORT—1863. 


e 
Keport, 216. Scalaria Ochotensis [appears an aberrant Opalia; but is the genus 
Acirsa of Morch, closely allied to Mesalia, teste A. Ad. |. 

216, Crepdula Sitchana [is figured like the young of grandis; but the 
specimens in Mus. Cum. ., When compared with the similar stage of 
C. excavata, display no differences either inside, outside, or in the 
nuclear whorls]. 

216. Crepidula minuta {appears the young of C. navicelloides, Nutt. | 

216. Crepidula grandis | fossil at Sta. Barbara, = C. princeps, Conr. Can 
hardly be distinguished from very fine specimens of C. fornicata, 
sent from Halifax, Nova Scotia, by Mr. Willes]. 

217. Trichotropis cancellata, Hds. {is quite distinct from 7. borealis). 

217. Purpura decemcostata, Midd. | =P. canaliculata, Ducl. Var. = P. ate 
tenuata, Rve. Var.=P. analoga, Fbs. | 

217. Tritonium (Trophon) clathratum, Ln. [is distinct from the shouldered 
M. multicostatus, Esch.,= Gunneri, Lov. 

217. Tritonium (Fusus) decemcostatum = Chr. Middendorffii, Cooper= 
Chr. liratus, Martyn. | 

218. ZLritonium ( Buccinum) cancellatum [Midd., non] Lam. [=Priene 
Oregonensis, Redf. P. cancellata is the Cape Horn species. Some 
specimens in alcohol in Sir E. Belcher’s collection, however, said 
to be from Icy Cape, greatly resemble the southern shell]. 

218. Tritonium (Pollia) scabrum [is exclusively aS. American shell. Dr. 
M.’s shell may have been Ocinebra, vay. aspera). 

218, Pecten rubidus, Has. [non Martyn, =P. Islandicus, Mull. Midd.’s pl. 15. 
f. 1-3 are marked i in expl. of plates ce  Tslandicus, rar. Behringiana ;” 
they are probably (“rudbidus, Pvar.”) Hinds. But the tigs. 4-6 
are ‘certainly the young of Hinnites giganteus |. 

219. Venerupis gigantea. | Decorticated specimens of Saxridomus squaldus. 

219. Petricola gibba. [ Elongated form of cylindracea, Desh., = carditoides,vax | 

219. Machera costata, {The figures represent M. patula, Dixon. | 

220. Cingula minuta (“1s quite “distinct from Hi ydrobia ulve,” ve Gld.]. 

220. Velutina eryptospira. | Probably a Lamellaria. | 

220. Purpura Freyeinettii, Desh. {is quite distinct from attenuata, Rve. It 
is doubtful whether Midd.’s shells belong to Desh.’s species }. 

221. Terebratula frontahs, Midd. 1851, named in 1849, {may be the young 
of Waldheimia Coreanica, Ad. «&R ve., 1850, = Terebratella miniata, 
Gld., 1860, teste A. Ad., Rve.]. 

221. Astarte lactea, Gld. [is distinct from -A. Scotica, teste Gld. }. 

221. Tellina fusca, Say [is distinct from 7. solidula, though it may= 7%. bal- 
thica ; teste Gld. Macoma inconspicua, Br. & Sby., is distinct from 
both 

222. ae hyalina [is distinct from L. Norvegica). 

222. Machera costata, Say. { Dr. Gould does not believe that any of Midd.’s 
synonyms belong ‘to this species. Solen medtus, i in Br. Mus., appears 
=S. ambiguus, Lam. . as figured by Swains. It is not a Machera. il 

45. Samarang.—Litorina castanea, Ad. & Rvye., 1850. “ Eastern Seas,” 
p. 49, pl. 11. f. 8 [appears identical with Z. Sitehana, Phil. }. 

46. E. B. Philippi.—Columbella teniata, Phil., 1846 [is probably identical 
with Anachis Gaskoinei, Cpr. But C. teniata, Ad. & Rve., 1850, is perhaps 
a Nitidella |. 

47. The “ Mexican War Naturatists.”—These were Major Rich and Liens, 
Green. Col. E. Jewett was not connected with the war, as would be supposed 
from the introduction to Dr. Gould’s pamphlet. The following corrections 
apply to the new species tabulated in Rep., pp. 226-228. The species of Gould 
bear date April 1852 (teste Otia, p. 184) and Nov. 1851 (Otia, p. 210); the 
others, July 1856. 

No. 


3. Corbula polychroma [= C. biradiata, var. }. 
7. Teilina tersa {= Macoma nasuta, jun. Cal., not Pan.) 
20 

















ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 535 


8. Tellina pura | =M. Mazatlanica, jun. Desh., Mus. Cum. ]. 

11. Donax flecuosus | =D. Lamarckn, Desh., in B. M.}. 

18. Gnathodon mendicus {| = G. trigonum, Pet., May 1853]. 

15. Raéta undulata {is distinct from Harvella elegans |. 

20. Cardium luteolabrum |= C. quadragenariun, Cony. |. 

21. Cardium cruentatum | =Liocardium substriatum, Conv. }. 

27. Modiola nitens | = M. subpurpureus, Mus. Cum., and is not from Cal.]. 

23. Adula falcata. [The locality of Mr. Cuming’s specimens has not been con- 
firmed. Jor “species,” in note, read “specimens.” | 

31. Lima tetrica. [The specimens from the Mediterranean, W. Indies, Guif Cal., 
and Pacific Islands were all named ZL. sguamosa by Mr. Cuming. | 

33. Bulimus vesicalis (nem. preoc.)= B. sufflatus, ‘ Otia,’ p. 184. 

40. Nacella paleacea. | Col. Jewett’s specimens appear distinct from WN. depicta, ds. } 

41. Trochus marcidus. {This shell was called Omphalius Pfeifferi by Mr. Cuming, 
from the resemblance of the figure, in which the umbilicus appears keeled ; 
but the shell marked ‘type,’ answering to the diagnosis, along with ‘ Chloro- 
stoma’ maculosum, A. Ad., are scarcely varieties of Phorcus pulligo,- Martyn. 
The finest series is in the B. M. | 

43. Livona picoides [has been heard of, but not seen since the explorations of Col. J. 
Dr. Gld. still considers the species distinct: among the very dissimilar varieties 
from the W. Indies (vide suite in B. M.) it would probably not have been 
singled out as a species, but for the theory of the author]. 

45. Crucibulum Jewettii [should be corrugatum, P. Z. 8.1}. 

47. Modulus dorsuosus. (Col. J. now thinks that the supposed Acapulco specimens 
are W. Indian, =/enticularis, Chem. When dead, the forms from the two 
oceans can hardly be distinguished ; but the aspect of his shells is Caribbzean. ] 

54. Conus ravus { = C. Californicus, Hds. |. 

56. Conus pusillus, Gd. [non Chem. =nux, small var., teste Cuming]. 

57. Obeliscus achates | =O. clavulus, A. Ad., 1854]. 

65. Columbella Sta.-Barbarensis [so named to correct the statement that California 
was above the limit of the genus, proves to be a Mexican shell, and was 
probably obtained at Acapulco. Having been redescribed by Reeve from 

erfect specimens, it may stand as C. Reeve? |. 

66. Mitidella Gouldit. [Not to be confounded with Col. Gouldiana, Agass., which 
is probably Amyela. | 

67. Fusus ambustus {is a Californian species. The type stands in Mus. Cum. as 

F. fragosus, Rve., but does not answer to the diagnosis. The typical fragosus 

is marked fragosus, var. F. ambustus appears absolutely identical with 7 

clavatus, Brocchi, Mediterranean. Some of the diagnostic marks are not con- 

stant in the specimens |. 


Col. Jewett went to Panama, as a private collector, in January 1849, 
spending ten weeks in that region, including Taboga. This was two years 
before Prof. Adams’s explorations. Thence he sailed to San Francisco, 
where he spent four months in exploring the shore for about 50 miles 
from the head of the bay. After labouring for a week at Monterey, he 
spent ten weeks at Sta. Barbara and the neighbourhood, thoroughly exploring 
the coast for fifteen miles as far as Sta. Bonadventura. It was here, at the 
“ Rincon,” after a violent southern storm, that he obtained the specimens of 
Livona picoides, as well as many other rare species that have not been obtained 
by any other explorer. ‘The storm tore up the kelp to such a degree that 
it formed a bank for many miles on the beach, from 10 to 20 feet broad, and 
at least 4 feet deep. Many of the plants were more than 60 feet long and 5 
inches in diameter, having the appearance of vast cables.” Before his return 
to the east, he also collected at Mazatlan (where he obtained some species 
not included in the B. M. Catalogue) and at Acapuleo. There can be no 
doubt of the accuracy of the Colonel’s observations at the time they were 
made. Unsurpassed in America asa field-paleoutologist, possessed of accurate 


21 


. 


536 REPORT— 1863. 


discrimination, abundant carefulness, and unwearied diligence and patience, 
no one was better fitted to collect materials for a scientific survey of the coast. 
But, unfortunately for his (as for the Nuttallian) shells, he did not describe them 
at the time himself. They were subjected to all the derangements caused by 
frequent changes of residence, and transmission to various naturalists for 
identification. As we know what errors creep into the collections of the 
most learned under such circumstances, it is not surprising that they should 
now have lost much of their geographical value. After several days spent 
| in a very searching elimination of the west-coast shells from his general col- 
| lection, I was driven to the conclusion that several labels had become mis- 
placed. This was so clearly the case as to certain N. England and W. Indian 
species interchanged with Pacific specimens, that it might also affect. (e. g.) 
i | Sta. Barbara and Panama specimens as compared with each other. The kelp 


| driven up by the great storm may have travelled from remote localities ; which 
i will account for tropical shells having been found at Sta. Barbara, as W. 
Indians-occasionally are even on our own shores. It is possible also, as the 


Californian seas have as yet been but little dredged, that deep-water species 
? live there which as yet are known only in the tropical province. Already 
some Gulf species have been thus obtained at San Diego and Catalina Island 
! by Dr. Cooper, just as Mr. M‘Andrew dredged Mediterranean species on the 
coast of Norway. But facts of such importance should rest on better evidence 
than chance shells picked on a beach, and subjected to dangers of altered 
labels afterwards. What was regarded by Dr. Gould as of authority is cata- 
logued, according to his determinations of species, on pp. 226-231 of the first 
Report. The following is a list of the species which I found in the collection’, 
divided simply into the temperate and the tropical faunas. 





SS 


Species of the Temperate Fauna, collected by Col. Jewett t. 


= 





i Pholadidea penita, ovoidea. Tapes staminea, tenerrima*. 
i Saxicava pholadis. Saxidomus squalidus. 
‘ | Schizotheirus Nuttallii. Petricola carditoides. 
a Cryptomya Californica. Rupellaria lamellifera. 
| Lyonsia Californica. Lazaria subquadrata *f. 
i | Solen ?sicarius, var. rosaceus *f, Chama pellucida. 
Macheera patula. Lucina Californica. 
; Solecurtus Californianus, subteres, Diplodonta orbella. 
H | Macoma nasuta, secta. Mytilus Californianus, edulis. 
Hl | Lutricola alta. Modiola modiolus, recta, fornicata*f. 
Semele decisa, rubrolineata. Leda ceelata. 
| Donax Californicus, flexuosus*, Pecten hastatus, latiauritus, (Pventrico- 
i | Standella ?Californica. sus, var.) equisulcatus*}, squarro- 
i Trigona crassatelloides, sus *t, paucicostatus *f. 
i | Psephis tantilla*. Amusium caurinum, jun. 
Amiantis callosa. Hinnites giganteus. 
Chione succincta, fluctifraga, simillima. | Bulla nebulosa. 
. * This collection belongs to his daughter, Mrs. Boyce, of Utica, N.Y. The Colonel’s 
invaluable collection of U. S. Paleozoic fossils (probably the largest made by any indivi- 





dual’s own hand) may be consulted at the State Museum in Albany, and will probably 
find its ultimate destination at one of the principal colleges. A large number of the 
fossils described by Prof. Hall were from this collection, though often without acknow- 
ledgment. Only a small proportion of the types of the celebrated ‘ Paleontology’ are 
to be found in the State Collection, which was subjected to disastrous and very extensive 
curtailment before Col. J. entered on his present duties as curator. 

* These species and marked varieties were first found by Col. J. 

+ Of these forms, either not seen or not distinguished by Dr. Gould, the diagnoses are 
written, and will probably be found in one of the scientific periodicals for 1864. 

~ Unless otherwise stated in the list, Report, pp. 228-281, it may be presumed that 
these species were from the neighbourhood of Sta. Barbara. 

22 














ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST 


Tornatina cerealis*, culcitella*. 

Cylichna (?cylindracea, var.) attonsa *f. 

Volvula cylindrica *f. 

Cryptochiton Stelleri. 

Mopalia muscosa. 

Nacella incessa, paleacea®. 

Acma patina, pelta, persona, scabra, 
spectrum, Asm. 

Scurria mitra. 

Fissurella volcano. 

Glyphis densiclathrata. 

Halotis Cracherodii, rufescens,splendens. 

Phasianella(?compta,vars. )punctulata*f, 
pulloides*}, elatior*T. 

Pomaulax undosus. 

Trochiscus Norrisii, convexus*f. 

Calliostoma canaliculatum, costatum, 

Livona picoides *. 

Homalopoma sanguineum. 

Chlorostoma funebrale, Pfeifferi. 

Crucibulum spinosum. 

Crepidula adunca, dorsata, rugosa. 

Hipponyx tumens *f. 

Serpulorbis squamigerus. 

Bittium esuriens*f, fastigiatum *f. 

Cerithidea sacrata. 

Litorina planaxis, scutellata. 

Amphithalamus inclusus*ft. 

Lacuna unifasciata*, 

Radius variabilis. 

Luponia spadicea: Trivia Californica, 

Erato columbella, vitellina. 


537 


COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 


Drillia inermis, mcesta*}. 

Daphnella filosa *+. 

Mangelia variegata *t, angulata*f. 

Myurella simplex *f. 

Conus Californicus. 

Odostomia gravida*, inflata*t. 

Chemnitzia tenuicula *, torquata* (et 
Pvar. stylina *f), virgo *t, aurantia *t, 
crebrifilata *, tridentata *7. 

Dunkeria laminata *f. 

Eulima Thersites *7. 

Opalia bullata *f. 

Lunatia Lewisil. 

Cerithiopsis ? tuberculata, 
purpurea *f. 

Marginella Jewettii *, Ppolita, regula- 
ris *}, subtrigona *t. 

(Volvarina varia, serrata; perhaps im- 
ported, or label changed.) 

Olivella biplicata, beetica + [ =petiolita, 
Gld.,+-anazora, Gld., MS. (non Ducl.) 
=rufifasciata, teste Cum., by error]. 

Purpura crispata, saxicola. 

Nitidella Gouldii *. 

Ocinebra Poulsoni. 

Pteronotus festivus. 

Columbella carinata, Hindsii. 

Amycla ?Californiana, gausapata, tubes 
rosa *f. 

Nassa perpinguis, mendica. 

PAnachis penicillata *f. 

Siphonalia fuscotincta *f. 


fortior *f, 


Species of the Tropical Fauna, collected by Col. Jewett *. 


Pholas crucigera { = lanceolata]. 

Dactylina laqueata. 

Corbula bicarinata, biradiata, nasuta, 
tenuis, ovulata §, nuciformis §. 

Sanguinolaria miniata *§. 

Psammobia casta. 

Tellina felix, puella*, punicea, “ ru- 
bella.” 

Heterodonax bimaculatus et vars. §. 

Strigilla carnaria (white and red vars.)§ 
pisiformis§, sincera. 

Semele pulchra §, venusta §. 

Iphigenia altior. 

Donax transyersus, navicula, gracilis, 
carinatus, rostratus §, punctatostria- 
tus §, v. celatus §, assimilis. 

Mulinia angulata. 

Harvella elegans. 

Trigona planulata ||, Hindsii §. 

Dezinia Dunkeri. 


Callista aurantia, chionza, circinata §, 
tortuosa, lupinarial|, rosea||, v. puellas. 

Chione amathusia, sugillata, neglecta. 

Anomalocardia subimbricata, subrugosa. 

Tapes grata,+ vars. discors, fuscolineata. 

Petricola pholadiformis, var. 

Crassatella gibbosa. 

Venericardia laticostata, radiata. 

Lazaria affinis. 

Chama frondosa, spinosa. 

Cardium consors §, senticosum, proces 
rum, obovale. 

Hemicardium biangulatum §, graniferum. 

Liocardium apicinum §. 

Codakia tigerrina ||]. 

Lucina eburnea §, excavata §, pectinata. 

Felania tellinoides §, var. 

Modiola Brasiliensis, capax. 

Lithophagus aristatus. 

Arca grandis, tuberculosa. 


* Unless otherwise specified, either by §, ||, or locality-marks in Rep. pp. 228-231, 
these species may be presumed to have come from the Panama district. 
§ These species were probably from Acapulco. 


|| Probably from Mazatlan. 


“| Another specimen, 3°78 in. across, is marked “ Sta. Barbara” on the shell, 


23 





——— EO << CS—~;3<~<~<~ YPté<C; 





538 REPORT—1863. 


Scapharca bifrons *, emarginata, labiata, 
nux, 

Noétia reversa. 

Byssoarca Pacifica, mutabilis. 

Barbatia alternata, aviculoides, gradata, 
iota, solida. 

Pectunculus Aneequalis, maculatus, par- 
cipictus §, ?pectinoides §. 

Leda I lenensis, polita. 

Pinna maura, tuberculosa. 

Avicula sterna. 

Bryophila setosa *. 

Isognomon Chemnitzianum, 

Pecten v entricosus, subnodosus §. 

Lima aneulata §. 

Spondylus calcifer, 

Ostrea palmula, 

Anomia lampe. 

Bulla Adamsi, Quoyi §. 

Siphonaria gigas, ‘lecanium § et vars. 
maura, palmata §, 

Patella Mexicana. 

Acmiea mesoleuca, mitella, vernicosa. 

Fissurella rugosa, nigropunctata, Pma- 
crotrema §. 

Glyphis ineequalis, alta. 

Phasianella perforata. 

Callopoma saxosum. 

Senectus squamigerus §, 

Uvanilla inermis. 

Calliostoma lima, Leanum §. 

Tegula pellis-serpentis. 

Oiphalius Panamensis, coronulatus *, 
Lgulatus ||, viridulus. 

Nerita Bernhardi, scabricosta. 

Neritina picta, Guay aquile nsis, interme- 
dia [ “ =elobosa, Brod. pls 

Crue ibulum imbricatum, spinosum, wn- 
brella, radiatum, pectinatum *, corru< 
gatum *, 

Galerus conic us, es 

Crepidula ac suleata §, excavata, incurva. 

Tlipponyx barbatus, G one 

Aletes centiquadrus. 

Vermetus eburneus. 

Bivonia contorta, albida. 

Petaloconchus macrophragma. 

Turritella goniostoma. 

Cerithium maculosum, uncinatum, me- 
diolieve, interruptum, alboliratum. 

Rhinoclavis gemmata. 

Cerithidea Montagnei, varicosa. 

Litorina aspera, conspersa, Philippii. 

Modulus catenulatus, ?disculus. 

Rissoina firmata*, fortis*, expansa *+||, 
stricta §, Janus *, Woodwardii ||, 

Planaxis nigritella, planicostata, 

Radius avena §, similis. 

Carinea emarginata, jun. 

Aricia punctulata. 

Trivia pustulata, pula, Pacifica§, 


y) 


~ 


Erato scabriuscula §, Maugerie. 
Strombus galeatus, eracilior, g eranulatus, 
Terebra robusta. 

Kuryta fulgurata, aciculata §. 

Pletrotoma funiculata. 

Drillia albovallosa, aterrima, ?exarata §, 
incrassata, nigerrima, rudis, hexagona, 
Peracillima, var. 

Mangelia subdiaphana §, 
cerea *}, ? pulchella. 

Cithara stromboides§ |? =triticea, Kien. |. 

Daphnella casta §. 

Conus gladiator, mahogani, nux, purpue 
rascens, regularis. 

Solarium granulatum. 

Torinia variegata. 

Obeliscus achates *}]. 

e hemnitzia ceelata *f. 

Scalaria Hindsii *. 

Alora Gouldii *. 

Cancellaria bulbulus, clavatula, decus- 
sata, goniostoma, tessellata, mitrifor- 
mis. 

Natica maroccana et vars., Souleyetiana, 
zonaria §, catenata §. 

Polinices otis, uber. 

Neverita patula §, 

Ficula ventricosa. 

Malea ringens. 

Bezoardica abbreviata. 

Levenia coarctata. 

Persona ridens {? = ] constrictus. 

Triton lignarius, tigrinus, ? pileare, jun, 

Priene nodosa. 

Ranella czelata, nitida, triquetra, pyra- 
midalis [like anceps and producta, 
Rve. }. 

Fasciolaria granosa, tulipa, jun. [? ime 
ported }. 

Latirus castaneus, 
culatus. 

Leucozonia cingulata. 

Mitra lens, funiculata, nucleola. 

Strigatella tristis. 

Lyria harpa. 

Marginella cserulescens, polita (?§). 

Persicula imbricata §. 

Volvarina triticea §, varia§, serratas, fus- 
ca § {some of these are assigned to Sta. 
Barbara. West Indian specimens may 
have been intermixed: vide Cape St. 
Lucas list, efra). 

Oliva angulata, porphyria. 

Olivella anazora, gracilis §, inconspicua, 
semistriata, tergina, volutella, zona:is, 
Zanoéeti. 

Agaronia testacea, 

Harpa crenata. 

Purpura biserialis, melo, patula, triangue 
laris, friscetian 

Cuma tecta, kiosquiformis, 


4 


hamata *f, 


ceratus, rudis, tubers 





FA 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 539 


Rhizocheilus nux. 

Vitularia salebrosa. 

Ocinebra erinaceoides. 

Monoceros brevidentatum. 

Sistrum carbonarium §. 

Nitidella eribraria. 

Columbella festiva, fuscata, labiosa, 
major, Reevei *§, uncinata §, ? mille- 
punctata, var.§ 

Conella coniformis. 

Truncaria modesta. 

Nassa collaria*, corpulenta, crebristri- 
ata, luteostoma, pagodus, scabrius- 
cula, tegula, versicolor, complanata, 
Stimpsoniana *, nodicincta, 

Phos gaudens. 


This list, of about 133 species from the northern and 828 from the 
southern fauna (nearly twice as large as that sent by Dr. Gould and printed 
in the first Report, and yet not containing several species there quoted), is an 
instructive instance of what may be accomplished in about three-quarters of 
a year, simply by picking up shore-shells. It contains about 48 species in 
the northern and 22 in the southern faunas not previously described. 

Besides the recent shells, Col. Jewett brought home a very interesting 
series of Pliocene fossils from the neighbourhood of Sta. Barbara. Almost all 
of them are species known to inhabit neighbouring seas, and are chiefly 
northern forms. Of some no recent specimens have yet been found in such 
perfect condition. The following is a list of the species, which is of the more 
value as they have not been intermixed with those of any other locality, and 
the spot does not seem to have been discovered by any succeeding geological 
explorer. It was two miles from the coast, and 150 feet high. 


Schizotheirus Nuttallii. Chrysallida, sp.* 
Mactra planulata. ee (? crenatoides, var.) insculpta ¥ 
Chione succincta *. n. 

Pachydesma crassatelloides, Tauneeia Lewisii. 
Psephis tantilla, ?salmonea. Natica clausa f. 
Rupellaria lamellifera. Priene Oregonensis f. 
Cardium graniferum *, Olivella biplicata. 
Venericardia v. ventricosa Te Columbella carinata. 
Lucina Californica. Amycla gausapata. 
Peéten floridus * 5,  tuberosa, n. s 
Hinnites giganteus. ?Truncaria corrugata. 
Planorbis, sp. Nassa fossata. 
Calliostoma costatum. » mendica. 


Pyrula patula. 

Engina Reeviana, crocostoma. 

Anachis Californica*§, coronata, costel- 
lata, fluctuata, lyrata, nigricans, parva, 
pygmeea, diminuta *, rugosa, varia. 

Strombina bicanalifera, gibberula, re- 
curva. 

Pisania gemmata, insignis, pagodus, 
ringens, sanguinolenta. 

Northia pristis. 

Clavella distorta. 

Murex recurvirostris, [P=] nigrescens 
(Cum.). 

Muricidea alveata§, dubia, vibex, “ pin- 
niger, Brod.” 


Margarita pupilla F. 

Omphalius aureotinctus, 

Galerus fastigiatus f. 

Crepidula ¢ erandis + + [Midd.,=princeps, 
Conr., 3 ‘5 inches long]. 

Crepidula adunca. 

* navicelloides. 
Tuwrritella Jewettii, n, s. 
Bittium rugatum, n. s. 

»  armillatum, n. s, 
»  filosum +. 
Lacuna solidula ft. 


* These species are of a southern type. 
t These forms rank 
fauna. 


Purpura crispata. . 

Ocinebra lurida. 

Trophon tenuisculptust, Pn. s. [may 
prong identical with 7. fimbrratula, 

A. Ad., Japan]. 

Trophon Orpheus Te 

Fusus ambustus. 

Pisania fortis *, n. s. 

Chrysodomus carinatus +, Brit. 
[ probably =despectus, var. }. 

Chrysodomus tabulatus, } jun.f, n. 3 


3 dirus f. 


Mus. 


with the northern series. The rest belong to the present Californian 


25 








540 | REPORT—1863. 


The following fossils were also col- | Tellina congesta, Conr. Monterey. 
tected by Col. Jewett :— Scalaria: can scarcely be distinguished 
Purpura crispata | San Francisco, 160 ft. from planicostata, Kien., in Brit. Mus. 

» _ ostrina above the Bay. (?=Grelandica) : Panama, 


The collections of Major Rich, having been tabulated by Dr. Gould simply 
as from Upper or Lower California, I had expected to find of but little geo- 
graphical value, They proved, however, to be of peculiar interest. Major 

ich had been one of the naturalists in the U. 8. Expl. Exp., and his warlike 
occupations did not prevent his remaining long enough at particular stations 
to pay close attention to the Molluscs. His forte lay in procuring shells in 
the best possible condition; and a study of them was very serviceable in 
explaining the dead shore-shells usually obtained from other sources. For- 
tunately, he was quite aware of the importance of geographical accuracy, and 
arranged those obtained at different places in separate drawers. The ‘* Upper 
Californian ” collections were made at Monterey, San Francisco, San Diego, 
and San Pedro; the “ Lower Californian,” in the Gulf, principally at La 
Paz, partly at San Jose and Mazatlan. At the latter place he met M. 
teigen, who had filled his house with decomposing molluscs to such an ex- 
tent as to induce the neighbours to have recourse to the police. From him he 
obtained many species not in the Brit. Mus. Cat., and probably sent to Europe 
in the Havre collection. Major Rich’s beautiful series may be consulted at 
his residence, opposite the British Legation, Washington, D.C.; and are 
designed ultimately for one of the public museums in the neighbourhood. 
The following is a list of the species :— 


Shells collected by Major Rich, from the Californian Fauna. 





Pholadidea ovoidea ! 2. 

Parapholas Californica’. (The young is 
very acuminate, with imbricated cups, 
as in P. calva.) 

Netastoma Darwinii 1. 

Saxicava pholadis '%, 

Platyodon cancellatus *. 

Schizotheirus Nuttalli*. 

Cryptomya Califcrnica +, 

Thracia curta |. 

Lyonsia Californica 1‘. 

Mytilimeria Nuttalli’, (Very fine, with 
ossicle. ) 

Solen sicarius *. 

Macheyra patula’. 

Solecurtus Californianus %, 

Sanguinolaria Nuttalli +. 

Psammobia rubroradiata }. 

Macoma nasuta ', secta 14, 

Scrobicularia alta 4. 

Semele decisa +, 

Cumingia Californica 1. 

Donax Californicus !. 

Mactra Californica |. 

Pachydesma crassatelloides ? 4, 

Amiantis callosa +. 

Chione succincta ‘4. 


Tapes staminea et vars.'?4, lacini- 
ata? * 

Petricola carditoides !. 

Rupellaria lamellifera + 

Chama Buddiana +. 

Cardium Nuttalli 4. 

Lucina Californica }. 

Diplodonta orbella 4. 

Kellia Laperousii 1. 

Mytilus Californianus!, edulis’, v. glome- 
ratus *4, 

Septifer bifurcatus 1, 

Modiola modiolus 1. 

Lithophagus attenuatus 1. 

Adula faleata !*, 

Pecten v. eequisulcatus +, monotimeris +. 

Hinnites giganteus*. 

Placunanomia macroschisma }. 

Bulla nebulosa 4. 

Katherina tunicata 1. 

Mopalia muscosa !, Hindsii ', 

Nacella incessa. 2. 

Acmea persona *, pelta ?, spectrum?, sca- 
bra”, et var. limatula +’. 

Lottia gigantea %, 

Scurria mitra 2. 

Fissurella ornata 4 2, 


' Monterey. Fresh specimens of seven species from the southern fauna were also 
obtained at Monterey, probably from commerce. 


2 San Diego. 3 San Francisco. 


4 Near San Pedro. 


* These species wore first found by Major Rich. 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST 


Glyphis densiclathrata ?. 

Lucapina crenulata! (one spec. Catalina 
Is.). 

Haliotis rufescens!*, Cracherodii ! 4, 
Kamtschatkana ! 4, 

Pomaulax undosus +. 

Trochiscus Norrisii? (and Catalina Is.). 

Calliostoma canaliculatum!, annula- 
tum !, costatum !. 

Omphalius fuscescens *. 

Chlorostoma funebrale!, brunneum }, 
Pfeitteri }. 

Crucibulum spinosum ?. 


Shells collected by Major Rich, near La 


(Thracia) Cyathodonta plicata. 

Sanguinolaria miniata. 

Tellina Cumingii. 

Strigilla carnaria. 

Heterodouax bimaculatus. 

Iphigenia altior. 

Donax navicula, punctato-str., rostratus. 

Standella fragilis (common). 

Mulinia angulata. 

Trigona argentina, radiata, planulata. 

Dosinia ponderosa. 

Callista concinna, chionza. 

Chione succincta, amathusia, gnidia, 
pulicaria, var. 

Anomalocardia subimbricata. 

Tapes grata, histrionica. 

Lazaria Californica. 

Chama spiuosa, producta, corrugata. 

Cardium consors, biangulatum. 

Liocardium elatum. 

Codakia tigerrina (two fine specimens). 

Cyrena olivacea, Mexicigia. 

Anodonta glauca. 

Mytilus multiformis, 

Modiola capax. 

Arca multicostata. 

Barbatia Reeviana, solida, 

Pectunculus giganteus. 

Pinna rugosa. 

Margaritophora fimbriata. 

Jsognomon Chemnitzianum, 

Pecten ventricosus, subnodosus. 

Lima tetrica *. 

Janira dentata. 

Ostrea amara (Maz. Cat. 215. Is. Cres- 
tona, entrance of Gulf), Virginica 
(more pearly than the Atlantic shells, 
teste Rich). 

Anomia lampe. 

Bulimus sufflatus *, excelsus *, pallidior. 

Physa elata *, aurantia, 

Patella Mexicana. 

Acmea atrata, mesoleuca. 

Fissurella rugosa, virescens, 

Glyphis alta, inequalis, 


COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. BAL 


Crepidula rugosa, adunca?, explanata?, 
Hipponyx ?antiquatus?, Ptumens}, 
Serpulorbis squamigerus *, 
Spiroglyphus lituella ? *, 

Litorina planaxis }. 

Trivia Californica !. 

Conus Californicus *, 

Ranella Californica +, 

O.ivella biplicata ', beetica 1. 

Purpura, vars. ostrina?, emarginata}, 
Cerostoma Nuttallit. 

Nassa mendica 1, perpingius 1, fossata‘, 
Helix, three sp. 


Paz (west shore of the Gulf of Cal.), 


Haliotis splendens (three fresh specimens 
from a resident at San Jose). 

Callopoma fluctuosum. 

Uvanilla olivacea. 

Omphalius rugosus, coronulatus, 

Nerita scabricosta, Bernhardi. 

Neritina picta. 

Crucibulum spinosum, imbricatum, pec= 
tinatum, umbrella. 

Galerus mamillaris, conicus. 

Crepidula aculeata, onyx, nivea, ungui- 
formis, arenata. 

Hipponyx Grayanus, 
quatus. 

Aletes centiquadrus. 

Spiroglyphus lituella (on Cr. wmbyrella). 

Turritella goniostoma, tigrina. 

Cerithiummaculosum,stercus muscarum, 

Cerithidea Montagnei. 

Litorina fasciata, conspersa. 

Modulus catenulatus, disculus. 

Cypreea exanthema, 

Aricia arabicula. 

Luponia Sowerbii, albuginosa. 

Trivia sanguinea, radians, Solandri, pus- 
tulata, Pacifica. 

Strombus granulatus, gracilior. 

Ewyta fulgurata. 

Pleurotoma funiculata, maculosa. 

Drillia ?inermis. : 

Conus puncticulatus, gladiator, purpu- 
rascens, regularis, arcuatus, nux. 

Solarium granulatum, v. quadriceps. 

Cancellaria obesa, cassidiformis, solida, 
goniostoma, candida. 

Natica maroccana, zonaria. 

Polinices Recluziana, bifasciata, ctis. 

Neverita patula. 

Sigaretus debilis. 

Oniscia tuberculosa, 

Levenia coarctata. 

Bezoardica abbreviata. 

Priene nodosa. 

Turbinella ceestus, 

Vasciolaria princeps, 


serratus, anti- 


27 














542 REPORT—1863. 


Leucozonia cingulata. 

Mitra lens. 

Oliva porphyria, Melchersi, Cumingil, 
subangulata. 

Olivella tergina, gracilis, volutella (seve- 
ral taken alive). 

Agaronia testacea. 

Purpura patula, biserialis, triangularis, 
muricata, planospira f. 

Nitidella cribraria. 

Columbella fuscata, var. 

Conella cedo-nulli. 





Nassa luteostoma, scabriuscula, corpa- 
lenta. 

Pyrula patula. 

Fusus Dupetithouarsii. 

Siphonalia pallida. 

Strombina (? new, deep water, San 
Jose). 

Pisania sanguinolenta, insignis. 

Murex plicatus, recurvirostris. 

Phyllonotus nigritus, brassica, princeps, 
bicolor. 

Muricidea dubia. 





Lieut. Green having been obliged to pack up his collection and leave home 
on professional duty, [ was not able to make any critical examination of it, 
Capt. Dupont also, of Delaware, was one of the ‘‘ Mexican-war naturalists,” 
and made a large collection of La Paz shells during his campaign ; but I had 
no opportunity of seeing them. 

Dr. Gould notes the following corrections in Lieut. Green’s list, pp. 231= 
234 :— 

Semele flavicans should be flavescens. | Donax abruptus should be obesus. 

50. Kellett and Wood.—The locality-marks, on further study, display still 
greater inaccuracies. 

Nassa Woodwardii, Fbs., Sandwich Islands [is the adolescent state of a very abun- 
dant Vancouver and Californian shell, = N. mendica, Gd. }. 

Nassa Cooperi, Fbs., Sandwich Islands. [The type is immature and in poor con- 
dition; but it is a rare Californian species, since found by Dr. Cooper. | 

Trochita spirata {has not been confirmed from Gulf Cal., but appears in Brit. Mus. 
from St. Vincent, Cape Verd Is., on the excellent authority of Macgillivray, who 
did not visit the West Coast. The Cumingian specimens were from K. and W.; 
but the “ sp¢rata, var.,” from Magellan and Peru, are simply turrited forms of 7. 
radians \. 

Chlorostoma aureotincta [=C. nigerrima (Gmel.), Mus. Cum. ; but it is unlikely 
that Gmelin knew the species. It is not quoted by Desh. (Lam. ix. 157): but 
the Trochus in fauce nigerrimus, Chemn. f. 1526, = T. melanostomus, Gmel., is a 
Risella. | 

Margarita purpurata et Hillit [are South American shells]. 

Purpura analoga [is the rough irregular form of P. canaliculata=decemcostata |. 

»  fuscata, Fbs. i which one brown and one whitish specimen (immature) 
are preserved in the Brit. Mus. as types, is the large, smooth, rather elevated var. 

of saxicola. It belongs to the Vancouver district }. 

Purpura, like decem-costatus and Freycinetit {is the normal state of saxicola, The 
banded smooth var. is named in Brit. Mus. “? Bue. striatum, Martyn, Un, 
Conch. no. 7,” but does not agree with the figure ]. 

Lusus Kellettii. [This Siphonalia, after long remaining unique in the Brit. Mus. 
Col., has been twice contirmed from the San Diegan district by the Smithsonian 
collectors. Dr. Cooper’s living specimen is 6:25 in. long; and -one specimen 
was dredged by A. Ad. in the seas of South Japan. | 
51. Reigen.—The type collection, presented to the Brit. Mus., contains 

about 8900 specimens. The first duplicate series, containing about 6000 

shells, was presented to the State of New York at the urgent request of 

Dr. Newcomb (well known for his researches in Achatinella, made during his 

professional residence im the Sandwich Islands), and is arranged in the Albany 

Museum. Three other typical series were prepared for the Museums of 

Paris, Berlin, and St. Petersburg, and offered on the same terms, viz. that 

they should be arranged by the author, and preserved intact for the tree use 

t Dead shells at La Paz; two fresh specimens in deep water from San Jose; ditto, 
Lieut. Green, 

28 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 543 


of students; but the donations were severally declined by the respective 
governmenis. They have since been offered to the Museums of Harvard 
University, Cambridze, Mass.; M‘Gill University, Montreal, C. E.; and the 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.; and accepted on the same con- 
ditions *. The writer of the Brit. Mus. Catalogue spared no pains in his 
endeavours to verify the previously described species of Prof. C. B. Adams; 
yet a subsequent comparison of types has developed very unexpected coinci- 
dences. Those who will take the trouble to compare the two diagnoses in the 
synonyms now given will add one to the many proofs of the uncertainty of 
the senses in observation, and the inaccuracy of language in description. The 
following corrections and additions should be made to the list in the British 
Association Report, pp. 243-264. 


18. Parapholas acuminata is united to P. calva by Tryon, Mon. Phol. 

23. The specimens obta’ned from Madagascar by Sir E. Belcher in the Voy. Sa- 
marang appear absolutely identical. 

24. Petricola robusta. The West Indian form of this species is the Choristodon 
typicum of Jonas; Mus, Cum. 

35. Sphenia fragilis is perhaps 8. hiticola, Val. 

38. Solecurtus politus ? = S. Carpenteri, Diy. 

40. Should be Semele flavescens, Gld. 

41. Semele ?venusta should be S. bicolor, C. B. Ad. Panama. C.S. Lucas. 

46. Should be Sangucnolaria miniata, Gld., as in first Report. 

48. Should be Tellina purpurea, Brod. & Sby., teste type in Mus. Hanl. 

49. =T. pura, Gld., nom. prior. 

54. Quite distinct from Tellina alternata, Say. 

56. Tellina ?eburnea proves to be the type of a new generic form, probably 
belonging to Kelliade, viz. Cycladella papyracea. A perfect specimen, since 
found, is in Mr. Hanley’s collection. 

65. Telhidora Burneti is not L. cristata: v. antea, p. 528. 

66. =Strigilla fucata, Gld. (not maniata). Specimens received from different 
stations on the Pacific Coast vary very greatly in colour and markings. 

68. The fragment of “?? Psammobia” is perhaps part of a Lepas-valve. 

71 and 72. The names of these shells have been altered and re-altered in Mus. 
Cuming, as will be seen by comparing Brit. Mus. Maz. Cat., p. 43, with the 
note, p. 548, and with the present arrangement. Mr. Hanley states that 
no. 72, D. culminatus, Cpr., is his true carinatus ; therefore 71, D. carinatus, 
Cpr., and of most collections, must stand as D.rostratus, C. B. Ad., teste type- 
valve in Mus. Amherst. The two species uniformly retain their dis- 
tinctive characters. 

78. Should be Mactrella exroleta= Lutraria ventricosa, Gld., from type. 

81. Should be Gnathodon mendicus, Gld. 

83. T. Hindsit is distinct, teste Hanl. 

85. T. argentata, Sby., 1855,=T. equilatera, Desh., 1839. 

92-99. The generic name should be Callista. 


* A few of the duplicate sets having been sent in exchange to one of the principal 
scientific dealers, he advertises a list of species in which he not merely alters the nomen- 
clature, giving ‘‘ Monoceros” cingulatum, “ Pollia” insignis (with “ Pisania”’ gemmata), 
“ Trochus” olivaceus (with “ Imperator” unguis), “ Cerithium” montagui (for Cerithidea 
Montagnet), Cytherea “ dione” (for Dione lupinaria), “ Astarte” Dunkeri, “ Cytherea” 
Columbiensis, &c., but inserts Californian species (‘“‘ Ziziphinus filosus,’ “ Cardium 
Nutali”’) as though from the Gulf, and adds others not known at all in the West Coast 
faunas, as “ Columbella levigata,’ “ Patella plumbea,” and “ Chiton reticulata.’ All 
these, with such shells as Oliva Cumingii, which belong to other regions on the Mexi- 
can coast, would be accredited by the reader on the supposed authority of “ Carpenter’s 
Catalogue.” In these times it appears that naturalists must be content to resemble the 
dealers in patent medicines, and guard the accuracy of their works! With regard to the 
Mazatlan collections (now scarce), none can be trusted unless they present an ualrokea 
seal, with the initials of the author, 

29 





















































BAA REPORT— 1863. 


98. Callista alternata has avery different aspect from the ordinary C. circinata; but 
several of the Pacific shells affiliate more naturally to the West Indian form. 
99. C. affinis, C. tortuosa, and C. concinna appear to be one species. ; 

100. Sir E. Belcher is confident that he dredged C. petechiulis, in deep water, off S. 
Blas. He has the same confidence in regard to some of the Kast Indian 
Circes. At this distance of time, a written locality-ticket would have had 
more authority. 

105. The hinge proves that this species is distinct from the true V. crenifera, Sby. 
It has been named V. sugillata by Rve., Conch. Ic. sp. 43. It was also 
brought by Kellett and Wood, and is allied to V. pulicaria. 

110. Among the Panama varieties of this very variable species is Venus fuscolineata. 
T. grata takes the place of the Californian 7. staminea, which is sometimes 
erroneously given as a synonym, and is not straminea, as often quoted. 

116. It appears that Gouldia (Thetis, C. B. Ad., olim, non Sby. nec H. & A. Ad.) is 
congeneric with “ Circe” minima, not with the Astartids. Prof. Adams’s 
fresh specimens of his G. Pacifica prove to have the Crassatelloid internal 
ligament, and represent one of the many remarkable forms of that group. 

117. Fresh specimens of G. varians, from Cape St. Lucas, have also the internal 
ligament, and must rank under Crassated/a until that genus has been naturally 
divided. 

118. Lazaria Californica. A well-marked group of species from the West Coast. 

121. The purple and orange specimens, here treated as the adolescent state of Chama 
Mexicana, are certainly the Ch. echinata of collections, and may possibly 
prove a distinct species. A large series sent from Socoro Is. by Mr. Xantus 
confirms this view; but all the specimens seen are decorticated or incrusted. 

121. This is the Chama Buddiana of C. B. Ad., and probably distinct. 

134. The specimens of Cardium graniferum in Mus. Cum., from St. Thomas, W. L, 
appear exactly identical. 

136. The specimens from the Pacific coast, some of which are of very large size, 
have generally a red tinge round the inner margin; as have also the Fiji 
specimens brought by the U. S. Expl. Exp. In other respects they exactly 
accord with the W. Indian. The Pacitic shells are generally called C 
exasperata, Rve., a name first given to the rough Caribbean variety from 
Honduras, &e. 

137. Codakia punctata. This shell also, brought by the U. 8. Expl. Exp. from the 
Fiji Is., is found sparingly along the American shores, and has the same 
coloured margin. 

142. May possibly prove identical with Z. bella, Conr., 8. Diego. 

150. The Lucina orbella of Gould, = Spherella tumida, Conr., MS., is the northern 
form; uniformly larger and smoother than Diplodonta semiaspera. This 
last is fully confirmed from both oceans. 

152. “ Felania” serricata appears congeneric with Miltha, H. & A. Ad.,= Mittrea, 
Gray, the type of which (JZ. Childreni) is a Gulf species. 

154. Lasea rubra. Myr. J. G. Jeffreys does not consider the Brit. Mus. specimen 
identical with the British. The Mediterranean specimens are much more 
unlike. A colony of fresh shells from a burrow at Cape St. Lucas, when 
examined, under the microscope, side by side with Ilfracombe specimens, did 
not present even varietal differences. The species also appears on the Cali- 
fornian and Japan coasts. Similar and perhaps conspecitic forms are 
found on most coasts: among them is Poronia Petitiana, Chen. Conch. Ill. 
p- 2, pl. 1. f. 2; Callao, not rare, Pett. 

156. For this species, corbulordes, and other angular forms, the name Bornia may 
be revived in a restricted sense. (A. Ad. 

157, 158. Mr. A. Adams, who is about to make the Kelliads a special study, thinks 
that these intermediate forms would rank better with Montacuta or Tellinya 

166. This is almost certainly = Anodonta glauca, Val. 

168. Dr. Dunker renamed this shell M. Adamsianus, P. Z.S. Nov. 1856. 

177. The subgenus Adwa may be enlarged to include this and other nestling 
? Lithophagt, which often adhere by byssus, like Modiola. 

178. Liosolenus is quite distinct from Mytilimeria, which appears simply an aber- 
rant form of Lyonsia. Other “ Lithophagi”’ probably rank with it. 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 5A5 


186. Arca senilis is from W. Africa not“. Indies”): one of the many representative 
species between the two West Coasts. 

185. Noétia reversa, Gray. 

186. Argina brevifrons, Sby. 

188. This is the young of Barbatia alternata. 

191-195 belong to the group Barbatia. 

193. =Barbatia Tabogensis, from type. 

203. The young of this shell is Avzcuda libella, Rve. Dr. Gould protests against 
some of the interpretations here given to his views. 

204. The W. American pearl-oyster should stand as M. fimbriata, Dkr. It has 
been redescribed as JZ. barbata, Rve. 

212. Dr. Gould protests against the Pacific shells being regarded as 0. Virginica. 
Mr. Hanley adheres to his original opinion. Fossils sent from the Sand- 
wich Is. by Mr. Pease (O. Sandwichensis, Pse.) appear scarcely to differ. 

214b. The O. palmula appears a distinct species. 

215. This species is identical with O. no. 384 of C. B. Ad. It may take the name 
of O. amara from its “ bitter flavour.” 

224. Bulla Adamsi=B. punctulata, C. B. Ad., non A. Ad. 

229. Haminea cymbiformis is closely allied to H. virescens, Shy. 

239, Siphonaria lecanium. SS. maura, Sby., is one of the varieties of this species. 
The S. palmata may prove distinct. S. ferruginea, Rve., is probably ae- 
scribed from the intermediate form. 

242. Tanthina striulata. Name given in ignorance of striolata, Ad. and Rye. ; and 
not needed, teste Rve. 

245. The Denialium hyalinum of Phil. is probably the young of D. senupolitum : 
this species is distinct. 

247. The Dent. pretiosum of Nutt. is a northern species ; this is most likely D. lac- 
teum, Phil. 

248-250. This typical group of Chitonids retains the Linnean name in Dr. Gray's 
arrangement; and as he first pointed out the generic distinctions in the 
family, his judgment is to be preferred. 


959-954, 256. These species belong to Ischnochiton, Gray. 

255. Lepidopleurus, Risso, has sculptured valves and scaly margin, and is probably 
synonymous with Lophyrus, H. and A. Ad, The name may be retained ter 
the “ Lophyroid ” Ischnochiton here described, the peculiarities of which have 
been confirmed by adult specimens in Mus. Cuming, and by other species. 

257. Chiton, H. and A. Ad.,=Acanthopleura (Guild.), Gray. 


ie 

62. = Nacella peltoides, n. s. (described from Cape St. Lucas specimens). 

3. The true Lottia pintadina of Gld. (teste figured types) consists entirely of 
varieties of A. patina. 

265. The “large flat shell” referred-to is Tecturella grandis, Gray, Brit. Assoc. Rep. 
1861, p. 1387. Tecturella is preoccupied by Stimps. Gr. Manan Invert. 2 
being needful to divide the old genus Acmea, Lottia may be used for this 
section. By reviving synonyms as sectional names, when a genus is divided, 
good names may be retained in a restricted sense, and the burden of a spu- 
rious nomenclature lessened. The species is Lottia gigantea (Sby. Gen.). 

269. Scutellina navicelloides, Cpr.,= Crepidula osculans, C. B. Ad. 

280. This should stand as Gadinia stellata, Sby., that name having been given to 
the normal form, Rep. pl. 7. f. 3a, of which pentegoniostoma, f. 3f, is only 
an accidental variety. 

282. Callopoma Fokkesii=tessellatum, Rve., is the Lower Californian form, and 
probably distinct. 

2835. = Turbo phasianella, C. B. Ad., non Melaraphe phasianella, Phil. 

289. The first name is 7. erimius, Rve., P. Z. S. 1842, p. 185; Mke.’s shell bearing 

F date 1850. It appears identical with “ Javanieus, Lam.,” in Mus. Cum., and 

is extremely like “ speciosus, Japan.” Trochus being now generally retained 
for the Niloticus group, which contains the largest forms, it is best to revive 
Swainson’s excellent name Calliostoma for the “ Ziziphinus ’group. A specific 
name should not be used for a genus, where a distinctive name has already 
been accurately described. 

1863. 

ol 














546 REPORT—1863. 


290. Culliostoma M*Andre@ is the normal state, of which C. Leanwm is the pale 
variety. 

292. Mr. Pee considers that 7. Byronianus represents a Polydonta from the Pacific 
Islands. 

313-316. The non-pearly Liotie ave Conradia, A. Ad. ‘ 

322, 323. Mr. A. Adams thinks that the “ Lthaha” amplectans is probably the 
young of “ Teinostoma” a., as suggested in Brit. Mus. Cat. p. 263. 

338. Crepidula adunca, Cpr. (non Sby.,=solida, Hds.,=rostriforms, Gld.). The 
tropical shell is C. wncata, Mke.,=C. rostrata, C. B. Ad., Rve. 

341. Should stand as C. squama: v. note on C. B, Ad. no. 351. 

354. Vermetus eburneus, Rve.,= V. ?glomeratus, C. B. Ad., non Lam. The note to 
Caecum, Brit. Mus. Cat. p. 314, should read:— Of a fourth group, Mezoceras, 
three species are known from the Caribbean Sea, one of which is fossil at 
Grignon. The earliest Cecid is the Eocene genus Strebloceras.” Vide 
Mon. Crecide in P. Z. 8. 1858, pp. 415-444. 

. Cerithiun irroratum, Gld. (teste type sp. in Mus. Smiths.), is a very distinct 
East Indian species, = C. obesum, Sby. sen. 

. This is not the C. interruptum of C. B. Ad., Sby., and Mus. Cum. (hodie), 
which latter is the roughened form of C. stereus muscarum, Val. C. Galla- 
paginis is the rough form of C. interruptum, Mie. 

389. Vertagus should be changed into Rhinoclavis, Swains.; v. note to 289. 

391-393. The genus Triforis should be removed to Cerithiopside. The true 
“ Triforis” infrequens of C. B. Ad. is a dextral shell, = Cerithiopsis tuber- 
culoides, no. 557. The shell here doubtfully affiliated is probably a variety 
of T. inconspicuns. 

898. Liturina Philippii=L. 2parvula, C. B. Ad:, non Phil.,=Z. dubiosa, C. B. Ad., 
nom. prov. 

899. = Litorina pullata, Cpy.; described from Cape St. Lucas specimens. 

409. Probably = Rissoina firmata, C. B. Ad.,+ BR. sealariformis, C. B. Ad. 

4ll. “Not a Barleeia,” teste Jetty. MS. It seems, however, too closely allied te 
B.yubrato create afresh genus for it, unless the animal should display differs 
ences. 

412, 413. Belong to Fenella, A. Ad.* F. excurvata=? Rissoa inconspicua, ©. B. Ad.y 
non Alder. 5 

417. Fresh specimens prove this to be not a dead Hydrobia ulve, but a Barlecia, 
It appears on the Californian coast, as B. subtenws. 

418, 421. Are very similar, and possibly conspecific forms of Cythna, A. Ad. 

422. Is a Gemella, teste A. Ad. 

426, 427. Belong to Stylferina, A. Ad. 

430 et seg. Some of these forms may rank with Gottoma, A. Ad., and thus approach 
Lossarus. 

457. Luponia spurca, This shell is quite distinct from ZL. albuginosa, to which it 
was supposed to belong by Dr. Newcomb. _ It is probably a ballast specimen. 

38. Quite distinct from the Panamic 4. punctulata. 

445, 446. Cancellariade should be removed to Proboscidifera, teste A. Ad. 

450-452. Mr. Reeve unites all these species, with several others, to M. variegata; 
which is certainly the easiest way of meeting the difficulty. 

455. Myurella rufocinerea= T. rudis, Gray, teste Rve. : 

477. Conus regalitatis= C. purpurascens, var. Most Cones vary in the same manner. 

484. Torinia variegata. My. Hanley restores to this shell the uncomfortable name 
of Chemn. (perspectiviuncula), and unites to it areola, Desh. A careful com- 
parison with shells from the Pacific Islands (teste Pease’s specimens) proves 
them to be completely identical. The ‘specific’ names of Chemn., when 
simply the second word of the diagnosis, can hardly claim precedence. 

486. The genera in this family have lately been revised by Mr. A. Adams. A 
large number of his Japanese groups are here represented. This species 


oo 
BD 
= 


co 
BO 
a 


* The generic names here given were assigned by Mr. A. Adams, who kindly examined 
the figures of the minute Mazatlan shells, all of which have been drawn under the micro- 
scope. 


32 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA, 547 


agrees with Pyramidella, sp. ind., C. B. Ad., no. 298 (not 294), and may he 
quoted as Obeliseus Adams. 

487, 488. Belong to Evalea, A. Ad. 

4*9. Is a Syrnola, A. Ad. 

492. The peculiar appearance of the apex is due to decollation, as proved by the 
discovery of an adolescent and several adult specimens. It probably beiongs 
to Diala, A. Ad., and=Cingula paupercula, C. B. Ad., no. 253. 

493-500. Belong to Miralda, A. Ad. Parthenia quinquecincta=? Cingula turritu, 
C. B. Ad.,+ Rissoa notabilis, C. B. Ad. 

501, 502. Belong toOseilla, A. Ad. Parthenia erarata=? Cingula terebellum, C. B. Ad. 

503-506. The “ Odostomoid Chrysallide” probably rank best with Mumiola, A. Ad. 

512. Chrysallida ovulum=? Cingula inconspicua, C. B. Ad. ; non ? Rissoa inconspicua, 
C. B. Ad. nec Alder. 

513-515. Are Pyrgulina, teste A. Ad. The Japanese species, however, seem more 
like Parthenia, no. 497. 

517. Is a Styloptygma, A. Ad. 

520. This is not the Chemnitzia similis of C. B. Ad.; and is probably a variety of 
Ch. Panamensis. 

623. = Chemnitzia affinis, C. B. Ad., pars: pars= Ch. undata, no. 531. 

535. Is perhaps a Mormula, A. Ad. 

645. The various shells grouped under Aclis require revision. Comp. Onoba, A.Ad., 
and Ebala, Gray, which is figured as Aclis in Add. Gen. 

549. Ranks best with Ewlimella. 

550. This is not Lezostraca recta, C. B. Ad., and may be called Mue onalia invotuta. 

551. This is not ZL. solitaria, C. B. Ad., and may be called ZL. producta. 

552. = Mucronalia solitaria, C. B. Ad. 

553. Ranks best with Zulima, teste A. Ad. 

555. L.retera; distinct from ZL. iota, C. B. Ad. 

556. Should be Lulima, teste A. Ad. 

557. Vide note to 393. 

563. Belongs to the subgenus Setla, A. Ad. 

568. Scalaria raricosta is perhaps the young of 8. Elenensts. 

569. S. funiculata and S. diadema, with their congeners, should be removed from 
Cirsotrema to Opala. 

570. Dr. Gould dissents from the affiliation of this shell to the West African species 
on the ground that “he can separate the African from the Pacific shells as fast 
as we can hand them to him.” So easily can any ordinary natural:st separate 
conspecific British and Mediterranean specimens, or Mazatlan and Panama 
specimens. It is not found in the West Temperate fauna; the “var. Ca/i- 
fornica” being the ordinary type from the Pacific Islands, which is much 
more entitled to be regarded as distinct than are the’ West American forms. 

572. Is shown by perfect Cape St. Lucas specimens to belong to a natural group 
of species, resembling flattened, perforated Phasianelle, to which the name 
Eucosmia may be given. 

580. Appears under genus “ Lagena, Klein,’ * in Mus. Cuming; the Argobuccina 
cancellatum, Oregonense, &c., having received a new name, Priene, H. & A.Ad. 

589. This belongs to Closia, Gray, = Volutella, Swains., non D’Orb. 


* The names of Klein in his ‘Tentamen’ and ‘ Lucubratiuncula,’ 1773, are not entitled 
to precedence (according to the Brit. Assoc. rules), because he evidently did not adopt the 
Linnean mode of binomial nomenclature. What he calls a “ genus” answers more to the 
modern idea of chapter or section. By chance, some of his names are allowable; but, if 
used, the genus must be regarded as that of Adams, Gray, Morch, or other writer who 
defines it. The following will serve as illustrations of Klein’s “ genera””—‘‘ Sol, Luna, 
Stella, &e.; Auris, Anas, Tigris, Pes-anserinus, Tuba-phonurgica, Cochlea-lunaris, 
Cochlea-celata, &e.; Buecinum-lacerum, Buccinum-muricatum, Thema-musicum, &c. ; 
Ostreum-imbricatum, Ostreum-muricatum, &c.; Musculus-latus, Musculus-mammarius, 
&e., Tellina-arcinata, Tellina-virgata, &c.; Concha-longa-biforis, Concha-longa-uniforis; 
Concha-rpidoj3os ;”’ and, in p. 167, “ Musculus-polylepto-ginglymus,” under which re- 
markable generic name is given as the first species “ Arca-Noe.” According to the now 
fashionable transformation of malacological nomenclature into a branch of archeological 
research, under pretence of justice to ancient writers, the hithe,to universally understood 


3 33 








548 
602. 


594. 
595. 


698, 
599. 


G06. 
611. 
612. 
618. 


6 
6 


Ce 


I 


i 
3 
99 
De 


fon) 


639. 


G53. 


659. 


p= 


reEPORT— 1863. 


Oliva intertincta is very close to the young of O. subangulata, but differs in tha 
chestnut stain on the columella. I have not been able to compare iv with 
the young of O. Cumingi. Puke 

Is an abundant species in the Eastern Islands, occasionally seen in West 
Coast collections. 

Belongs to Anazola, Gray. 
now called Olivina, Gray. ‘ 

Ohivella aureocincta= Oliva pellucida, C. B. Ad., non Rve. 

Olivella inconspicua, C. B, Ad., is probably the young of the colourless var. of 
O. gracilis, which must be excluded from the synonymy of O. dama, no. 600, 

The figure of Purpura biserialis, jun., Brit. Mus. tablet 2252, is stated by Mr. 
A. Ad. to represent the genus Snusigera, D’Orb., = Chelitropis, Fbs. ; just as 
Macyillivrayia is the young of Dolium. 

Rhizocheilus nux+ R. distans, Cpr. 

The young of Vituaria salebrosa is named Fusus lamellosus, Hds., in Brit. Mus., 
and is also the “ Ranella triquetra” of Nuttall’s coilection. 

Is probably C. baccata, Gask., in Mus. Cum., though Mr. Gaskoin regarded it 
asnew. The var. obsoleta, 618), is probably C. galavias, Rve. 

622. These shells may perhaps be better studied under Daphnella. 

Certainly = WN. gemmulosa, C. B. Ad. 


The remaining Mazatlan species of Olivella are 


3. Nassa crebristriata may rank as a yar. under proxima, C. B. Ad., which is pro- 


bably itself a var. of verszcolor. 

This aberrant group of forms is now transferred to Cantharus in Mus.Cuming. 
Perhaps they rank better with Stphonalia, A. Ad. 

Anachis rufotincta ( new,” teste Gaskoin) is probably= Col. diminuta, C. B. 
Ad., in Mus. Cum., but scarcely agrees with the diagnosis, nor was the ac- 
cordance noticed in the Amherst types. 

= P, elegans, Gray, in Griff. Cuv. pl. 25. f. 2. (1884.) 


The following species, since found, must be added to the catalogue of the 


Reigen Collection. 


The 
Cat. 
704. 
705. 
707. 


693. 
694. 
706. 
695. 
695. 
697. 
698. 
699. 
700, 
701. 
702. 
703. 
708. 


The specimens are deposited in the British Museum, 
descriptions of nos. 693-695 appear in the appendix to the Brit. Mus, 
; the remainder are ready for the press. 


Cellepora areolata, Busk. On Omphalius ligulatus. 

Membranipora ? Flemingit, Busk. _ ,, 

Dactylina=C. B. Ad., Pan. no. 516, 
by Major Rich. 

Lyonsia, sp. ind., 1 sp. 

? Montacuta chalcedonica, 1 sp. 

? Montacuta obtusa, n. s., 2 sp. Congenerice with 157, 158. 

Crenella, sp. ind., 1 sp. 

Pectunculus, sp. ind., 1 sp. 

Cylichna Carpenteri, Hanl., P.Z. 8. 1858, p. 548, 1 sp. P= C. luticola, jun, 

Seissurella rimuloides, n. 8., 1 sp. 

Vitrinella ornata, n. s., 1 sp. 

Vitrinella tenuisculpta, nu. 8., 1 sp. 

? Vitrinella, sp. ind., fragment. 

Mangelia sulcata, n. s., 1 sp. 

P? Torinia, sp. ind., 2 sp. 

Malea ringens. Obtained from M. Reigen, at Mazatlan, by Major Rich. 


Obtained from M. Reigen, at Mazatlan, 


53, Jay’s Catalogue—Mr. Hanley states that after the return of Prof. 
Nuttall, his duplicates were bought by the elder Sowerby, who sold part to 





designations of Lamarck, &c., must give way to such names as the above; and if some 
other ‘Attempt’ or ‘Little Lucubration’ of a year’s earlier date should be disinterred 


’ from 


now-fortunate concealment, the most modern ‘Guides’ and ‘Books of Genera’ will have 


to be re-written, Klein’s idea of Argobuccinum appears to have been that of a “ Spotted 
Whelk,” probably Ranella argus. Argobuccinum, H. and A. Ad., may stand as defined in 


their 


between Lriene and Lagena, 


‘ Genera’ for the thin ventricose Triton. 


o4 


hey have, however, divided the specics 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 549 


Dr. Jay, and part to Mr. Stainforth. The specimens in Mus. Cum. were re- 
ceived from Dr. Jay; those in Mus. Hanley from Mr. Stainforth. In the 
third edition of Dr. Jay’s Catalogue, 1839, appear the following species whic.. 
have not been identified, and localities not confirmed. 

14. Tellina rosea, Lam. California. [Perhaps Sanguinolaria miniata. | 

33. Pecten tumidus, Brod. | Upper Califorma. 


87. Chiton incarnatus, Nutt. i 
» Chiton textilis, Conr. . 
38. Patella plicata, Nutt. 9 
40. Fissurella pica, Nutt. rn 
41. Crepidula squamosa, Brod. ” 

Bulla Californica, Nutt. os 


9 
68. Natica variolaris. California. 
70. Trochus Californicus, Nutt. Upper California, 


72. Monodonta fusca, Nutt. 
73. Marmorostoma planospira, Nutt. . 
» Litorina tostoma, Nutt. nn 
», Latorina maculata, Nutt. . 
79. Melongena occidentalis, Nutt. FF 
80. Murex sexcostatus, Brug. 
86. Monoceros plumbeum, Kien. ' 
87. Buccinum Boysit, Nutt. ” 


54. CO. B. Adams.—After arranging the duplicate Reigen Collection in the 
State Museum at Albany, New York, I proceeded to Amherst, Mass., io 
study the type-collection from which Prof. Adams’s book was written. The 
result is embodied in a “ Review of Prof. C. B. Adams’s ‘ Catalogue of the 
Shells of Panama,’ from the Type Specimens,” written for the Zool. Soc. in 
Jan., and published in the Proceedings for July 1863, pp. 339-369. In this 
paper the synonymy between the Mazatlan and Panama Catalogues is pointed 
out, and the species assigned to the modern genera. The following are the 
principal corrections needed in the list, Rep. pp. 267-280. The results in 
the succeeding paragraphs, pp. 280, 281, should be altered accordingly. 
(M.=Brit. Mus. Maz. Cat.) 


3. Ovula neglecta=avena, var. 
8. Cyprea punctulata ; quite distinct from C. arabicula. 

11. Cyprea rubescens, C. B. Ad.,=T. sanguinea, dead. 

15. Marginella sapotilla, C. B. Ad., is perhaps a large form of sapotilla, Hds. — It 
is destitute of the sharp posterior labral angle seen in the West Indian 
specimens of c@rulescens. 

33. Oliva araneosa, C. B. Ad.,=O. Melchersi, M. 591. 

35. Oliva pellucida, C. B. Ad., =O. aureocincta, M. 598, dead. 

40. Oliva venulata, C. B. Ad., = O. angulata, jun. 

45. Nassa canescens=dead sp. of N. pagodus. 

50. Nassa pagodus, C. B. Ad.,=decussata, Kien. [ ? non. Lam.]=acuta, M. 625. 

51. Nassa Panamensis has the operculum of Phos and Northia, =exilis, Pws. 

52. Nassa proxima+54 N. striata, C. B. Ad. [non Mus. Cum. = N. paupera, Gld. |], 
+N. ecrebristriata, M. 633, are probably vars. of N. versicolor. 

53. Nassa scabriuscula, C. B. Ad.,+56 N. Wilsoni=N. complanata, Pws. 

70. Purpura foveolata, probably = worn sp. of Cuma costata, M. 610. 

74. Purpura osculans+ Rh. Californicus+ Rh. distans, are probably vars. of Rhizo- 
cheilus nus. 

81. Columbella costellata, C. B. Ad.,= Anachis scalarina, Sby. 

98. Columbella parva, C. B, Ad.,=dead sp.-of Anachis pygmea. 

103. Columbella tessellata, C. B. Ad. (non Gask.),= A. Guatemalensis, Rve. 

110. Cassis abbreviata can scarcely be distinguished, in some of its many varieties 
from the Texan Bezoardica inflata, 

154. Cancellaria affinis scarcely differs from C. urceolata, M. 445. 


35 








208, 
209. 
210. 
alii 
220. 


2215 


rnePport—1863, 


Cancellaria ryqmea= C. goniostoma, jun., no. 157, =M. 446, 


. Pleirctoma atrior = Drillia vy, Melchersi, M. 461. 
. Plenrotoma discors, C. B, Ad., is probably a finely developed var. of D. 


aterrimna. 

Pleurotoma rustica, C. B. Ad.,=worn specimens of D, Melchersi, no. 164. 

Mangelia neglecta, probably =M. acuticostata, M. 473. 

195, 201 belong to Cerithiopsis. 

Cerithium famelicum must stand for the West Coast Uncinoids, M. 383; the 
Cumingian shell, and two out of ten in the type-series, belong to C. me- 
dioleve, M. 382. 

199, 200 are various forms of C. stercus muscarum, Val.; quite distinct from 
C. interruptum, Mke., and C. irroratum, Gld. 


. Does not correspond with the diagnos:s, and must stand as Chrysallida pau- 


percula, a very distinct species. 

Ts scarcely a variety of Zreforts alternatus, no, 207. 

Both the specimens are dextral, = Cerithiopsis tuberculoides, M. 557. 

Turriteiia Banksti, C. B. Ad. (non Rve.)= 7. goniostoma,.jun., M. 379, 

A dead, stunted specimen of Cecum undatum, M. 371. 

Chemnitzia acuminata is a very broad but typical species; not Chrysallida. 

Chemnitzia affinis, Mus. Cum. and M. 523, has sufficient correspondence with 
the diagnosis ; but the type= Ch. undata, M. 531. 


. Chemnitzia clathratula. The type-series contains Chrysallida clathratula, 


M. 513 and Mus. Cum.,+ Chr. communis+ Chr. effusa, M. 510,+ Dunkeria 


subangulata, M. 537. 


3. Chemmutzia communis, the type of Chrysallida, M. 507, Cpr. (vix A. Ad.). 


The type-series also contains Chr. effusa+ Chr. telescopium, M. 508,+ Dun- 
keria subangulata, +?do. var. 


. Chemnitzia major ranks with Dunkeria. 
. Chemnitzia Panamensis contains also Ch. Adamsii, M. 519,+ Ch. ? gracillima, 


M. 530. 


. Chemnitzia similis, like aculeus ; differs from Ch. ?similis, M. 520, which per- 


haps= Panamensis, vay. 
Chemnitzia turrita=251, “ Rissoa, a ind.” 
235, 237, 238. These species of “ ? Litorina” belong to Fossarus. 


. Litorina atrata+ (adult) 257, PAdeorbis abjecta, are the same (variable) species 


of Fossarina, A. Ad. 


9. Litorina parvula, C, B. Ad. (non Phil.),=Z. Philippii, M. 398. 
. Rissoa firmata+ (jun.) 250, R. scaliformis= Rissoina, sp. M. 409. 
». ? Rissoa inconspicua, C. B. Ad. (non Ald.), does not accord with the diagnosis, 


but is identical with Alvania tumida, M. 414. 


. Lissoa notabilis+ Cingula ?turrita belongs (with 252 and 254) to another 


suborder, = 2arthenia quinquecincta, M. 498. 


2. 2 Cingula inconspicua= Chrysallida ovulum, M. 512. 
. Cingula paupercula=? Odostomia mamillata, M. 492, = Diala. 
4. Cingula terebellum= Parthenia exarata, M. 501. 


Vitrinella minuta, The original type accords better with Ethalia. 
Vitrinella regularis is also an Ethalia. 

Vitrinella valvatoides. Probably an Ethalia. 

271. Are apparently vars. of Solarium granulatum. 


. May be distinguished as Torinia rotundata, from its great superficial resem- 


blance to Helix rotundata. 


5. Trochus Leanus is a pale var. of Callicstoma M‘ Andree. 
» Trochus lima can scarcely be distinguished from C, Antonit, Mus. Cum., 


dredged in the Japan seas by Mr. A. Adams. 


. Trochus lividus, C. B. Ad.,= Modulus disculus, M. 403. 
» Trochus reticulatus= Omphalius viridulus, M. 292. 
» Turbo Buschii, C. B. Ad., = Uvanilla inermis, M. 287,= T. variegatus, Gray, MS. 


in Brit. Mus. The true U. Buschii is coloured outside like U. olivacea, but 
with a white base like U. inermis. St. Elena, Hds. in Brit. Mus. 


» Lurbo phasianella, C, B. Ad., is probably the perlect form of Piasianella, yar. 


36 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 551 


striulata, M. 2836. Its operculum proves it to be a true Phasianella, and 
not Melaraphe phasianella, Phil., of Add. Gen. 

283. Turbo rutilus, the worn remains of what perhaps was once Pomaulax undosus, 
brought in ballast from Lower California. 

239. Scalaria, sp. c,= Opalia funceulata, jun., M. 569. 

290. Eulima { Leiostraca] iota appears distinct from LZ. reterta, M. 555, 

292. Lulima | Mucronalia| so itaria= Leiostraca, sp. a, M. 652. 

293. Pyramidella, sp.,= Obeliscus Adamsu, M. 486. 

26. Nutica lurida, C. B. Ad.,=pale var. of N. maroccana. 

297. Natica otis, C. B. Ad. (non Br. and Sby.), = Polinices “ Salangonensis,” C. B. Ad., 
no. 298. 

299. Natica Souleyetiana, C. B. Ad., closely resembles NM. maroccana, with larger 
umbilicus. 

300. Natica virginea, C. B. Ad.,+302, N., sp. ind. b,= Polinices uber, M. 576, 

301. Natica, sp. a,=maroccana, var. unifasciata. 

318. ?? Truncatella dubiosa is probably a Paludinella. 

321. Bulla punctulata= B. Adamsx, M. 224. 

322. Bulla, sp.= Tornatina carinata, M. 223. 

323. Vermetus ?glomeratus, C. B. Ad.,= V. eburneus, Rve., M. 354. 

324. Vermetus Panamensis, C. B. Ad.,= Aletes centiquadrus, M. 352. 

325, Stomatella inflata is a Lamellaria. 

326. Hipponyx Psubrufa, C. B. Ad.,= H. Grayanus, jun., M. 350,+?barbatus, jun. 

327. Hipponyx Pbarbata, C. B. Ad. The type-series contains H. barbatus, M. 349, 
+H. Grayanus+ Diseina Cuming, M. 14 (valve). 

330. Calyptrea aberrans is a valve of Anomia. 

831. Calyptrea aspersa= Galerus conicus, broken, worn, and young; one sp. may be 
mamillarts. 

033. Calyptrea conica. Most of the specimens are G. mamillaris, =340, G. regu- 

laris; but a few may be the true G. conieus, worn, M. 332. 

8. Calyptrea planulata is a young flat C. cepacea. 

2. Calyptrea ?Punguis, C. B. Ad.,= Crucibulum spinosum, jun. 

3. Crepidula cerithicola= C. onyx, jun., M. 340,+C. incurva, jun., M. 339. 

9. Crepidula squama. Some of the young shells belong to C. onyx; one perhaps 

to C. incurva. 

850. Crepidula unguformis. Some of the specimens belong to this species ; others 
to C. nivea. 

851. Crepidula nivea. The type-specimens are small, poor, and rough, of the var. 
striolata, passing into Lessonit. Perhaps, therefore, thefirst name sguama 
should be retained for the species (nos. 348, 349, 350, part, and 351), leaving 
striolata and Lessonii for the vars. 

852. Crepidula osculans belongs to another order, = Scutellina navicelloides, M. 269. 

353. Crepidula rostrata, C. B. Ad., Rve.,= C. uncata, Mke., M. 338 ; and is perhaps 
distinct from C. adunca, Sby.,=solida, Hds.,=rostriformis, Gld. 

357. Fissurella microtrema. Dead shells, of which part= V. rugosa, var. M. 273. 

358. Fissurella mus. Intermediate between Gilyphis inequalis, M. 279, and var. 

wea. 

361. Rarelc virescens. Intermediate between F. v., M. 271, and F. nigropunctata, 
no. 359. 

366. Siphonaria Ppica, C. B. Ad. Young dead limpets [? Aemea]. 

367. Lottia Ppatina, C. B. Ad. [non Esch.], may stand, until more specimens have 
been collated, as Acemea (?floceata, var.) filosa. 

368. Lotta, sp. ind. a, may be quoted as Acmea (?floccata, var.) subrotundata. 

369. Lottia, sp. ind. 6, may rank, for the present, as Acmea (?vespertina, var.) 
vernicosa. 

. ? Patella, sp. ind., resembles P. vulgata, but may be an Acmea. 

-376. There was no opportunity of dissecting the Amherst Chitons ; but among 
the remaining duplicates of the collection (all of which were obtained and 
brought to England) were the following :— 

oid. Chiton dispar, C. B. Ad. (? non Sby.), including Lepidoplewus Adamsii and 
var. and L, tenwisculplus. 

37 


co 
~jJ ~J 
bore 
































552 REPORT—1863. 


375. Criton pulchellus, along with Ischnochiton Elenensis, and Pyar. expressus. 
376. Chiton Stokesti. Sent as C. patulus by Mr. Cuming. 


377-379. Probably vars. of Ancmea tenuis (nou lampe). ; 

380, 381. Ostrea, sp. ind. a and 4, a peculiar corrugated species, which may stand 

~ as O. Panamensis. ‘ 

382. Ostrea, sp. ind. c, resembles O. rufa, Gld., MS. (not Lam. in Deless.), not 
Columbiensis. Ba) 5 

383. Ostrea, sp. ind. d, more like the Gulf Mex. shells than O. Virginica, M. 212. 

384. Ostrea, sp. ind. e, may stand as O. amara, The “small var.” is O. concha- 
phila, M. 214. <3, 

386. Spondylus, sp.,= Plicatula penicillata, M. 210. ; ; 

393, 394. Perna, sp. a, b,= 1. Chemnitzianum. The Jamaica conspecific shells are 
labelled ‘ deeolor, Ad.” 

396. Pinna tuberculosa, C. B. Ad., probably=P. maura, jun. 

398. Lithodomus, sp., includes L. aristatus, M. 176, L. attenuatus, M. 178, and 
L. ?plumula, jun., M. 175. 4 f 

399. Modiola semifusca, C. B. Ad.,=M. Braziliensis, M. 171. More like the Atlantic 
shells than are those from Gulf Cal. A specimen, undoubtedly from N. 
Zealand, is pronounced conspecific by Mr. Cuming. 

400-404. Modiola, sp. ind., contains M. capax, M. 170, Myt. multiformis | =Adam- 
sianus, Dkr.], M. 168, several vars., and Adula cinnamomea, var. M. 177. 

405. Chama Buddiana (in poor condition)=Ch. (?frondosa, var.) fornicata, 
M. 121 5. 

406. Chama 2corrugata, small valve; large one ?= Ch. Mexicana, reversed. 

407. Chama echinata, C. B. Ad., ?= Mexicana, jun., + Buddiana, jun. 

414. Arca Paviculoides, C. B. Ad., appears a young Scapharca. 

419. Arca pholadiformis = Barbatia gradata, vay. 

422. Arca similis, scarcely a variety of A. tuberculosa, no. 425. 

432. Cardium planicostatum, ©. B. Ad., may be a worn valve of Hemicardia bian- 
gulata, but more resembles a ballast specimen of the W. Indian H. media. 

35. Venus Pamathusia, C. B. Ad., = Anomalocardia subimbricata, M. 115 

436. Venus discors= Tapes grata, M. 110, var.,+ T. histrionica, M. 109. 

442. Venus, sp. b,= Chione sugillata, Rve. (=Perenifera, M. 105). 

450. Gouldia Pacifica, M. 116, does not belong to the Professor’s genus, but is a 
form of Crassatella. 

451. Cyrena maritima. ‘The discovery of Cyrene in brackish water is a fact of 
some importance to geologists, which was duly appreciated by D’Orb.” (T. 
Prime, in Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1861, p. 314.) 

457. Donax rostratus, C. B. Ad. (non Gld., MS., and from it Cpr.in M. Appendix, 
p- 549), teste type-valve= D. carinatus, Mus. Cum. olim, and from it M. 71; 
nea carinatus, Mus. Cum. hodie, and type, teste Hanl.,=D. culminaius, 

he de 

459. Tellina cognata=Psammobia casta, Rve., teste Cuming. 

465. Tellina felix. The affiliation of this shell to Strigilla fucata, Gld., MS., was 
doubtless due to an accidental error in labelling. No. 476 is the same 
species, dead. 

468. Tellina puella. Resembles T. felix, not P?puella, M. 59. 

471. Tellina simulans. The type-valve exactly accords with the Professor's W.- 
Indian specimens. 

473. Tellina viema, C. B. Ad.,=versicolor, C. B. Ad., MS. on label. Larger than 
most W. Indian specimens, which exactly accord with the Acapulcans, and 
are varieties of Heterodonax bimaculatus. The Panamic shells resemble 
the Lower Californian, which are Psammobia Pacifica, Conv. 

477. Petricola cognata. Perfect specimens are P. pholadiformis, teste Cum. 

A478. Saxicava tenuis, Sby., C. B. Ad., H. and A. Ad., = Petricola tenuis, H. and A. 
Ad, Gen. pp. 349-441, and better accords with the latter genus. 

479, 482. Cumaingra coarctata=lamellosa, var. M. 42. 

480, 481. Cumingia trigonularis, M. 43. 

483. Cumingia, sp. c,=M. 45, and, if not described, m as C. it. 

484, Cumingia, sp. d,=M. tablet 107, p. 31, See eee ea aaa eel 


38 














ON MOJLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 550 


485. Amphidesma bicolor = Semele Prenusta, M. 41 (non A. Ad.). 

4387. Amphidesma proximum, probably =486, ellpticum, var.: not Semele proxima, 
M. 40,=S. flavescens, Gld., M. p. 548. 

489. Amphidesma striosum, resembles Semele puichra, no. 488. 

491. Amphidesma ventricosum. Scarcely perfect enough to distinguish the genus. 
The valve outside resembles Macoma solidula. 

497. Anatina alta. A valve of Periploma; probably one of the Gulf species. 

498. Pandora cornuta, named and described from a fractured growth ; resembles 
Chdiophora claviculata. 

499, 500 are varieties of the same species of Azara, of which perhaps no. 501 is an 
extreme form. 

506. Corbula rubra= C. biradiata, jun., no, 503, M. 31. No. 509 are dead valves 
of the same, = C. polychroma, Cpr. 

508. Corbula, sp. a, resemb.es C. pustulosa, M. 32. 

610. Solecurtus affinis, probably = S. Caribbeus=Siliquaria gibba, Spengl., 8. I. 
Check-List, no. 222. The W. African specimens are afliiiated to the same 
species by Mr. Cuming. The Mazatlan shells, M. 37, have a different 
aspect, but closely resemble the Ariquibo specimens in Mus. Amherst. 

511. Solen rudis is named Solena obliqua, Spengl., in Mus. Cum. It appears iden- 
tical with Ensatella ambigua, Lam., as figured by Deless. ; but S. amligua 
(Lam.), Swains., is slightly different, and better agrees with the dead va.ves 
of “ S. medius, Alatska,” in Brit. Mus. These may, however, be only ballast- 
valves. As S. ambigua, Lam., was described from America, and the form 
is not known elsewhere, it probably represents the Panamic shell. 

515. Pholas, sp. a,=laqueata, teste Cum. 

616. Pholas, sp. 6, closely resembles Dactylina dactylus; also La Paz, teste Rich. 


The following species were collected by Prof. Adams, but do not apperr 
in his Catalogue; they were found either mixed with others in the Amherst 
Museum or in the shell-washings of his duplicates*. 


518. Mumiola ovata. 528. Ceecum clathratum. 

519. Chrysallida effusa. 529. Lepidopleurus tenwsculptus. 
520, Chrysallida telescopium. 530. Ischnochiton Elenensis. 
521. Chrysallida fasciata. 531. Cerithiopsis, n. s. 

522. Chrysallida, n. s. 532. Lucina capax. 

523. Leiostraca retexta. 533. Kellia suborbicularis, 

524. Kulima yod. 534. Spheenia fragilis. 

525. Volutella margaritula. 535. Tellina laminata. 

526. Ceecum semileve. 586. Crenella inflata. 


527. Czecum subquadratum. 


55. British Museum Catalogues.—TYo the list of Deshayes, Cat. Veneride, 
n.1y be added— 
Page. 
7. Destnia ponderosa, Gray,=Cyth. gigantea, Sby.,= Venus cycloides, D'Or, 
Gulf] California. 
135. Chaione callosa { Desh. et auct. Brit.,= Ch. fluctifraga, var., quite distinct from 
Callista (Amiantis) callosa], Cony. 
147. Chione astartoides, Beck, Greenland. [1849. = Tapes fluctuosa, Gld., 1841; 
teste Gld., Otia, p. 181. Midd.’s figures more resemble V. Kennerleyi, jun. | 


The authorities are rarely given for localities quoted in this elaborate 
work. The same species often occur under different names. The Veneride 


* With regard to the species which have received different designations in the Reigen 
and Adamsian catalogues, whether those names be retained of which the specimens exist, 
and have been widely distributed, in accordance with the diagnoses, or whether the prior 
ones be adopted of which the unique types do not represent the descriptions, is a matter 
of little moment to the writer of the Brit. Mus. Cat. He spared no pains in making-out 
his predecessor’s species before describing his own, and has offered the best attainable 
list of the parallel forms in the review here quoted. 


39 


5 4 RrPortT—1863. 

in the Brit. Mus. Coll. have received Deshayes’ autograph names, in accord. 

ance with this Catalogue, generally on the back of the tablets. 

Tn the Brit. Mus. Catalogue of Volutide*, 1855, Dr. Gray arranges tha 

W. Coast species thus :— 

Page. No. 

177. Lyria (Eneta) Harpa, Adams, 167; Gray, P. Z.S8. 1855, p. 61; Hub. Peru, 
=Voluta Harpa, Barnes, Sby., Conch. Thes. [= Voluta Barnesii, Gray, 
Zool. Journ. vol. i. p. 511, note. } 

18 10. Lyria (Eneta) Cumingii, Brod. (loc. cit.). 


Gulf Fonseca. 


Central America, S. Salvadoz, 


56. Sailor's Coll.—Pecten ?senatorius may be a form of sericeus, Hds. 

57. Gould’s Collections —* Planorbis ammon,=Traskeir, Lea. P. yraci- 
lentus ?= Liebmanni, Dkr., or Hualdemanni,”’ teste Gld. MS. The collec- 
tions of Mr. Blake and others will be found under the “ Pacific Railway 





Explorations,” v. posted, par. 98. 
58. Bridges.—Some of the species described as new on Mr. Cuming’s 
authority appear, on further comparison, to be identical with those before 


known. 


?Serobicularia producta= Lutricolat Dombeyi, Lam. 


Strigilla disjuncta yea to the author identical with S. sincera, Hanl. 


[“ Quite 


distinct,” H. Cuming. 

Lyonsia diaphana=L. inflata, Cony. 

Caltiostoma M‘ Andree =normal state of C. Leanum, C. B. Ad. 

Natica ercavata+ N. Haneti, Recl., appear varieties of N. Elene, Recl., the 
analogue of lineata, ( hemn. 


Add Alora (‘ Tiichotropis”) Gould, H. and A. Ad., P. Z. 8. 1856, p. 369; 1861, 


p: 272. 


59. Proc. Zool. Soc.—The following additional synonyms have been ob- 
served in the list, Rep. pp. 285-288 :— 


Page. 
1835 AS. Venus leucodon+ Californiensis [= Chione succincta, Val. 1833]. 
4 110. Pecten circularis |? =ventricosus, jun. |. 
1850 «24. Pl. 8. f. 4. (Add) Cumingia similis, A. Ad. N.W. coast of America. 
3) 37. Gena varia, A. Ad. Mindoro, 9 fms., Cuming; Australia; Acapulco, 
on the sands, Moffat. [Clearly imported. | 
1851 153. Infundibulum Californicum (is a Pacific shell=Z. chloromphatus, vay. ]. 
» 168. Ziziphinus Californicus { = Calliostoma eximium, Rve. }. 
» 190. Margarita calostoma [= M. pupilla, Gld.,=costellata, Brit. Mus. Col., 
non Sby. |. 
1853 185. Pseudoliva Kellettii, A. Ad. [ =Macron (Zemira) Kellettii, Mus. Cum. : 


= Pusio trochlea, Gray, MS. in Brit. Mus. Cerros Is., Ayres]. 


. Chlorostoma funebrale { = Tr. marginatus, Nutt. (non Rve.);= 7. mestus, 


auct. nonnul. ; non Jonas }. 


» 899. Tellina Mazatlanica [ = T. pura, Gld., 1851). 
1855 231. Chiton Montereyensis [ = Mopalia hgnosa, Gld., 1846 := Merchii, Midd., 
18471. 
y 251, 282. Ch. Hartwegii and regularis belong to Ischnochiton. 


* In Donovan’s ‘ Naturalist’s Repository,’ vol. ii. 1834, p. 61, appears (without 
authority) “ Voluta Dufresnii, Don., California, 8. America.” 
+ This belongs to a group of species in which the cartilage is semi-internal, intermediate 


between Scrobicularia (= Lutricola) and Macoma. 
group in Add. Gen. ii. 409, as ‘“‘ subgen. Capsa, Bose.” 


They are arranged under the former 
That Lamarckian name being in 








common use for /phigenia, Schum., and being also employed for Asaphis and Gastrana, it 
adds to the confusion to use it fora fourth group. The bulk of Blainville’s old genus 
having migrated to Lutrarta and Scrobicu/aria, his name may be revived for this group 
not otherwise provided-for. The species was redescribed in consequence of Duaidcyé layin 
been left among the true Zed/ens in Mus. Cum. 


40 





ee 


[ee SS 





ON MOLLUSCA OF TIE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 55 


Page. 
1855 234. Callopoma depressum [ = Senectus funiculatus, Kien.: not American]. 
The following species appear in later numbers of the Proceedings :— 


1856 360. Mytilus Adamsianus, Dkr. [= M. multiformis]. Panama, Cuming. 

» 365. Volsella splendida, Dkr. California. 

Dr. Gray, in his elaborate article on the Olivide, 1858, pp. 38 et seq., 
gives O. julieta, Ducl., O. arancosa, Lam., and O. venulata, Lam., as syno- 
nyms of Strephona reticularis. Lam. ; and quotes as ‘species (?) more or less 
allied to it,” O. polpasta, Ducl., O. splendidula, Ducl., “ O. jaspidea, Ducl.,= 
O. Duclosii, Rve.” [?], O. kaleontina, Ducl. (Gallapagos), O. Cumingii, Rve., 
and Oliva Schumacheriana, Beck, “California: front of pillar-lip brown” 
[?=0. Cumingit, var. ]. 

For 0. volutella, Lam. (including O. razamola, Ducl.), he constitutes the 
genus Ramola. 

For O. undatella, Lam. (including O. ?hieroglyphica, Rve., O. nodulina, 
Duel., and O. ozodina, Ducl.), and similar species, he forms the genus 
Anazola. 

The restricted genus Olivella is altered to Olivina, and includes (from the 
West Coast) O. gracilis, Sby., O. anazora, Ducl., O. tergina, Ducl., O. lineolata 
=dama, Goodall*; and, in a section, O. columellaris, Sby., O. semisulcata, 
Gray, and O. zonalis, Lam. 

The Californian species, O. biplicata, Sby.,=0. nux, Goodall, in Wood, is 
placed in the genus Scaphula. This is constituted for an animal, “ Olivancilla 
auricularia,’ D’Orb., on which, in his work on 8. America, he figures the 
shell of O. biplicata (teste Gray). The shell might in some way have become 
mixed with 8. American specimens; but as D’Orb. could not possibly have 
there observed the living animal, the genus should be restricted to the latter. 
The shell of O. biplicata is very peculiar, and has not been found south of 
San Diego. D’Orbigny’s genus is Olivancillaria. 

Page. 
1859 280. Terebra strigata, Sby., Tank. Cat. Panama, Real Lejos. = Buceinum 
lng Gray, Wood,= Terebra zebra, Kien.,= Zerebra flamnea, 
ess. 

9, 287. Terebra Salleana, Desh. Mexico [Pubi], Salle. 

» 302. Terebra Petiveriana, Desh. (Pet. Gaz. pl. 75. f.5). Panama. Mus. Cum. 

» 803. Lerebra specillata, Hds. “ Probably two species heve tigured.” San 
Blas, Mexico. 

5 303. Terebra larviformis, Hds. “ Probably two species here figured.” St. 
Elena, Monte Christi. 

» 807. Terebra formosa, Desh. Panama. Mus. Cum. 

» 807. Terebra incomparabilis, Desh. | = T. flammea, Lam., teste Rve., P. Z.8, 
1860, p. 450]. Panama. Mus. Cum. 

» 308. Terebra insignis, Desh. Panama. Mus. Cum. 

» 428. Spondylus Victoria, Sby., pl. 49. fig. 8. Gulf of California. Mus. Cum. 

. 428. Murex teniatus, Sby., pl. 4%. fig. 3. Gulf of California. Mus. Cun. 
1860 370. Leda Taylor’, Hanl. Guatemala. Mus. Cum., Taylor. 

» 440. Leda Hindsii, Hanl. ? Gulf of Nicoya. Mus. Cum., Hanl., Mete. 
» 448 450 ee of Deshayes’ ‘ Monograph of the Terebride,’ 1859, by Mr. 
. Reeve. His synonyms are quoted under par. 62, ‘Conch. Ic.’ 
1862 239 5 Bursa fusco-costata, Dkr. California, Mus. Cum. [No autho- 
rity.| Like B. bitubercularis, Lam. 


* Many of the names given to the shells in Wood’s Suppl. were arbitrarily altered by 
Dr. Goodall, as the work passed through the press (teste Gray). However, if the first 
published, they will be allowed the right of precedence, 


41 





506 rport—1863. 


In the P. Z. S. 1861, pp. 145-181, is the first part of the long-expected 
“Review of the Vermetide,” by Otto A. L. Morch. The species of the 
West Coast are arranged as follows :— 

Page. Sp. 

tot 4. Stephopoma pennatum, Morch, pl. 25. f. 3-8. | Realejo, on Callopme 

152... Stephopoma pennatum, ? var. bispinosa, p). 25.t.9,10. { and Cruetbuhon. 

153 5. Siphonium (Dendripoma) megamastum, Morch, pl. 25. f. 12, 13,“ PCali- 
fornia; burrowing in JZahotis nodosus, Rve.” (Not a Californian 
species. | 

Stphonium (Dendropoma) megamastum, vay. centiquadra, Morch. 

“ = Aletes centiquadrus, var. imbricatus, Maz. Cat. p. 302,” Moreh [aon 
Cpr.]. California, burrowing in Haliotis splendens {a strictly Calitor- 
nian species, not found on the Mexican coast |. 

164 6. Stphonium (Dendropoma) lituella, Morch. California; deeply imbedded 
in Haliotis splendens; Mus. Cum. 
2? =Stoa ammonitiformis, M. de Serres. 
= Sprroglyphus, sp., Cpr., B. A. Report, p.524. {Found on shells from 
Washington Ter. to Cape St. Lucas (also Socoro Is., Nantes) ; but it 
has not been observed on the Mexican or Central Amer:can coast. | 
164 20. Stphonium margaritarum, Val. Panama, Val.; Mazatlan, Reigen. 
“ = Aletes margaritarum, Maz. Cat. p. 303,” [teste Morch, non Cpr.*}, 
177 36. Vermiculus pellucidus, Brod. and Sby., pl. 25. f. 17-20. j 
Var. a. planorboides = Serpula regularis, Chenu. Hab.?—, on ?Margart- 
tifera. Mus. Cum. 
: Var. aa. laquearis. W. Columbia, Cuming. 
W387 Var. B. etnnamomina. W. Columbia, Cuming. 
Var. y. volubilis, Mirch, pl. 25. f. 18, 19.= Vermetus eburneus, Ive., = 


V. lumbricalis, Knight. Hab. ?—. Mus. Cum. 

oe hee) War. 8. volubilis (adulta) picta, Mirch, = Verm. eburneus, Maz. Cat. 
p- 304. W. Columbia, Ceming; Puntarenas, O4crsted, Journ, 
Conch. viii. p. 30. 

os hee ~~ dO Var. €. crassa, Morch, = Serp. Panamensis, Chen. Ill. pl. 10. fig. 6 = 


Vermiculus eburneus, Mévch, Journ. Conch. viii. 30. Puntarenas, 
Oersted. “ Fossil at Newburn, N.C.,” Nattal/ [teste Morch ]. 
179... ~~) Var. ¢. tigrina, Morch. W. Columbia, Cuming. 

Var. n. castanea, Morch. On Murex melanoleucus, Morch. 

Operculum : W. Columbia, Cuming. 

Var. 1, from var. 6.= Vermetus Hindsiti, Gray, Add. Gen. fig. ?8, a, b. 

Puntarenas, Oersted. 
180s Var. 2, discifer, from var. 6. Puntarenas, Oersted. 
ener Var. 3, from var. e. Pl. 25. f. 17. 
Var. 4, subgranosa, from var. n. Puntarenas, Oersted. 

181 388. Vermiculus effusus, Val., = “ Vermetus e., Val.” Chen. Ill. pl. 5. fig. 4, 
a-c. =NStphonium e., Chen. Man. fig. 2301. “ Fig. 4 of Chen. + is 
from specimen figured in Voy. Ven. as V2 centiquadrus.” 

In the second part of Morch’s “‘ Review of the Vermetide,” 1861, pp. 
326-365, occur the following. A portion of the genus Bivonia is united to 
Spiroglyphus. Petaloconchus, Aletes, and part of Bivonia are united to Ver- 
metus, Morch (non auct.). The name Aletes appears to be used in a varietal 
sense, in no respect according with the subgenus as described by the author. 


* I was perhaps wrong in referring the Mazatlan shells to Val.’s species ; but if Mr. 
Morch is right in his own determination, the Mazatlan synonymy and locality must be 
expunged. There was no evidence of a typical Stphoniwm when the Reigen Catalogue was 
published, nor have I seen such from the whole coast, unless th» minute operculum h, 
Brit. Mus. Col., tablet 2537, be supposed the yqung. Morch says, “ the lid is unknown.” 
The operculum of the similar Mazatlan species, on which the subgenus Aletes was 
founded, is described in Maz. Cat. p. 302. 

+ “Cpr.’s observations respecting Chenu’s plates (Maz. Cat. p. 306, lin. 18) are in part 
erroneous, it being overlooked that Chenu has two plates marked ‘ Y.’;” note *, p. o... 


42 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 557 

Poze. Sp. 

Dy 8. Spirrglyphus alindus, 2Cpr. Mazatlan, Reigen. Operculum g et ?f, Maz. 
Cat. p. 311. = Bivonia albida, Cpr., Maz. Cat. p. 307. Opere. g is with- 
out doubt of Spireglyphus, and not of Bivonia, var? indentata. Operc. f 
is truly congeneric, aud perhaps conspecific. 

844 4. Vermetus (Thylacodus) contortus, Cpr.* Gulf Calif. Mus. Cum. 

we ee War. a. repens (Trylacodus). Gulf Ca if., on Margaritifera, Mus. Cum. 
“This species is perhaps a state of V. (Petaloconchus) macrophrag- 
ma.” {Morch: non Cpr. |t 

845 ..  Var.B. favosa ( Thylacodus). Calif., on Cructbulum. Mus. Cum. 

we ee «Nar. y. contortula (Thylacodus). Gulf of California. 
Stott sie Forma l. ?Thylacodus contortus, var. indentata, Cpr.  “ Corre- 
sponds to forma 1, electrina, of Vermetus varians, D’Orb.” 
Eye lag Var. 8. indentata (Vermetus), [ Morch, non Cpr. ]. Sonsonate, on Spon 
dylus limbatus, Rve., non Sby. Oersted. 

346 .. Var. e. corrodens (Vermetus). Is. Sibo (?Quibo), Spengler, on Pure 

pura lineata. 

859 20. Vermetus (2? Strebloceras) anellum, Morch. California, on Haliotis tuber- 
culatus, Rve. [Not a Californian Haliotis. The diagnosis, however, 
exactly accords with aCalifornian shell, which is perhaps the young of 
S. squamigerus. It has no resemblance to Strebloceras, Cpr., P. Z. 8. 
1858, p. 440, which isa genuine Ceecid. } 

860 21. Vermetus (Macrophragma) macrophragma. Mazatlan, &ce. = Petaloconchis 
m., Cpr. Realejo, Oersted. 

362 24. Vermetus (Aletes) centiquadrus, Val. Puntarenas, Oersted + V. effusus, 
Val. (the same specimen). 

we ee ~~ «Var. a. marima= V. Panamensis, Chen. pl.5. f.1. Panama, C. B. Ad. 
Mazatlan, Melchers. 
on aXe Var. 8. Punctis impressis destituta,= V. Péronii, Val.} 

363. .. Var. y. siphonata. Puntarenas, Oersted= V. Péronii, Rouss. 

.. owe Nar. 8. tulipa. Gulf of California, on piece of black Pinna, Mus. Cum, 
(The Pinna nigrina is from the E. I.]=V. tulipa, Rouss. 
we ee Var. e. Bridgesii. Panama, on Margaritifera, Mus. Cun. 


The conclusion of the paper is in P. Z.8. 1862, pp. 54-83. 


58 4. Bivonia sutilis, Mirch. Central America, on Anomalocardia subimbricata, 
Mus. Cum. 

Be Nar. en cemeapor. On Pinna, probably Central America, Mus. Dunker. 

we ee War. 8. triquetra. Mazatlan, on valve of Placunanomia, Mus. Semper. 
Like B. triquetra, “var. typica.” 

70 8. Thylacodes cruct formis, Morch. California, on Crucibulum umbrella, 
Desh., var. Mus. Cum. Analogue of 7, ZT. Riisei, Morch, from the 
east coast. 

ve we Var. a. lumbricella. Voy. Ven. pl. 11. f. 2. California, crowded on 
Margaritifera. Mus, Cum. 

ee ee ~—sCVar. B. erythosclera. Cal., on young Margaritifera. Mus. Cum, 
Very like Biv. Quoyi, var. variegata. [This species is on shells from 
the Mexican, not the “Californian ” fauna. | 

76 16. Thylacodes squamigera, Cpr., = Aletes sq., Opr.; P.Z.S. 1856, p. 226. Sta. 
Barbara, Nutt. [Serpulorbis, not Aletes, teste Cooper}. 


* Mr. Morch has not seen any lamin inside, but, from the 3-5 spiral lire on the 
columella, believes they will be found. The opercula supposed to belong to this speci:s 
(Maz. Cat. p. 311) Mr. M. thinks more probably those of Spiroglyphus albidus. He 
staces (erroneously) that the shell was not opened by the describer. 

+ Morch supposes that Bivonia contorta, Cpr., may be the adult of Petaloconchus 
macrophragma, and that both may be forms of Aletes centiquadrus, The nuclear por- 
tions are, however, quite distinct, and the three shells appear, from beginning to end, as 
far removed as any ordinary Vermetids can be from each other. 

+ The writer doubts respecting this species, and thinks the shell on which it is para- 
sitical to be a Melo, and not Strombus galea, simply because named after Péron, who 
did not visit this district. 43 





558 ReEPorT—1860. 

Page. Sp. 

7 16) Var. a. pennata,=V. margaritarum, Val. Ven. pl. 11. f. 2. (fiz. min.), 
Cal. Mus. Cum. [Athhated to the Californian species on supposi- 
titious evidence, and probably distinct. These appear to be from the 
tropical fauna.] Analogue of the W. Indian 7. decussatus, Gmel. 

73 21. PThylacodes oryzata, Morch. Probably W. Central America, from the 
adhesions; but “China: ” Mus. Cum. 

ee « Var. e. annulatu. Panama. Mus. Cum.* 


In P.Z.S.1861, pp. 229-233, is given a “Catalogue of a Collection of Terres- 
trial and Fluviatile Molluscs, made by O. Salvin, Esq., M.A., in Guatemala: 
by the Rev. H. B. Tristram.” But few of the 49 species occur in Mexican 
collections; none are identical with W. Indian species, except such as 
are of universal occurrence in tropical America; and the 16 new species 
show close generic affinities with the shells of the northern regions of S. 
America. The shells have been identified from the Cumingian celiection. 
The new species are described, and some of them figured. 











Page. No. Pl. Figs 
a | 230 1 .. .. Helix Ghiesbreghti, Nyst. The largest Helix in the New World. 
| 2. we o dehxexmia, Pir 
sc & o« oe MeherLalhana bir, var: 

I eo 4 66 «o¢ Helix ewryomphala, Pfr. Closely allied to the S. American 
| LT, laxata. 

| A 5 oe ee Helix coactiliata, Fér. 
| | Oo 6 2. oe Bulimus Pazianus, D’Orb. 
’ ete 7 «2 «« Bulimus Moricandi, Ptr. 

: ee 8 2. 26 Bulimus Honduratianus, Pfr. 
i | os O98. say va. | Bulemus Dyson) Pir 

i | 10 26 & Bulimus semipellucidus, n.s. Allied to B. diserepans, Shy. 

dd Succinea Pputris, Ln. 


12)... .. =Glandina Ghiesbreghti, Pfr. 

Glandina Carminensis, Morelet. Described from Costa Rica 
Achatina, sp. ind. 
Achatina octona, Lam. 
. Spiraxis Lattret, Pfr. 
ee ee © Sniraxis Shuttleworthii, Pfr. 
Spiraxis Cobanensis, 0. 8. 

19 .. 0 4. = Sprraris, sp. ind. 
-- 20 .. .. Leptinaria Emmeline, n. 8. 
«. 21 .. .. Leptinaria Elise, n. s. ; 
oe 22 1. ae ©Cylindrella Ghiesbreghti, Pfr 
eo» 23 2. «2 Cylhndrella Salpinga, u.s. 
ee 24 2.2. «2. Physa Sowerbyana, D’Orb. 
D oe «« Physa purpurostoma, n.s. Lake of Duenas. 

-- 26 .. 4. Planorbis corpulentus, Say. 
232 27 .. .. Flanorbis tumidus, Pfr. poem: P. tumens, Maz. Cat, 238.] 

-» 28 .. «. FPlanorbis Wyldi, n.sp. Lake of Duejias. 

oe 29) 2. «¢ Planorbis Duenasianus, n.s. Lake of Duenas. 

-- 80 4. .«. Planorbis, sp. nov., in Mus. Cum. 

~ BL oe oe Segmentina Donbilli, n.s. Lake of Duefias. 
oe 82 6. «- Melampus fasciatus, Chem. Salt-marshes on coast. 
ee 33d 2. «6 Adamsiella Osberti, n.s. 


mh 
He CO 
os 
e ° 
“ve 
ae 


v 


ad 
o 

e 

e 


ee @ @ @ € 
* © © © e 


— 
Io 


ts 
= 
ee 
an 
. 

: 

: 





* The present posture of binomial nomenclature is well illustrated in this most elaboe 
rate paper, which few naturalists have professed to understand. ‘The shell of which the 
operculum-spine is figured in plate 25. f. 16, is quoted as “ Siphonium (Stoa) subcre= 
natum, v. spmosa.” ‘he shell described in Maz. Cat. p. 307 is “quoted as ‘“ Vermetus 
(Thylacodus) contortus, var. y. contortula (Thylacodus), forma 1, Thylocodus (?) con 
tortus, var, indentata, Cpr.” Perhaps the sentences of Klein and the early writers are 
more easy to understand and remember, Lhe Chitouide of Middendortl (v. First Report, 
p- 214) are simple in comparison, 


44 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 559 

Page. No. Pl. Fig. 
Py) 840. Cw) Gistula trochlearis, Pfr: 

». BR, 4. ©Chondropoma rubicundum, Morelet. 

.. BU. ee © Megalomastomasimulacrum, Morelet. Described from Costa Rica. 

B37 w. ~~ Cyclophorus ponderosus, Pfr. 

.. 388 ..  .. Cyelopiorus translucidus, Sby. 
233. 39 26 11. Macroceramus polystreptus, n. s. 

.. 40 26 9,10. Helicina Salvini, n.s. Like H. turbinata, Wiegm. Mexico. 
By 4s.) fe Helienaamena Pir: 

-. 42 .. .. Helhcina Oweniana, Pfr. ' 
«» 435 2. .. Helicina merdigera, Sallé: Described from Nicaragua, 

Bee ra enete ) etet EtelcmaplLendent. ett: 

»» 45 ., 4. Helicina chryseis, n.s. Mountain forests of Vera Paz. 

2 -46,47,48.. 4. Paludinella, 3 species apparently undescribed. 

«» 49 .. «. Pachycheilus corvinus, Morelet. Larger than in previously 

noted habitats. 


The vol. for 1863 contains Dr. Baird’s descriptions of new species from 
the Vancouver collections of Lord and Lyall, which will be tabulated, injrd, 
par. 103; and the Review of Prof. Adams’s Panama shells, which has already 
been quoted. 


60. Sowerby, ‘ Conchological Illustrations,’ 1841.—The following are addi- 
tional localities or synonyms :— 


No. Fig. 4 : \ A : 

2 46. Cardium Indicum [is exotic ; closely allied to C. pecianm|, 
56 18. Cardium maculatum, Shy. Cal., &e. = C. maculosum, Sby. (preoe ). 
90 .» Murex imperialis, Swains. Cal. =. pomum, var. Gmel. [| Perhaps dis- 


tinct ; may be the W. I. analogue of bicolor. ] 
91 38. Murex erythrostoma, Swains. Acapulco. [?=Ddicolor, var.] 
45 102. Cyprea albuginosa, Gray. Mexico, Ceyion. [The Ceylon shell is pro- 
bably poraria, sp. 44. ] 
1 45. Erato scabriuscula, Gray. Acapulco. = Marginella cypreola, Sby. 


62 40. Fissurella Lincoln, Gray, MS. [An extremely fine specimen ‘supposed 
“unique ”’) of Glyphis aspera, Esch. Mr. Lincoln is also quoted for 
the “ tinest of the four known specimens ” of Lucapina crenulata, sp. 19, 
f. 31, 88: “Monterey.” 

54 [Erase this line in the former Report, and substitute as follows :—] 

55 Bulimus unfasciatus, Shy. Galapagos. 


‘ Thesaurus Conchyliorum, G. B. Sowerby, &c. To the list in Rep. pp. 

288, 289, may be added :—— 

Page. Pl. Fig. 

ol 12 23, Pecten circularis, Sby. Cal., St. Vincents. [The name may 
stand for the W. Indian shell, the Californian being P. ven- 
tricosus, jun. | 

57 =12 «20,21. Pecten latiauritus, Conr. Cal. +“ P. mesotimeris, Cony.” 

261" 59 144. Tellina sincera, Hanl. N.W. Coast America. {=Panama.] 
769 165 36-38. Venerupis cylindracea, Desh, Cal.,= Petricola Californica, Coxr., 
+P. arcuata, Desh.,+ P. subglobosa, Shy. 

865 179 59-77. Cerithium ocellatum, Brug. Gu'f Cal., &e. =C. irroratum [C. 

B. Ad. (Gld. MS.); non] Gld. KE. E.,= C. interruptum [C. B. 
e Ad.: non Mke, nec} Gld. 
1g. 


Sp. 
47 43, 44, Conus* interruptus, Mawe, Wood. [Slender, coronated sp.] non 
Br. and Sby. Hab, ?— 


* Mr. Sowerby remarks, “ As the collector’s great object is to know the shells, I haye 
preferred, in most cases, giving the species as they stand, stating the alleged differences, 
and leaving the final decision to individual taste.” He further states, with regard to some 
groups, that “the characters of the shells are very uncertain, and the intentions of the 
authors still more so.” The names, references, and localities are given on lists to face the 
plates, and the diagnoses separately, with a copious index. An attempt also i» made to 


45 

















360 REPORT—1863- 

Sp. Fig. 

G4 80. Conus tiaratus, Brod. Galapagos. 

79 128,129. Conus puncticulatus, Brug. Salango, St. Elena, W. Col., Cundang- 
os 130. Conus puncticulatus, vax.,=papillosus, Kien, 

ave 391. Conus puncticulatus. [Mazatlan. ] 

as 392. Conus puncticulatus, var.,=pustulosus, Kien. : ?+ Mauritianus, Lam, 
89 190. Conus virgatus, Rve.,=zebra, Sby., non Lam. [Resembles regularva 


var.] Salango, W. Col., Cuming. 
ae Conus virgatus, var., = Lorenzianus, Rve., non Chem. 

os 193. Conus virgatus, var., = Cumingit. 

106 192. Conus sealaris, Val.,=gradatus, Rve. Salango, W. Col., Cuming. 

127 194. Conus incurvus, Brod. [Resembles specimens from La Paz.| Monte 
Christi, W. Col., Cuming. 

180 285,402. Conus Ximenes, Gray, =interruptus, Brod., non Mawe. [Like puncti- 
culatus, var.] Mazatlan, W. Columbia, Cuming. 


157 324. Conus perplexus, Sby. Gulf Cal., W. Col., Cuming. 
84 384. Conus arcuatus, Br. and Sby. Mazatlan, Pacific (?]. 
15 26-28; Fissurella Mexicana, Sby. Real Llejos, Mexico. | 


e- 78. Fissurella Mexicana, Sby. Porto Praya. Eo eae 
are probably incorrect ; it belongs to the Chilian fauna. } 

41 46, 47. Fissurella rugosa, Sby. W. Indies [= W. Mexico}. 

32 88, 89. Fissurella alba, Cpr. [Gulf of} California. 

55 64, 65. Fissurella nigrocincta, Cpr. [Gulf of } California. 


56 67. Fissurella tenebrosa, Sby., jun. (FGulf of] California. Like the last. 
54 80. Fissurella obscura, Sby. Real Llejos, Cum. [“ Gal.” in P.Z.S. 1834. ] 
68 154-156. Fissurella excelsa, Rve.,+F. alta, C. B. Ad. 

86 123. Fissurella Panamensis, Sby. “In Conch. IIl., this very distinct 


shell is united to that since named F. excelsa, Rve.” 
115 187-189. Fisswrella cancellata, Soland. St. Vincent’s, Honduras Bay, Guada- 
loup, California. [No authority for the latter. ] 
: ie 12,13. Harpa Rivoliana, Less.,= H. crenata, Swains. Acapulco, 
860. 

2 57. Dentalium pretiosum, Nutt. “ =striolatum, Stn. Massachusetts. 
Less curved and tapering near apex than D. entale, more cylin- 
drical throughout, but a doubtful species.” [The type-speci- 
mens are not striated.]| California. 


45 10. Dentalium hexagonum, Gld. N. America: China, Singapore. 

42 34. Dentalium pseudosexagonum, Desh. Masbate, Philippines: We 
Columbia. 

8 41. Dentalium splendidum, Sby. Xipixapi, W. Col. 

29 82. Dentalium liratum, Cpr. “ Ma'gattem.” [Maz. Cat. 244] 

48 31. Dentalium quadrangulare, Shy. Nipixapi, W. Col. [Like ¢etra- 
gonum, but striated, and much salen 

49 =. 21, 22. Dentalium tetragonum, Shy. W. Col. [Young shell square, aduit 


round. | 


In the very elaborate monograph of the Nuculide, by 8. Hanley, Esq., tha 
following species, quoted as from the W. Coast, are minutely described :— 


2 33. Leda Sowerbiana, D’Orb. Xipixapi. 
= WN. elongata, Val. 
=WN. lanceolata, G. Sby., non J. Sby., nec Lam. 
fi 85. Leda Taylori, Hanl.,=N. lanceolata, Lam., non G. nec J. Shy. 
Guatemala. (P. Z. 8. 1860, p. 370.) 
29 70-72. Leda Elenensis, Sby. Panama. 
33 90. Leda eburnea, Sby.,=lyrata, Hds. Panama: Bay of Caraccas. 


elassify the forms according to their natural affinities. It is rarely that monographers 
and artists take such laudable pains to supply the wants of students. In the monograph 
of Galeomma and Seintilla, however, the locality-marks have not been observed to a 
single species, except the “ British G. Turtoni” and its “ Philippine analogue, G. macro- 
schisma, Desh.” ‘This is the more remarkable, as most of the species were described by 
Desh., with localities, in P. Z. 8. 1855, pp. 167-181. 


46 











ON MOLLUSCA OF TILE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 561 


In the ‘ Malacological and Conchological Magazine,’ by G. B. Sowerhy, 
London, 1838, is a monograph of Leach’s genus Margarita. The followiug 
probably belong to the N. W. Coast, and are figured in the Conch. LI. :—- 


Page. 

25, Margarita striata, Brod. and Sby. Boreal Ocean. 

26. Margarita undulata, Sby. Arctic Ocean. : 

26. Margarita costellata, Sby. [Non Brit. Mus. Col. = If pupilla, Gld.; differs in 
having the interspaces of the spiral ribs decussated. Arctic Ocean. 7 

26. Margarita acuminata, Sby. Arctic Ocean. 

30. Aphrodite columba, Lea, = Cardium Granlandicum. 


b 


t 


b 


Several West Coast species were named and figured in the elder Sowerby’s 
‘Genera of Recent and Fossil Shells,’ London, 1820-1824; a work of singular 
merit for its time, but left unfinished*. The stock was purchased by a dealer, 
with a view to completion; but newer works have occupied its place, and 
the valuable plates and text remain useless in hishands. As no dates appear 
in the bound copy of the work, it cannot be stated whether the species here 
named by Mr. Sowerby had been before published. ‘The loss of the original 
work has been in some respects supplied by the completion of the extremely 
similar ‘Conchologia Systematica,’ by L. Reeve, vol. i. 1841, vol. 11. 1&42. 
It might almost be considered a second edition of the ‘Genera,’ of which 
some of the plates occur in the quarto form. References are here given to 
the species reproduced from Sowerby’s unfinished work, which is often qucted 
by Mr. Reeve according to the “ Numbers ” in which it appeared :-= 
Rve. | Sby. 

5 Sowerby’s Genera. 

Cumingia trigonularis. 

3. Cumingia lamellosa. 

4. Cumingia coarctata. 

1. Tellina opercularis (“= T. omerculata, Gmel., = T. rufescens,Chem.,” Rve.]. 

| 1. Luecina punctata (Linn., “= = Lentilaria ps Schum.” Rye. C. S.]. 

2,5. Venus subrugosa. 

7. Venus gnidia. 

2. Cytherea planulata. 

3. Cytherea aurantiaca. 

4 [non 3). Lithodomus caudigerus {[Lam.,=aristatus, Dillw. ]. 

- [Appears to represent attenuatus, Desh. 4 

Modiola semifusca {inside view; exactly accords with Braziliensis, Maz, 

Cat., but is not Lamarck’s species, teste Hanl.]. 

. Lima squamosa { Lam. ]. 

. Ostrea Virginica | Lam. }. 

. Placunanomia Cuming. © Brought by Mr. Henry Cuming from the 
Gulf of Dulce, in Costa Rico.” 

. Lottia gigantea, pera Genus named in Phil. Trans. = Patelloides, Quoy 
and Gaim. PSouth America. [The U.S. E. E. specimens were la- 
belled “V alparaiso.” It comes to us from many parts of the world, 
but is only known to live in Middle and Lower California. = Tecturedla 
grandis, Cpr., B. A. Rep. 1861, p. 187. 

: Siphonaria Tristensis. | The figure is lngulsly like the Vancouver 

| species, S. thersites. | 


be 
oat 


BIO COLO STROH Co to 


ao 





b  pitots 
— me bo bo 


oo 


Crepidula onyx. 
Crepidula aculeata: “= P. auricula, Gmel.” 


to 
go > bo 


Calyptrea Pextinctorium. [Sby., non Lam, The non-pitted form of 
imbricata. | 
Calyptrea spinosa. 


> 


* The last Part (no. 34) appeared “ March 31, 1851,” many years after the previous 
issues ; teste Ianl. 


1863. AT 

















562 r.crort—1883, 


Rye, { Sby. 
Fig. Fig. Sowerby’s Genera, 


5. Calyptrea imbricata. [The pitted form. Appears in C.S%., f.1, a3 C. 
rugosa, Less.”’ | 

7. Calyptrea Pspinosa, var. [The flat, smooth form of spinosa. Appears 1m 
C.5S., fig. 4, as “ C. cinerea, Rve., P. Z. S. 1842,” p. 50. On a log of 
wood floating off Cape Horn. | 

Bulla virescens. 

Nerita ornata [ =scabricosta, Lam.]. 

3. Litorina pulchra, = Turbo p., Swains, 

LTitorina varia. Panama. 

Cerithium varicosum. 

Cerithium Paevficum. [Closely resembles Potamis ebeninus.} 

Fasciolaria aurantiaca | with opere. (non Lam.) =F. princeps,Lam., Rve.). 

Murex phyllopterus and operc. { Appears= Cerostoma foliutum. The 
operc. seems to have been rubbed outside. } 

Coiumbella strombiformis, Lam. 

Columbella labiosa. “ California” [7. e., Panama, &c. ]. 

Purpura patula | Linn. “= Perdicea nodosa, Petiver, = Cymbium tubercsum 
patulum, Martini.” Rve. C. 8. ]. 

Purpura planospirata. 

Purpura callosa | = Cuma cea 

Monoceros lugubre [=cymatwn, Tank. Cat.]. 

Monoceros cinyulatum | Lam.: Leucozonia}. 

Trichotropis bicarinata, and | Nassoid | operculum. 

; et porphyria [Linn., “ , “= Cylinder porphyreticus, D’Arg.,= Castra Ture 

cica, Martini.”” Rve. C. S.]. 

. Cyprea pustulata { Lam. }. 


. 


ce 


Po oun ton 
Or OT LO EI bo 


rhe 


° 





290 Phy 


re: 
Pr REDD 


The following additional West Coast species, figured in the ‘Conch. Syst.,’ 
may be quoted for their synonymy. ‘The authorities for all the species are 
siven, but no localities :— 

Pl. Fig. 

26 1. Solecurtus Dombeyt, Lam. [appears intermediate between S. Dombey?, 
Mus. Cum. , and S. ambiguus, Lam. 

£59 7. Turbo squamiger, Rve. P. Z. 8. 1842, p- 186 [without locality. ‘Gala- 
pagos, Cuming,’ in Conch. Ic. Also Acapulco, Jewett, &e. |. 

229) 2. Turbinellus acuminatus, Wood, Kien. [ closely resembles Latirus eastaneus |. 

203 3. Buceinum elegans, Rve., P. Z. 8. 1842, from Hinds’s Col. [is the southern, 
highly developed ann of B. fossatum, Gld. The name is Ce d 
by. a Touraine fossil, Bi elegans, Duj., in Desh. An. s: Vert. x. p. 219, 
no. 22. As Rve.’s species is a Nassa, and there is another ie elegas, 
Kien., Coq. Viv. p. 56, pl. 24. f. 97,= Nassa e., Rve. Conch. Ic., ic will 
save confusion to allow Gld.’s later name to stand }. 

228 5,6. ae serratum, Dufr.,=Nassa Northie, Gray [= Northia pristis, 
Desh. }. 


62. Reeve, ‘Conchologia Iconica.—The following corrections should be 
made in the abstract, Rep. pp. 289-293. 


20. [Semele flavicans should be flavescens, et passim. 

33. Siphonaria amara “ a Sandwich Is. species, quite distinct from C. lecaniwm]. 

88. Patella clypeaster \is a S. American species, haying no connexion with A. 
putina, or with Monterey]. 

60. Patella cinis | =A. pelta, not patina, var. ]. 

67. Patella vespertina. [P. ,stipulata, sp. 117, is pr obably a var. of this species. | 

C9. Patella toreuma rc var.” in Mus. Cum., « Mazatlan,” probably=lvescens. No 

( 


shell of this Zealand) type has ‘been found on the coast by any of the 
American collectors }. 


* Sowerby’s (correct) name appears on Reeve’s plate; but in the text of C.S., f. 9 is 
called “a species ot Tu, dénelius insevied inadvertentiy,” 


48 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 563 


81. Patella Nuttalliana. (Mus. Cum.,= A. pelta, typical. The figure looks more 
like patina. | 
149. Patella mamillata, Nutt. [non Esch., is an elevated, stunted form of the black 
? var. of scabra, Nutt. The name being preoccupied, this distinct form may 
stand as limatula}. 
64. Fissurella densiclathrata [is distinct from G. aspera. Sta. Barbara, Jewett]. 
67. Turbo marginatus | Rve., non} “ Nutt.” [is a Pacifie species, quoted by Messrs. 
Adams as the Collonia marginata of Gray ; but that is a Grignon fossil, olim 
Delphinula (teste type in Brit. Mus.). The Nuttallian shell, published in 
Jay’s Cat., was described by A. Ad. as Chlorostoma funebrale= Chl. mastum, 
auct. (non Jonas, the true Z. mestus being 8. American, tesie A. Ad. and 
Mus. Cum.) ]. 
39. Cyprea onyx [is the E. Indian, C. spadicea the similar 8. Diegan species]. 


The following species, either quoted from the W. Coast, or known to in- 
habit it, or connected with it by synonymy, have been observed in Reeve’s 
‘Conch. Ic.’ since the date of the last Report. The number of the species also 
refers to the figure. For the remarks enelosed in [ ] the writer of this Re- 
port, here as elsewhere, is alone responsible. 


56. Fusus turbinelloides, Rve., Jan. 1848.  ?Africa, Mus. Cum. [ = Stphonala 
pallida, Br. and Sby.; spines somewhat angular]. 

62. Fusus cancellatus, Lam. “ Unalaska, Kamtschatka, Mus. Cum.” [Doubtless 
the origin of the prevalent locality-error ]. 

10. Fusus Nove-Hollandie, Rve., Jan. 1848. N. Hol., Metcalfe. [As Mr. Met- 
calfe gave numerous West Coast shells to Brit. Mus. under locality “N.H.,” 
this shell also was probably from W. Mexico,= F. Dupetithouarsii, Kien. | 

91. Fusus Gunneri, Lov., (Tritonium), Ind. Suec. p.12. Greenland. [= Tro- 
phon multicostatus, Esch. The fig. should be 99, 6; f. 91= Bamffius. | 

52. Cardium pseudofossile, Rve. ‘P. ZS. 1844.” Hab. ?— [Not found in 
P. Z. 8.,=C. Californiense, Desh., 1839, non C. Californianum, Conr., 
1837. This is the Eastern form; the Californian Pvar.= C. blandwn, ae 

67. Buceinum modrficatum, Rve., Dec. 1345. Hab. ?— [Agrees sufficiently we! 
with worn specimens from La Paz, Mus. Smiths.,= Szphonala, closely 
allied to pallda. | 

62. Buecinum dirum, Rve., Dec. 1846. Hab.?— Mus. Cum. [Worn specimen 
of Chrysodomus Sitchensis, Midd., 1849,= F. incisus, Gld., May 1849. | 

110. Bucetnum corrugatum, Rve., Feb. 1847. Hab.?— [‘ Zruncaria,” Cuming, 
MS. “ Pisania,’ H. Adams. Vancouver, most abundant. | 
2. Sanguinolaria ovalis, Rve., March 1857. Cent. Am. [?=S. miniata, jun, 
3. S. tellinoides, A. Ad., is the same, adolescent; 5. S. purpurea, Desh., adult. } 
4, Psammobia maxima, Desh., P. Z. 8. 1854, p. 317. Panama. [Closely resems 
bling Ps. rubroradiata, Nutt. Puget Sound. ] 

19. Mytilus palliopunctatus, Dkr. Cal. and Mazatlan. [No authority for Cal.] 

41. Mytilus bifurcatus, Conr., J. A.N.S. Phil. Hab. ? [Conr. assigns his Nuttallian 
species to California; but it is the common Sandw. Is. species, teste Pse. 

he Californian shell, with the same sculpture, is a Septifer, and is the 
S. bifurcatus of Mus. Cum. | 

44. Mytilus Sallei (Dreissina), Recl. Central America. [? On which slope. ] 

52. Mytilus Cumingianus, Recl. Panama. [ Septifer.] 

60. Mytilus glomeratus, Gid. Hab. ?—* {[Gould’s species is from California, but 
the name is attached to a very different shell in Mus. Cum. ] 


* Several species occur in the recent monographs without locality, which are well 
known to inhabit the W. Coast. This is partly due to the writer not thinking it neces- 
sary to refer to published booksfor information, and partly to the changes which have of 
late years been made in the principal authority, viz. the Cumingian collection. By the 
redistribution of species into the modern genera, the student is greatly aided in his search 
for special forms; but, for the sake of uniformity, the autograph labels of collectors or 
describers of species are generally rejected, the names being either in the handwriting of 
the clerk or from the printed index in the monograph, and representing only the judg- 
ment of the latest worker, which may or may not be correct, Synonyms, whether real 


4 49 


ee ee —eeeeeeeeeeeeEeEEEEeEeOEEEEEEEOEEeorreeee 











564 
11. 


17. 


15. 


14. 
16. 


ao 


REPORT—1869. 


Modiola capax, Conr. Galapagos, Cwming. [Lower] California, Nuttall. 
Mazatlan, Carpenter. (Reigen is the authority for the shells described 
in the Maz. Cat., not Cpr. } 

Modiola Braziliensis, Chem. “ Brazil.” [At f. 31, which appears the true 
Brazilian shell, we are informed that this specimen is a ‘variety from 
Guayaquil.” | 

Modiola nitens, “Cpr. Cat. Reigen Col. Brit. Mus. California.” [The shell 
was erroneously described as from “ California” in P. Z.S., aud does not 
appear in the Reigen Mazatlan Cat.: = 1. subpurpureus, Mus. Cum. ] 


. Lithodomus cinnamominus, Chem. Philippine Is. and St. Thomas, W. I. [=Z. 


cinnamomeus, Maz. Cat. 177. Probably an Adula.] 


. Lithodomus Cumingianus, Dkr., MS. “ North Australia and Mazatlan.” [The 


species is figured from the Mazatlan specimen, which may probably be 
the adult form of Z. calyculatus, Cpr.* The cup is not distinct, but 
shows a tendency to the peculiar formation described in Maz. Cat. no, 174. 
Rve.’s diagnosis, however, appears written from Dkr.’s Australian speci- 
mens, so labelled in Mus. Cum.—a very distinct species, without incrus- 
tations. The name was given by Mr. Cuming to a large Chilian species 
brought by the U.S. Expl. Exp. | 


. Lithodomus Gruneri, Phil. MS. in Mus. Cum. “N. Zealand.” [The species 


=L. falcatus, Gid., and is certainly from California, where it is found in 
the rocks with Pholadidea penita. | 

Lithodomus teres, Phil. “Mazatlan.” [The specimens in Mus. Cum. are 
labelled “ Cagayan, Phil.” } 

Lithodomus coarctata, Dkr. Galapagos, Cuming. [= Crenella e., Maz. Cat. 172. ] 

Lithodomus caudigerus, Lam. “ West Indies” [without authority]. “The 
calcareous incrustation produced beyond the ant. extremity is no specific 
characteristic.” [Vide reasons for contrary opinion, Maz. Cat. no. 176: 
= L. aristatus. Dr. Stimpson has seen Lithophagus arranging its peculiar 
incrustation with its foot. } 


. Lithodomus pessulatus, Rve. (Oct. 1857). Hab. 9— [The unique sp. figured is 


labelled “ Mazatlan” in Mus. Cum. It resembles plumula, with ventral 
transverse ruge. | 


. Lithodomus subula, Rve. Hab. ?— [= L. plumula, vay. | 
. Avicula Cumingii, Rve., March 1857. “Ld. Hood’s Is., Pacifie Ocean, 


attached to rocks, 10 fms., Cuming.” |?=Margaritiphora fimbriata, 
Dkzx., var. | 


. Avicula barbata, Rve. Panama, under stones at low water, Cuming. [= IM. 


Jimbriata, Dkr.,=M. Mazatlanica, Hanl.| “ Differs from Cumingit in 
regular sequence of scales, developed only at margin, and yellowish tone 
of colour.” 


. Avicula heteroptera, Lam. N. Holland. “ =A. sterna, Gld.” [Gould’s species 


is from Gulf Cal.; but in Mus. Cum. it is marked inside “ senusagitta.” | 


. Placunanomia foliata, Brod. Is. Muerte, Bay Guayaquil. “ May=echinata, 


W.L., but has very much larger orifice.” 


. Placunanomia macroschisma, Desh. ‘ Onalaska, Cuming” [who never was 


there]. Kamtschatka, Desh. [Vancouver district, abundant. ] 

Thracia plicata, Desh. “ Myr. Cuming has specimens from California and St. 
Thomas, W.1.” [Cape St. Lucas, Xantus. | 

Melania. {Various species are described from ‘“ Central America,” &c., which 


or supposed, are rejected altogether. Thus shells sent to Mr. Cuming, with authentic 
name and locality attached, may appear soon after without any, or with erroneous, 
quotation. The error is rendered graver by appearing with the weighty authority of 
“Mus. Cum.” 

* The species described in the Brit. Mus. Cat. seldom appear in the monographs, 
unless there happen to be a specimen in Mus. Cum. Some of the monographers often 
content themselves with figuring the shells that come most easily to hand; and do not 


seem 


to consider it a part of their work to pass judgment on previously described 


species, or to concern themselves with what are small or difficult. 


50 





50. 


367. 
. Cancellaria funiculata, Hds.,= C. lyrata, Ad. and Rve. Gulf Magdalena. 
56. 


10. 
12. 


72. 


30. 


12. 


15. 
22. 


ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 565 


may or may not belong to the Pacific slope. They should be studied 
in connexion with U.S. forms, but are not here tabulated. | 

Melania Buschiana, Rve. “California.” [No authority. Very like the 
young of M. scwpio, Gld. | 

Melania nigrina, Lea, MS. in Mus. Cum. “Shasta, California.” 


Litorina irrorata, Say. “Sitcha.” [The “ Sitcha” shell is Z. modesta, Phil. 
Say’s species is the well-known form from the Gulf of Mexico. | 


. Terebra strigata, Sby., + elongata, W ood., =flammea, Less.,=zebra, Kien. “ Pa- 


nama, Galapagos, and Philippines, Cuming; Moluccas, &c.” [Painting 
in stripes. | 

Terebra robusta, Hds. Panama, &e. [= 7. Lorotst, Guér., teste Rve. P. Z.S,. 
1860, p. 450. Painting splashed. | ; 

Terebra variegata, Gray. ‘Mouth of the Gambia, Senegal, Mazatlan, Co- 
lumbia. It is well known to those who have studied the geographical 
distribution of animal life, that the fauna of the West African seas, 
north of Sierra Leone, is in part identical with the fauna of the seas of 
California and the W. Indies; and geologists, among whom was the late 
Prof. E. Forbes, have laboured, not unsuccessfully, to account for this 
phenomenon.” [ Vide Maz. Cat. p. 157, B. A. Rep. p. 865. In the pre- 
sent instance, however, there will be more than cne opinion as to the 
identity of the species here quoted. ]+ TZ africana, Gray, + T. Huper, Lorois, 
+ T. intertincta, Hds.,+ 7. marginata, Desh., + T. albocincta, Cpr., + 7. 
Hindsir, Cpr.,+ T. subnodosa, Cpr. 

Terebra armillata, Hds. “ Panama, Galapagos. Somewhat doubtful whether 
this is not a var. of 7. variegata.” [If the others are, probably this is. 
Those species of Hinds, which Mr. Reeve has not altered, are not here 
repeated. 


. Lerebra dislocata [as Cerithium], Say. “Southern U.S. and California.” [No 
34. 


authority given for Cal. ] 

Terebra rudis, Gray, “ = M. rufocinerea, Cpr. 8. Carolina, Jay. Somewhat 
doubtful whether this is not a var. of dislocata.” |'The J. rufocinerea is 
one of the difficult Mazatlan shells, and should share the fate of 7. Hindsit 
and 7. subnodosa. | 

Terebra cinerea, Born. “W. Africa, Hennah; Japan, Hds.; Philippines, 
Cuming; W.1., C. B. Adams; Mazatlan, Cpr.” |i. e. Reigen. The same 
remarks apply to this group as to vartegata, &e.]+ T. castanea, Kien., non 
Hds.,+ T. laurina, Hds.,+ T. luctuosa, Hds.,+ T. stylata, Hds.,+ 7. Jumai- 
censis, C. B. Ad. 


. Terebra aspera, Hds.,+ T. Petiveriana, Desh. Panama, 8. A., Cuming, Bridges. 
. Calyptrea tortis, Rve. Galapagos, Cuming. 

. Calyptrea alveolata, A. Ad., MS. Galapagos, Cumung. 

. Crepidula excavata, Brod. Chili[?], Cuming. 

. Crepidula nautiloides*, Less., MS. in Mus. Cum. “New York.” [=Q 


dilatata. | 


. Crepidula marginalis, Brod. Panama, Cuming. [V. Maz. Cat. p. 292, note.] 
. Crepidula rugosa, Nutt. Upper Cal. [An accidentally ribbed specimen, 


figured from Mus. Taylor. 


. Crepidula fimbriata, Rve. (June 1859). Vancouver’s Straits. [This is to 


navicellordes, Nutt., no. 97, as Lessonii is to sguama ; simply an accidentally 
frilled var. } 

Crepidula adunca, Sby. [Not] Panama. =C. solida, Hds.,=rostriformis, 
Gld. [This is the northern species from Vancouver and Cal., and is not} 
=uncata, Mke. 

Crepidula arenata, Brod. St. Elena (not Helena, Desh.), Cuming. 

Crepidula aculeata, Gmel. Lobos Is., Peru, Cuming; California, Nitt., Cpr. 
[t.e. Mazatlan, Rewgen|; Honduras, Dyson; Sandw. Is., Austr., Kur- 


* Several 8. American forms are here quoted for the synonymy ; because in Calyptraide 
the species often have a wide range, and should be studied in connexion with their 
neighbours. ‘ 


51 











=S+ 4 


—— 


Ss == 


ee ES 





REPORT—1863. 
rachee, mouth of Indus. + C. hystryzx, Brod.,+ C. echinus, Brod. ,+ C. Cah= 


fornica, Nutt. ° F 
. Crepidula rostrata, C. B. Ad. Panama. [=C. uncata, Mke., nom. prior. This 
tropical form presents distinctive marks. ] 
. Crepidula exuviata, Nutt. Monterey. [=C. explanata, Gld.,=C. perforans, 
Val. An abnormal form of C. navicelloides, Nutt. : C. nummaria, Gld., is 
the opposite cee 
. Crepidula bilobata, Gray [t.e. Cpr.], MS. in Mus. Cum. {= C. dorsata, Brod. 
Vide Maz. Cat. no. 336, where the origin of the MS. name would have 
been found explained. It appears to be principally a northern species 
= C. lingulata, Gld.] 
. Crepidula lirata, Rve. {Gulf of] California. [Intermediate form between 
C. incurva and C, onyx, described in Maz. Cat. p. 277.] 
. Crucibulum scutellatum, Gray. “= C. rugosa, Less.,= C. imbricata, Sby., non 
Brod.” Payta, Zess.; PuntaSt. Elena, Cuming. { Vide Maz. Cat. no. 343. ] 
. Crucibulum rugosum, “Desh., non Less.,= C. lignaria, Brod., ? var. = C. gem- 
macea, Val.” Island of Chiloé, Cuming. | Vide Maz. Cat. p. 290. ] 
. Crucibulum ferrugineum, Rye. Bay of Conception, Chili, Cuming. [=C. 
quiriquina, Less., D’Orb., = C. Byronensis, Gray, in Brit. Mus. Like a 
rough degraded form of C. spinosum. | 
. Crucibulum umbrella, Desh.= C. rudis, Brod. Panama and Real Llejos. 
's corrugatum, Cpr. “Cal.” [ Mazatlan, Jewett, P. Z. 8. 1856, p.204. ] 
35 embricatum, Brod. Panama. [=C. imbricatum, Sby.,=C. scue 
tellatum, Gray, no. 2, var. | 
10. Crucibulum spinosum, Sby. Seas of Central America. [Extends northwards 
to California; southwards it degenerates into C. gairiquina. |= C. peziza, 
Gray,+C. hispida, Brod.,+ C. maculata, Brod.,+ C. tubifera, Less.,+ C. 


cinerea, Rve. 
11. Crucibulum pectinatum, Cpr., P. Z. S. 1856, p. 168. Peru. [ Panama, Jewett. ] 
Nile 35 auritum, Rye.,=C. striata, Brod., non Say. Valparaiso, Cuming. 


[Passes into Galerus. ] 

21. Crucibulum serratum, Brod. Real Llejos and Muerte, Cuming. [Like 
young of C. pectinatum; nearly transparent; white, with purple ray. | 

22. Crucibulum sordidum, Brod.,+ C. unguis, Brod. Valparaiso and Panama, Cume 
ing. [= Galerus; v. Maz. Cat. p. 292, note. The author distributes the 
species of this genus between Zrochita and Crucibulum. | 

4. Trochita aspera |Rve. as of] C.B. Ad. Panama. [The small var. of Galerus 
conicus. Probably = C. aspersa, C. B. Ad., no. 331.] 

7. Trochita subreflera, Cpr., MS. in Mus. Cum. Gulf of California. [ = Galerus 
subreflecus, Cpr. in P. Z. 8. 1855, p. 233.] 

9. Trochita corrugata|?cujus. Comp. Calyptrea corrugata, Brod. |. Callao, Cuming. 

8. Trochita spirata, Fbs. ‘? =P. trochiformis, Chem.” Gulf California. [ Vide 
anted, p. 542. | 

10. Trochita solida [?Rve.]. Conchagua, Mus. Cum. [?= Galerus mamillaris. ] 

ll. Perna anomioides, Rve. March 1858, Califernia, Mus. Cum. [No autho- 
rity ; appears= P. costellata, Conr., Sandwich Islands. ] 

18. Perna Californica | Rve., non] Cony. California, Conr. [i. e. Nudt.] Honduras, 
Dyson. “ Distinguished by the Pedum-like form and clouded, livid 
purple colouring. {This is the well-known large tlat West Indian species; 
not known in California. ] 

3. Umbrella ovalis, Cpr. Mouth of Chiriqui River, Bay of Panama, [not] Cuming 
as Bae The species was also found at Cape St. Lucas by 
antus. 
6. Lanthina fragilis, Lam.,=T. striulata, Cpr. West Indies, Mazatlan, California. 
[ Vide Maz. Cat. no. 242: non J. striolata, Ad. and Rye. | 

19. Lanthina decollata, Cpr. Probably = J. globosa, vavr.. [ Maz. Cat. no. 245. Of 
the two Maz. forms, provisionally named, this appears the least entitled 
to specific rank. | 

40. Columbella Bridgesit, Rve. April 1858. Panama, Bridges. [Appears the 
small yar. of C. major. | 

43. Columbella Boivini | = Boivinii, Kien.|. Gulf Nicoyia, Hinds, 


52 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 567 


46. Columbella acicula, Rve. California. {No authority. ] 

56. Columbella encaustica, Rve. Gulf California, Lieut. Shipley, Mus. Cum, 

57. .Columbella vexillum, Rve. Gulf California. [No au‘hority. | 

62. Columbella cribraria, Quoy and Gaim. [i.e. Lam.]= C. gttata, Sby. Panama, 
common under stones, Cuming. |No other localities given. V. Niti- 
della cribraria, Maz. Cat. no. 613. ] 

72. Columbella electroides, Rve. Bay of Guayaquil. 

74. Columbella Pacifica, Gask. Galapagos. 

109. Columbella pusilla, Sby. Island of St. Vincent, W. I. “= Nitidella Gouldit, 
Cpr.” [The Netidella is a distinct Upper Californian species. ] 

120. Columbella lactea, Rve. Gulf Calif., Wr. Babb, RN. [A Nitidella, so tran- 

' sparent that the axis can be seen throughout. | 

122. Columbella Sta-Barbarensis, Cpr. Sta. Barbara. “ Not merely faintly striated, 
teste Cpr., but unusually grooved.” [Described from a worn specimen 
in Jewett’s Col., and named to mark a more northern limit to the genus 
than had been assigned by Forbes. The label was probably incorrect, as the 
shell lives in the tropical fauna, C. S. Lucas, Xantus: Acapulco, New- 
berry ; Guacomayo, Mus. Smiths. The name (as expressing error) should 
therefore be altered to C. Reevei, Cpr. ] 

123. Columbella spadicea, Phil, MS. in Mus. Cum. Mazatlan. [Described by 
Phil. in Zeit. f. Mal. 1846: B. A. Rep. p. 225.] 

180. Columbella venusta, Rve. (Mazatlan, EL. Philippi.) =C. teniata, Phil. [in 
Zeit. f. Mal. 1846], not Ad. and Rve., [ Voy. Samar. 1850; therefore Phil. 
has precedence. ?=Anachis Gaskoinet, Maz. Cat. no. 652. The Sama- 
rang shell is probably a Mtvdedla. | 

152. Columbella sulcosa, Shy. Annaa and Ld. Hood’s Islands*. Cuming. 

135. Columbella Gouldi, Agass., MS. in Mus. Cum., Noy. 1858. [= Amyela Goul- 
diana, Agass., Atlantic; non Mitedella Gouldu, Cpr. | 

142. Columbella uncinata, Shy. Is. Muerte, Bay Guayaquil. [Acapulco, Jevett.] 

165. Columbella Californica, Rye. April 1859. California. [No authority, 
Like Anachis lirata. | 

176. Columbella rorida, Rve. Lord Hood’s Island*, Cuming. [Transparent, 
glossy, with necklace of opake white dots. | 

Genus Meta { = Conella, Swains, eliminated by Rve. from Columbella; but Anachis, 
Strombina, Amycla (pars), and Nitidella, which do not even belong te 
the same family, if the opercula are to be trusted, are left in the old place. 
Of the six species, the author only knew the locality for one], M. Dupontie, 
Kien.—Ichaboe, South Africa; [but that of | AZ. ovoides, “CO. B. Ad., 
MS.” [is shown by his published works to be Jamaica; and the following 
are from the West Coast]. 

3. Meta Saat Rve. {La Paz, Mus. Smiths.; C. S. Lucas, Xantus; Panama, 
Jewett. 
4, Meta coniformis, Shy. [? Panama, Jewett. ] 

24, Ziziphinus luridus, Nutt., MS. in Mus. Cum. California. [Is not known from 
the American coast ; comp. Sandwich Islands. | 

25. Ziziphinus eximius, Rve., P. Z. 8. 1842. Panama, sandy mud, 10 fms, 
[=T. versicolor, Mke., 1850,=Z. Californicus, A. Ad., 1851. Scarcely 
differs from “ Javanicus, Lam.,” in Mus.Cum. The form was dredged by 
Mr. A. Adams in the eastern seas. 

31. Ziziphinus Antoni, Koch, in Phil. Abbild. pl. 1. f. 4. Australia. [Scareely 
differs from the shouldered var. of Calliostoma lima (Phil.) C. B. Ad., 
which is called eximiu:, Rve., in Brit. Mus. Col. 

23. Trochus Japonicus, Dky., [represents Pomaulax undosus on the east side]. 

24, Trochus digitatus, Desh. Distinct from ungiis, with base like gubberosus. 
Central America. [Mr. Reeve’s distinct shell is perhaps not that of Desh., 
and not from the West Coast. ] 

26. Trochus undosus, Wood.=T. gigas, Anton. California +. 


* Vide Report, 1856, p. 168, note §§. 
+ Mr. Reeve states that, although this species is most like gibherosus, “Messrs. Grav and 
Adams contrive to place them im diflurent genera,” It is still wore remarkable that, wile 


03 


5€8 REPORT—1863. 


39. Trochus auripigmentum, Jonas. Panama. [Probably not from W. America. ] 
17. Phasianella perforata, Phil. Mazatlan, Panama+ Ph, compta,Gld.* Rather 
out of place +; has neither form nor texture of Phastanella. [The aberrant 
| form is due to the figured’ specimen being quite young; the adults in 
Brit. Mus. Col. prove the texture, colouring, and operc. to be normal. | 
Genus Simpulopsis. This group, intermediate between Vitrina and Succinea, is 
stated to be peculiar to Brazil and Mexico, where Vitrina is not known. 


In the Monograph of Terebratulide, which is prepared with unusual care, 
and the general introduction to which is well worth attentive perusal by all 
students, occur the following species which bear upon the West Coast fauna 
or synonymy :— 


2. Terebratula (Waldheimia) dilatata, Lam.,=T. Gaudichaudi, Blainv. “Str 
Magellan,” teste Gray, in Brit. Mus. Cat., without authority. [The E. 5. 
specimens varied considerably in outline ; and according to Darwin, and 
what we know of the variations of fossil species, it is quite possible to 
believe that this and the next species had a common origin. The great 
development of this most interesting form in the cold regions of South 

| America is extraordinary. | 

| 3. Terebratula (Waldheimia) globosa (Val.), Lam., from type. = T. Californica, 

| Koch. California, Coquimbo. Californian form well known; small 

|| specimen in Mus. Taylor, marked ‘de Coqpimbo.’ ” Genet appears no 
| authority for the general belief that this fine species is Californian. It was 
| taken in abundance by the naturalists of the U. 8S. E. E. at Orange Bay, 
| Magellan. The Californian shell, which is probably the original Cali- 

il fornica, Koch. (not of authors) is a distinct species, teste Rve. from Dr. 

| Cooper’s specimens. | 

| 7. Terebratula (Terebratulina) radiata, Rve., Mus. Cum. ? Straits of Corea, 

W Belcher. [Very like the adult of 7. caurina, Gld. } 

11. Zerebratula uva, Brod. Bay of Tehuantepec, Guatemala; 10-12 fms. sandy 
mud, on dead bivalve, Capt. Dare. Mus. Cum. and De Burgh. [The 
analogue of 7. vitrea, Med. } 

16. Terebratula (Terebratulina) Japonica, Sby., = T. angusta, Ad. and Rve. Corea, 

Japan. ‘Represents 7’. caput-serpentis, and probably the same.” 

. Terebratula physema, Val., MS. (unique), Coquimbo. Gaudichaud, 1833. 
May be a colossal, broadly inflated var. of globosa. 

Orbicula Cuming’, Brod. | Besides information in Rep. pp. 183, 244, is given] 
Is. Catia, Guatemala ; sometimes 6-18 fms., Cuming. O. strigata, Brod., 
is a less-worn state of this species. [The type-specimens of Discina stri- 
gata in Brit. Mus., on Pecten ventricosus, appear very distinct, and are 
unusually shelly for the genus. | 














t© 
oo 


o 


excluding Ziziphinus (= Calliostoma), Mr. Reeve “ contrives to place” in Trochus animals 
shown by the opercula to belong to different subfamilies, as though we knew no more than 
in Lamarck’s days ; his motley group containmg Imperator (= Stella, H. and A. Ad.)+ 
Lathopoma + Guildfordia+ Chrysostoma + Bolma + Modelia + Polydonta + Tectus+ 
Pomaulax + Astralium+ Pachypoma+ Uvanilla, Also ina family the genera and species 
of which are mainly recognized by the base and mouth, most of the shells are only figured 
on the back. Very often the characters of the aperture are not even stated. Remarkable 
liberties are, moreover, sometimes taken with geographical facts, to the great astonishment 
of Americans, who expect even their schoolboys to avoid such statements as at sp. 57, 77. 
diminutivus, Rve., “ Oahu Islands ;” and at sp. 1, Lingula ovalis, Rve., “from W. H. 
Pease, Esq., residing at Honolulu, one of the Sandwich Islands.” 

* P. compta is a distinct Californian species ; its Pvarieties pass into pulla. If Mr. 
Reeve can be followed in uniting to pulla, pulchella, Recl. ; + affinis+ tessellata+pulchella 
+coneinna, C. B. Ad. ;+ tenuis, Phil. ;+-intermedia, Scacchi ;+ Capensis, Dkr. ; + elon- 
gata, Krauss, Gould’s species should join this goodly company, rather than perforata. 
‘The same standard of union followed among the large shells would greatly lessen the size 
of this costly work. 

+ So is Phasianella rubra, Pease MS., sp. 18, which belongs to Alcyra, A. Ad.; allied 
to Hucheluse 

54 











ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA, 569 


7. Orbicula ostreoides, Lam.,= O. Norvegica, Sby. (non Lam.) + O. striata, Sby.+ 
Crania radiosa, Gld.+ O. { Diseina] Evansu, Dav. PN.W. Africa. “The 
locality, ‘ Bodegas, Cal.,’ given by Mr. D. with O. Evansit, on Mr. Cuming’s 
authority, must, I think, be a mistake.” [The genus has not been found 
on the Californian coast by any American collector. 
Venus * grata, Sby.,+tricolor, Sby. Gulf of Mexico, Mus. Cum. [= Tapes 
grata, Say, Panama. The locality-labels have probably been misplaced. 
These specimens are undoubtedly from the West Coast, nor has any 
authority appeared for the species in the Atlantic, The Gulf of Mexican 
“analogue ” is Z. granulata. The forms are intermediate between Chione 
and Tapes. 
9. Venus multicostata, Shy. Bay of Panama, in coarse sand at low water, Cuming. 
“Probably = V. Laster?,var.,with ribs more tumidly thickened androunded.” 
[The West Coast shells are distinguished by the very slight crenulation 
of the ribs at the sides. | 
19. Venus asperrima, Shy. Guacomayo, Centr. Am., sandy mud, 13 fms., Cuming. 
“A form of pectorina; shell of lighter substance, broader and more de- 
pressed ; sculpture more elevately and definitely latticed.” [This is the 
shell named by Mr. Cuming V. cardioides, Lam., and should take that 
name, as prior to Sby.’s, if really distinct from peciorina. Also from 
Panama. Mus. Smiths. | 

22. Venus discors, Sby., jun. St. Elena and Guacomayo, Centr. Am., sandy mud, 
6-9 fms., Cuming. * “Concentric decussating ridges cease abruptly at the 
posterior third.’”” [Character very variable, even in the type-speciniens ; 
= T. grata, Say, var. | 

25. Venus pectorina, Lam., p. 844,+ V. cardioides, Lam. Centr. Am., Mus. Cum. 

[Probably Atlantic ; much heavier and stumpy; sculpture coarser ; teeth 
more like casina, whereas cardioides, no. 19, has a long anterior tooth 
like sugillata t. | 

26. Venus cingulata, Lam.,=pulicaria, Brod. W. Columbia, Cuming. [=V. 

Pinacatensis, Sloat, MS. in Mus. Smiths. Guaymas. The peculiar 
smoothing-off of the central sculpture in the adult may be varietal. It 
is improbable that Lam. was acquainted with the species. | 

83. Venus crenulata, Chem.,=crenata, Gmel. W.1. = V. eximia, Phil.,+ V. ere- 

nifera, Sby.,+ V. Portesiuna, D’Orb. [Not to be confounded with the 
V. crenifera, Maz. Cat.: has a small Cyprinoid lateral tooth, but no 
radiating ribs near lunule, nor long anterior tootht. | 
85. Venus Californiensis, Brod.,= V. leucodon, Sby. Guaymas, Gulf Cal., sandy 
mud, low water, [teste] Cuming. Mus. Cum. [= V. crassa, Sloat, MS. in 
Mus. Smiths. Not V. Californiana, Conr.,=V. simillima, Sby. This 
species, with V. neglecta, compta, &c., haying the mantle-bend nearly 
obsolete, approach Anomalocardia subimbricata, and with that species 
form a natural group, differing from the typical Venus as Lioconcha does 
from Callista:= V. succincta, Val, | 
41. Venus Kennerleyi, Cpr., MS.t{ in Mus. Cum. Hab.—? [Puget Sound, 
Kennerley. | 

43. Venus sugillata, Rve. California, Mus. Cum. Characterized by the shining 
purple umbos, finely latticed sculpture, dark-stained lunule and liga- 
mentary area. [= V. crentfera, Sby., teste Rve.,” Maz. Cat. no. 105, 
in all essential characters. Differs in the long anterior tooth being still 


oo 


* Through the kindness of Mr. Reeve, with a view to the completion of this Report, 
T was enabled to compare the figured specimens in this genus with the text, and with 
the shells of the Se collection, before they were distributed. The bracketed notes 
in the text are based on this examination. They are given with unusual detail, because 
of the unique opportunity of throwing some light on a confessedly difficult family. 

+ The characters of the teeth and pallial line frequently afford satisfactory diagnostic 
marks between critical species, which are often overlooked by monographers. 

+ The descriptions of Dr. Kennerley’s shells had long been written, and would have 
been published but for the American war. The localities of all the West Coast shells sent 
from the Smiths, Col. to Mr. Cuming were duly marked in the accompanying catalogues, 


59 











ee 


570 REPORT—1863. 


_ longer, and in the purple colour. This, however, in the figured speci- 
men, has been brought-out by the free use of acid, and the markings have 
been considerably obliterated by the ‘“ beautifying” process. | 

44, Venus simillima, Sby. San Diego, Cal. “ Resembles V. compta in detail of 
sculpture’ [but perfectly distinct, belonging to the amathusia group. 
It shows the evil of the very brief diagnoses of the earlier conchologists 
that so discriminating an author as Mr. Conrad should have taken tls 
shell for the V. Californiensis, Brod.; and, quoting it (lapsw) as V. Cali- 
forniana, redescribed the true V. Californiensis as V. Nuttallii. It is 
known by the great closeness of the fine sharp ribs. ] 

46. Venus =crenulata, no. 33, very distinct var. Gulf Cal.; more globose, interior 
purple rose. [This was sent as “Cape St. Lucas, Xantus.” It appears 
truly distinct from the W. L. crenulata, and to be the normal form 
of which pulicaria, no. 26, is an extreme var. Inside, and outside in 
the adolescent state, they agree exactly; differing outside, in the adult, 
in smoothed-offribs and more distinct V-markings. Mr. Reeve, however, 
still thinks it more like cren/fera. It may stand as “ ? var. Zilacina.” | 

47. Venus gibbosula, Desh., MS. in Mus. Cum. Hab. ?— | Guaymas:= V. Cortez, 
Sloat. This is the more rounded and porcellanous form of V. fluctifraga, 
=V. Mdtalli of Brit. Assoc. Report, and Nuttallian paper in P. Z. 8. 
1856, p.21; but not the true V. Nadtalli, Conr., v. infra, no. 49. Interior 
margin very finely crenated on both sides of the hinge. | 

48, Venus compta, Brod. Bay of Sechura, Peru, coarse sand and mud, 7 fims., 
Cuming. {This rare species seems to represent V. Californiensis in the 
South American fauna. It is well distinguished by its shouldered form, 
produced ventrally, and by the Circoid pallial line, far removed from the 
margin. Guacomayo, Mus. Smiths. | 

49, Venus Nuttall, Conr. California. [Named from type, teste Conr. ips., v. 
anted, p. 526. This is the dull northern form of V. succincta, as flucti- 
Fraga is of gibbosula, the species appearing nearly in the same parallels in 
the Gulf and on the Pacific coast, but not found in the Liverpool Reigen 
Col.; nor at Cape St. Lucas. In all essential characters, Nuttalli (though 

ointed) and Californiensis (though rounded) appear the same; but Mr. 
teeve still thinks otherwise. The figured specimen has been altered with 
acid. The V. exeavata is not noticed by Mr. R. | 

51. Venus mundulus, Rve. Hab. ?— [This shell was obtained by Dr. Stimpson 
in the N. P. Expl. Exp., and bears the Smiths. Cat. number “1845. San 
Francisco, very common at low water,” = Tapes diversa, Sby. jun. This 
is the highly painted, finely sculptured state of 7. staminea, Conr. (not 
“ T. straminea, Cony.” Sby.,= T. grata, var.) The abnormally ridged form 
is V. ruderata, Desh. Conch. Ic. sp. 180. By its large pallial sinus and 
bifid teeth it is a true Tapes. | 

52. Venus intersecta, Sby. Puerto Puero [? Portrero], Centr. Am., Cuming. 
[The shell is exactly identical with no. 19, asperrima=cardioides ; but the 
figure might mislead, the colour-lines appearing as ribs. | 

54. Venus subrostrata, Lam. * yi. p. 343, = V. neglecta, [Gray] Sby. Hab. Mazatlan 
and West Indies. “ Lam. having cited a figure of the China species, V. La- 
marckit, the species was lost sight of till Sby. renamed it.” [The Lamarck- 
tan species was probably West Indian. V. neglecta closely resembles 
the young of V. Californiensis, but has the ligamental area smooth only 
on one valve, instead of both. ] 

59. Venus Stutchburyi (Gray), Wood, Sandwich Is. Comes very near to the 
Californian V’. callosa, [Sby., non] Conr., of which specimens have been 
found also at the Sandwich Is. [V. Stutchburyi is the New Zealand 
species, which may easily be confounded with the Californian. Although 
both may be obtained at the Sandwich Is., there is no evidence that either 


* In critical species, when it is impossible to be positive which of two or more was 
intended by an old author, it appears best to retain the name of the first discriminator. 
The old name belongs to the general form: the discriminator ought to retain it for a 
part; but if that has not been done, it avoids confusion to drop it. 


06 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 571 


lives there. The shell here figured is beaked lke Nuttalli, no. 49; In- 
nule very faint; concentric ridges very faint, but sharp; radiating ribs 
very coarse. Inside deeply stained; margin not crenated on the sharp 
anterior edge, though faintly on the lunule ; hinge-teeth stumpy. | 

60. Venus muscaria, Rve. Hab.?— [Has the aspect of a West Coast species, 

between cardivides and fine var. of stanunea; sinus large; teeth strong, 
not bifid; lunule with radiating ribs. | 
68. Venus undatella, Sby. Gulf Calif. {Not a satisfactory species, the type 
having the aspect of a poor specimen altered for cabinet. The “sculpture 
much changing in its development towards the margin” is an accident 
often seen in the cancellated species. Similar specimens of V. neglecta, 
no. 54, collected at Cape St. Lucas by Mr. Xantus, agree with wndatella 
in all respects, except that this is violet within, neglecta being white. 
Ligament-area (as in neglecta) smooth in one valve only. | 

77. Venus Adamsit, Rve. Japan. [Closely related to Tapes lacinata, San Diego, 
in size, aspect, hinge, &c. Differs in mantle-bend being not so long or 
ee and the radiating sculpture much finer:= V. regida, Gld., MS., in 

timpson’s st; non Gld. in ‘ Otia.’] 
80. Venus ornatissema, Brod, Panama, sandy mud, 10 fms., Cuming. Still unique. 
[Like V. gnidia, jun., but radiating ribs coarser and more distant; con- 
centric frills not palmated ; lunule pale, laminated. | é 

87. Venus callosa |Sby., non] Conr. Sandwich Is. and Calif. [ Vide note to no. 
59. Thisis the V. Nuttalhi of the Brit. Assoc. Report. Those who regard 
it as distinct from fluctifraga, of which gibbosula, no. 47, is the extreme 
form, may retain the name callosa of Sby., but not of Conr. Conrad’s 
species = C. nobilis, Rve.; differing from the true Calliste, as Mercenaria 
does from Venus, in having the ligament-plate rugose.] = V. fluctifraga, 
Sby., teste Rve. in errata. 

105. Venus bilineata, Rve. Gulf Calif. Partakes of the characters of compta 
and subimbricata: all three may indeed be different states of one and the 
same species. [The shell figured at 105d has all the peculiar features of 
compta, which are clearly marked within; only the concentric waves are 
closer than usual. The shell figured at 105a appears to be the true we- 
datella, only in fine condition, the type being 3 It has exactly the 
same internal characters, including colour; only the colour-lines outside 
are arranged in rays instead of \s. Mr. Reeve, however, retains his differ- 
ent opinion. | 

116. Venus Cypria, Sby., P. Z. S. 1852. Is. Plata, West Columbia. [From same 
district, teste Schott in Mus. Smiths.] Has all the appearance of being 
an attenuately produced form of the West Indian V’. puphia [which is 
also from Cape Verd Is., teste Macgillivray in Brit. Mus. }. 

11. Dione * maculata, List. West Indies ; Brazil; Pacific Ocean, Widely distri- 
buted in both hemispheres. {No authority for the Old World; the Pacific 
shells are Callista chionea, var. | 

Dione nobilis, Rve., 1849. Cal. [=C. callosa, Conr., 1837. The original 

name, from type, had been communicated to Mr. R., but is not quoted. ] 

20. Dione semilamellosa +, Gaud., = C. iupanaria, Less. Centr. Am. [ =/lupinaria, 

Maz. Cat., no. 95. Vide Deless. Rec. Coq. pl. 19. f. 2: “ China Seas,” no 
authority. | 

21. Dione brevispinata, Rve.,=brevispina, Sby. [Gulf of] California. [Scarcely 

differs from C. rosea, jun. | 

22. Dione multispinosa, Shy. Peru. Concentric ridges thinly laminated; spines 

slender and numerous. [An extreme form of the Pacific C. Dione (teste 
Hanl.) ; distinct from semzlamellosa. | 
25. Dione Veneris, D’Arg. Conch. pl. 21. f. 1.=V. Dione, Ln. West Ind. and 


15. 


or 


* The figured types of this genus had been accidentally mislaid; and might alter the 
judgments given in the text. 

t ‘ For obvious reasons, I think it best to abandon the foul name given to this lovely 
species by Lesson,” Rve. (Vide Maz. Cat. p. 70, note.) ? Weuld not the same reasons 
lead to the alteration of meretrix, impudica, &c. 


o7 














ae 


eee 








572 REPORT—1863. 


Centr. Am. [The Pacific shells should rank with species 22, if sup 
posed distinct. The fig. is 24, not 23. 

24, Dione exspinata, Rve. Centr. Am. Distinct, if the others are; like semila- 
mellosa, without spines. [Appears to be C. rosea,jun. The fig. is 23, 


not 24. 
25. Dione circinata, Born. Mazatlan, Mus. Cum. {without authority.]=V/. 
28, a, 6. rubra, Gmel.,+ V. Guineensis, Gmel.,+ C. alternata, Brod. [f. 28 repre- 


sents alternata; the other figures appear to be from West Indian spe- 
cimens, though that ancient locality is not mentioned. Several of the 
reputed West Coast shells are, however, of the typical form and colour. ] 

33. Dione unicolor, Sby., = Chione badia, Gray, = Cyth. ligula, Anton. W.Columbia. 

38. Dione prora, Conr. “Cape St. Lucas, Xantus, California; Carpenter.” 
[A very distinct form among the thin inflated species ; only yet found at 
the Sandwich Is., v. no. 45. 

45, “(Mus. Smithsonian Institute of N. America.) This shell, from Cape St. 
Lucas, Xantus, California, proves to be the Dione prora (Cytherea prora, 
Conr.) of our preceding plate.” [Mr. Sowerby’s figure well represents 
the unique specimen from Cape St. Lucas, which was taken alive by Mr. 
Xantus. The quotations in Conch. Ic. would lead to the inference that 
“ Xantus ” was regarded as that part of “ California” in which Cape St. 
Lucas is situated. Both the external and internal characters require 
that a separate name be given to the shell, which stands as Cullista pol- 
hicaris, Annals Nat. Hist. vol. xiii. p. 312. ] 

46. Cytherea consanguinea, C. B. Ad. Mus. Cum. Apparently a small spe- 
cimen of a variety of C./eta. [Panama. Differs from C. /eta in inter- 
nal characters. | 

62. Dione pannosa, Sby.,= Cytherea lutea, Koch,+ Callista puella, Cpr. Chili, 
Peru, Mazatlan. [No authority for Mazatlan. The name puella given 
to the Cape St. Lucas specimens was intended as varietal ; although 
Mr. Cuming regards the panuviarl and Peninsular forms as distinct. It 
is not known along the Central American coast. | 

25. Circe nummulina, Lam. “ Central America.” [Probably not from the 
American seas. Admiral Sir E. Belcher is, however, confident that he 
dredged many well-known E, Indian forms in deep water, off San Bias. } 

27. Cytherea. In this genus are grouped the Trigone ; besides the typical species, 
= Meretrix, Gray. 

Cytherea crassatelloides, Cony. “ Bay of California.” [Not known geoera- 
phically. The shell is not found in the Gulf, being a most characteristic 
Californian species. San Francisco, 8. Diego, &e. | 

27. Cytherea radiata, Sby., + C. gracihor, Sby.,= V. Salangensis, D’Orb. = T. By- 
ronensis, Gray. Salango and Xipixapi, 9 fms. sandy mud, Cuming. 

45, Cytherea nitidula, Lam. Mediterranean. [The figures and descriptions of 
Sby. and Rve. well represent specimens from Cape St. Lucas, Xanius. 
Perhaps not identical with Lam.’s species. 

9. Tapes grata, Desk. Philippines. [May stand as 7. Deshayesii, if it be con-. 
ceded that Say’s V’. grata ranks best with Tapes. | 

7. Solarium granulatum, Lam. Mexico. 

8. Solarium verrucosum, Phil. W. Indies. P=S. granulatwn, var. 

15. Solarium placentula, {| Rve.=placentale,| Hds. Bay Magdalena, 7 tms., Belcher. 

19. Solarium quadriceps, ds. Panama. Young state of same type as sp. 7 and 8, 
“from same locality (Pan., Mex., W.1.),” but grows much larger. {The 
Texan shells in Mus. Smiths. are as large as those from Cape St. Lucas : 
the variations on each coast are coordinate. | 


63. Kiener.—The following species may be added to the list quoted from 
“ Coquilles Vivantes,” in Rep. pp. 293, 294:— 
Page. PL Fig. 


€ 


¢ 


16. 11. rh Conus regius, Chem., = C. princeps, Ln., W. Mexico. 


1100. cae Conus Largilherti, Kien. Mexico. {Coast not stated. ] 
ets. 


58 


212. 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 573 


Page. Pl. Fig. 
Yon 2 


213. 2. Conus Philippii, Kien. Mexico. Get not stated. | 
65. 27. 38. Pleurotoma triticea, Kien. Indian Ocean. [Probably Cithara 
stromboides, Val. ; Cape St. Lucas. | 
45, 9. 2. Columbella suturalis, Gray (Griff. pl. 41. f. 2)=C. costata, Ducl. 


Mon. pl. 12.f. 1, 2. Pacific, Coasts of Peru [= Anachis fluc- 
tuata, Sby. |. 
46. 16. 4. Columbella bicolor, Kien. Hab. ?— [= A. rugosa. ] 


64, 65. (German Authors.) Pfeiffer.—Everything relating to the land- 
shells of North America will be found so thoroughly collated in the works 
of Mr. Binney (v. infra), that it is only judged needful to present here the 
most important references to the writings of the great authority on the 
Pulmonata, The student must necessarily consult the ‘ Symbol ad Histo- 
riam Heliceorum, Cassel, 1841’ et seg., which contains the following ori- 
ginal authorities :— 


1846. p. 89. Achatina Californica, Pfr. Monterey, Cal. 
91. Achatina ( Glandina) turris, Pfr. Hab.?— [Genus altered to Oleacina, 
Mon. Hel. iv. p. 640. Maz. Cat. 231.] 


In the same author’s great work, ‘ Monographia Heliceorum Viventium,’ 

Lipsiz, 1847-8, occur— 

Page. , 

Vol.I. 1847. 324. Helix Sagraiana, D’Orb. Cuba, California. [Sowerby’s 
error, copied by succeeding writers. The specics is ex= 
clusively Cuban. ] 

38. Helix fidelis, Gray. Oregon.= H. Nuttalliana, Lea. 
339. Helix Californiensis, Lea. California. + H. Nickliniana, 
Lea. {Quoted as a distinct species in Vol. 1V. p. 269. ] 
(Vol.38. 229. =H. arboretorum, Val.) 
341. Helix Townsendiana, Lea. California. 
(Vol. 3. 229. =H. pedestris, Gld.,+ruida, Gld.) 
428. Helix Oregonensis, Lea. Oregon. 
(Vol. 4. 227. =H. Dupetithouarsit, teste Pfr.) 
Vol. TT. 1848. 101. Bulimus Mexicanus, Lam, Tabasco, Mexico, =H. (Cochlo- 
gena) vittata, Fér. 
(Vol.4. 492. =O,thalicus M., Cpr.) 
143. Bulimus zebra, Mull.* Mexico, &e = Zebra Miilleri, Chem. 
=Bulimus undatus, Brug. * = Orthalicus livens, Beck *, 
+ B. princeps, Brod.+ B. melanocheilus, Val. 
231. Bulimus (Cochlogena) melania, Fér, California. = Melania 
striata, Perry = B. borinus, Brug. 
Vol. IT. 1853. 127. Helix Pundore, Fbs. St. Juan del Fuaco. 
(Vol.4. 847. © =H. Damascenus, Gld.) 
415, Bulimus Humboldti, Rve.= B. Mexicanus, Val. [? non Lam. ] 
Mexico. 
422. Bulimus Californicus, Rve. California. 
Vol, TV, 1859. 89. Helix Mazatlanica, Pfr.,n. s. (Mal. Blatt., Apr. 1856, p. 43.) 
Mazatlan. 
268. Heliz exarata, Pfr., n.s. California. 
270. Ielix retyculata, Pfr. (Mal. Blatt. May 1857, p. 87). Cal. 
276. Helix Mormonum, Pfr. Mormon Island, California. 
347. Helix cultellata, Thomson. Contra Costa Co., California. 
350, Helv arrosa,Gld. Hab. ?— | California. ]+ eruginosa, Gd. 
420. Bulimus chordatus, Pfr. (Mal. Blatt., April 1856, p. 46.) 
Mazatlan. 
472, Bulimus Ziegleri, Pfr. (Mal. Blatt., Dec. 1856, p. 232.) 
Mexico. = Orthalicus Z., Cpr. 


® These appear as three distinct species in Vol. IV. p. 588-9, with the addition of B 
longus, Pfr. (= Orthalicus U., Mal. Blatt., Oct. 1856, p. 187.) 


09 











574 REPORT—1863. 


In the ‘ Monographia Pneumonopomorum Viventium, &e., Cassellis, 18527 
by the same learned author, the following is the only species which occurs :-- 
Suppl. 1858, Vol. IL. p. 7. Truncatella Californica, Pfr. San Diego. 

In Wiegmann’s ‘ Archives fiir Nat.,’ 1837, vol. i, p. 285, occurs the fole 
lowing species, also without authority :— : 

Perna quadrata, Anton. California. 

In Troschel’s ¢ Archives fiir Natur’ are quoted the following :— 

1843. Vol. Il. p. 140. Fasciolaria sulcata, Less. Acapulco. 
1849. yp. 99. Lerebratula Catifornica, Linsley. 

In the ‘Abbildungen und Beschreibungen neuer oder wenig gekannter 
Conchylien, herausgegeben von Dr. R. A. Philippi,’ Cassel, 1845-51, are 
figured the following, which must be quoted as being original descriptions, or 
for the synonymy :— 

Page. Pl. Fig. : 
Feb. 1846. 4. 1. 9.  Cyrena solida, Phil. California, &e. 
Aug. 1846. 24.4. 7. Tellina pisiformis, Ln. Mazatlan, &e.=L. pulchella, Ad. 
? = Cardium discors, Mont. 


Oct. 1844. 4. Cytherea Dunkeri, Phil. W. C. Mexico.=C. Pacvfica, 


Mus. Berol., non Dillw. 
Apr. 1847. 33. 7. 1. Cytherea (Artemis) gigantea, Sby. California. ?=Ar- 
temis ponderosa, Gray. 
Jan. 1845. 1. 1. 1. Murex nigritus, Phil. ?P W. C. Mexico. 
April 1847, 11. 7,8.1.  Haliotis fulgens, Phil. ? California. = H. splendens, Rve. 
Oct. 1846. 5. 2. 1,10. Lurbo Fokkesii, Jonas. Gulf of California. 
S. jz.) Ue Pe strigilatus, Ant. California. = 7. pellis-serpentis, 
Wood. 
July 1844. 7. 2. 5. Patella (Acmea) discors, Phil. Mexico. 
April 1850. 9. 2. 8. Lueina obliqua, Phil. ? W.C. America. 
9. 2. 9. Lucina pisum, Phil. Mazatlan. 
2, 1. 38. Pecten tunica, Phil. ‘Sandwich Islands*. £. B. 


Philippi.” Jan. 1844. [=P. latiawritus, Conr., teste 
Hanl. S. Diego, &c.] 
5. 1. 5. Pecten Fabricii, Phil. Greenland. [= P. Islandieus, 
jun. Non P. Fabric, Gld.,= P. Hindsit, jun. | 
11. 6. 9. Lrtorina aberrans, Phil., P. Z. 8. 1845, p. 142. Pa- 
nama, on rocks. [=Tall var. of L. conspersa. | 
Tn Dr. L. Pfeiffer’s « Novitates Conchologice,’ Series II., Marine Shells, by 


~ Dr. W. Dunker, Cassel, 1858, occur the following species from Sitka :— 


Page. Pl. Fig. 
ie 1. 38,4. Tritonium carinatum, Div. Sitka. [Should be pl. 
[=T. angulosum, Mérch, on plate. | 


Lo 
rh 
ee 
i 
pe 


? 


2, 1. 1,2. Tritoniwm Morehianum, Dix. Sitka. [Should be pl. 2. f. 1, 2.) 

3. 2. 5,6. Tritonium rutilum, Morch. . Should be pl. 1. f. 5, 6. 

4. 1. 5,6. Tritonium Rombergi, Dix. _ Should be pl. 2. f. 5, 6. 

2. 2. 3,4. Neptunea harpa, Morch. = Should be pl. 1. f. 3, 4 

7, 2. 1,2. Neptunea castanea, Morch. ” Should be pl. 1. f. 1, 2.) 

| =N. badia, on plate. | 

35. 10. 6, 7. Murex ( Hemifusus) Belcheri, Hds., var. ?— [= Chorus B., L. Cal.] 
39. 12. 7-9. Cytherea (Tivela) arguta, Rim. Isthmus of Panama. Resembles 


C. ( Trigona) mactroides, Born. {Probably Caribbean. | 
66. British Museum Collection —“< Lunatia ravida, Souleyet, Panama,” 


* A large number of Californian shells have been assigned to the Sandwich Is., in con- 
sequence of the abundant trade between the two localities. ‘They may often have beer 
obtained at Honolulu by naturalists, who had no reason to doubt their having lived there 
All that is known of the genuine Hawaian fauna will shortly be published by Mr. Sow- 
erby, for W. H. Pease, Esq., of Honolulu. 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 575 


is given without authority; and the locality is probably erroneous. Various 
other shells are scattered in the national collection, assigned either generally 
to the West Coast or to special localities, which it has not been considered 
needful to tabulate without confirmation. 

68. Various sources.—Under this head may be arranged gleanings from 
European authors not consulted in preparing the first Report. 

In the ‘ Histoire Naturelle des Coquilles,’ by L. A. G. Bosc, Paris, 1830, 
the following species, not previously quoted, are assigned to the West Coast, 
but without authority :— 

Vol. Page. 
Ill. 44. Venus paphia. W. America. 
280. Nerita fulgurans, Bose. W.C. America, 


290. Natica rugosa, Chem. a 

IV. 60. Helix peregrina. Islandon ,, 
152. Trochus solaris. cf &e. 
156. Trochus radiatus. oF &e. 
219. Murex lima. W.C. N. America. 


In Lesson’s ‘ Illustrations de Zoologie,’ Paris, 1831-2, appear— 
Plate. 
2. Calypeopsis tubifera, Less. [= Crucibuhim spinosum ]. 
41.(1832.) Trichotropus Sowerbiensis, Lesson. Seas of New World. = Trichotroms 
bicarinata, Br. & Sby.= Turbo bicarinatus, Shy. 
48. Terebra flammea, Less. |? = T. strigosa|, Antilles ; Isth. Panama. 
51. Tegula elegans, Less. | = T. pellis-serpentis|. Isth. Panama. 

The following West Coast shells are named and figured by Dr. Gray in 
‘Griffith’s Edition of Cuvier’s Animal Kingdom,’ London, 1834. In some 
instances there are also a few words of description :— 
na Fig. 


41. 
41. 


LIntorina pulchra. 

. Turbenella ceratus [? Turbinellus |. 

. Columbella suturalis {Kiener figures this shell for Anachis fluctuata, Shy. 
1832. The original might stand for many species]. 


Oo orc 


36. 2. Nassa Northie {= Northia serrata, Kien. |}. 

36. 3. Turbinella tubercular’s | = Latirus tuberculatus (=ceratus, C. B. Ad.)]. 

23. 5. Terebra Africana. {The Gulf Cal. shell, =variegata. 

25. 2. Triton (Pusio) elegans | = Pisania insignis, Rve., 1846}. 

37. 2. Columbella harpaformis [ = harpiformis, Sby. |. 

87. 6. Clavatula Griffithti. [Probably = Pl. funicuiata. The shells in this plate 
are reversed, but are repeated correctly in pl. 57 *. | 

19. 1. Cytherea Dronea, var. [= C. semilamellosa, Gaud.; perhaps intended fcr 


C. dione, var. |. 


In Woodward’s most valuable ‘ Manual of the Mollusca,’ London, 1851-6, 
the following species are quoted as from “ California ” :— 


Page. Pl. Fig. 3 
108. 5. 5. Cancellaria reticulata, Dillw. [?W. Indies.] 
Vil. Physa Maugere. {? Ecuador. | 


329. 23. 22. Parapholas bisulcata, Conv. {v. Rep. p. 265. Not known from the 
Californian or W. Mexican coasts. Resembles P. calva]. 

In the very valuable handbook of bivalves, ‘ Recent Shells, by S. Hanley, 
London, 1842-56,’ will be found either quoted or original diagnoses of all 
West Coast species known to the learned, patient, and minutely exact com- 
puler. As the locality-marks are simply transcripts, they are not here repeated, 
especially as “California” is used for both the temperate and the tropical 
faunas. The following synonyms will be serviceable to the student :— 


Page. 
16. Solen subteres, Conr., ?= S. Dombei, ?+ Californianus. Upper Cal. 
28. Lutraria lineata, Say,= (Cryptodon) Nuttalhit [teste Hanl., non] Conr, 


61 




















576 REPORT—] 863, 


Page. 
72, Tellina inconspicua, Br. and Sby., ?= Sanguinolaria [ Californiana, Conr., non} 


fusca, Conr. [=the Eastern species]. 

In the Appendix are the following species, of which small figures are given, 
to rere with those in Wood’s ‘Ind. Test ‘— 
Pag See 
3: 330, 13. 50. Pertploma obtusa, Hanl. W. America. 
S41. 12. 5. Amphidesma proximum, C. B. Ad.,= A. corrugatum, Ad. Mexico. 
373. 18. 51. Arca Reeveana, D’Orb. W. America. =.4. squamosa, var., D’Orb. 

= A, Helbingit, Rve. 

888. 24. 40. Meleagrina Mazatlanica, Hanl. Mazatlan [= M. fimbriata, Diy. }. 


The following are extracted from the ‘ Journal de Conchylhologie,’ Paris, 


1850 :— 
Page. Pl. Big. 
No. 1. Feb. 1850. 57. 3: A, Columbella Haneti, Petit. ? Mazatlan. 
4. Dec. 1850. 410. Observations on Nerita scabricosta, Lam., by 
Petit. West Coast of N. America. 
Vol. 3. 1852. 57. 2. 11. Mitra Haneti, Petit. Mazatlan. 
1853. 53. 2. 11,12. Natica Taslei, Recl. Mazatlan. 
1853. 84,166. 6. 13- 15. Gnathodon trigonum, Petit. Mazatlan ie 
5 
5 


> 


mendica, Gld., 1851]. 
12. = Recluzia Rollandiana, Recl. [Genus de- 


4 

4. 1853. 119. 
scribed.] _ Mazatlan. 

4 


1853. 154. 9,10. Natica Moquiniana, Recl. ? West Coast of 
America. 
Series IT. 
Vol. 2. Oct. 1857. 171. Adeorbis Verrauzii, ae Californ; 
285. 6. Skenea Verrauxii, Fischer. Reais 
292. Review of the Brit. Assoc. Report and Brit. 
Mus. Reigen Catalogue, by Fischer. 
Vol. 9. 209. Review of the Smithsonian Check Lists, by 
Fischer. 


The following species are figured in Chénu’s ‘ Illustrations Conchyliolo- 
giques’; but no authority is given for the localities, nor etymology for the 


remarkable names :— 


Page. Pl. Fig. 

8: 52. 19.20. Oliva selasia, Ducl. Acapulco. 
13. 7. 8,4, 21,22. Oliva caldania, Ducl. California. 
13. 7. 5,9, 28,24. Oliva razamola, Ducl. California. 


Le 115, i 2,10, 1. Ohvia azemula, Ducl. California. 

OS Ge ed, 8, Oliva mantichora, Ducl. California. 

ao, 12. 10 Oliva pindarina, Ducl. California. 
VG hg Be ? 


28.927. 19; 10: Oliva todosina, Ducl. , California. 


An excellent commentary on the above species, and on the difficult genus 
to which they belong, is supplied in the ‘ Revue Critique du genre Oliva,’ by 
M. Ducros de St. Germain, Clermont, 1857. It was written, not from the 
well-known London collections, but from a very large series containing all 
the types figured by Duclos. The following is the author’s arrangement of 
the West Coast forms, excluding citations of well-known species. 


No. Page. 

25. 49, Oliva angulata does not include azemula, Ducl., as Rve. says ; that being 
a var. of ponderosa+ erythrostoma. 

96. 50. Oliva Maria, u.s., pl. 2. £.26,a, 6; intermediate between Julietta and an- 
gulata. California, teste Duclos. [Appears to be one of the vars. of 
Cumingit. | 

98, 52. Oliva reticularis. To the typical W. Indian shells are united those from 
California, Panama, Madagascar, Japan, N. Holland, N. eines &e. 


62 





2 


ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COASf OF NORTH AMERICA. 77 


Bo. Page. 
: The synonymy includes venulata+araneosa+ Cumingii+ortola (Ducl. 
non Lam.) + pindarina + fusiformis + timoria + obesina + tisiphona + 
memnonia+aldinia+oniska+ caldania+harpularia+candida+ ustulata, 
63. 83. Oliva Steerie, Rve. Mazatlan, Ed. Verreaux. =| testacea, var. | 
67. 86. Oliva Deshayesiana, n.s. Atlas, pl. 3. f.67,a,6: intermediate between 


Braziliensis and auricularia. California, teste Duclos. [Certainly not 
from the West Coast. | 

68. 87. Oliva volutella, Lam.-+-razamola, Ducl. 

71. 89. Oliva undatella, Lam.+nedulina, Ducl.; but not ozodona, Ducl., as Rve. 
says. 

73. 89. Oling lineolata, Gray in Wood’s Ind. Test. = purpurata, Swains.=dama, 
Duel. [i. e. dama, Goodall in Wood, = lineolata, Gray MS. in B. M., 
Zool. Beech. Voy. |} 

75. 91. Oliva selasia, Ducl. Acapulco; teste Ducl. “ We know nothing of this 
remarkable shell but the specimen figured by the author.” 

85. 96. Oliva mutica, Say+rufifasciata, Rve. [assigned by error to the Californian 
O. betica, var. |+-jfimbriata, Rve. 


In the most recent and among the most valuable of the contributions to 
our knowledge of local faunas, ‘ Mollusques de Vile de la Réunion, par M. 
G. P. Deshayes,’ Paris, 1863, occur very unexpectedly the following species 
connected with the West Coast, either by name or by identity. The list of 
550 species from this little island, which the researches of M. Maillard has 
brought to light, contains several West Indian forms and a large number 
known in the Central Pacific and even the Sandwich Islands. 

No. Page. 
38. 16. Chama imbricata, Brod. 
47, 19. Lucina tigerina, Ln. ‘Common on sands, with Capsa deflorata, as at 
the Antilles.” 
65. 23. Modiola cinnamomea, Chem. { Botula, Morch, teste A. Ad.] 
110. 40. Chiton sanguwineus, Desh. pl. 6. f.4-7. [Non Ch. sanguineus, Rve. As 
the West Coast shell= Ischnochiton limaciformis, Sby., the Bourbon 
species may retain its name, especially if, as is probable, it belongs to 
another genus. | 
197. 68. Solarium { Torinia] variegatum, Lam. 
216. 74. Turbo phasianellus, Desh. Minute edition of T. petholatus ; nacreous. 
[Not congeneric with T. phasianella (Phil.), C. B. Ad., Panama shells, 
no. 282. 
233. 79. Natica Maire Lam., Q. and G. Astr. pl. 66. f. 16-19. [P= ma- 
roceana, Chem. | 
307. 95. Cerithium uncinatum, Gmel. Thes. Conch. pl. 180. f. 78, 79. [P= C. un= 
cinatum (Gmel.), Sby. | 
393. 114. Purpura patula, Lam. { Linn. }. 
403. 115. Purpura Pochrostoma (Bl.), Rve. [ Sistem). 
405. 115. Purpura (Coralliophila) madreporarum, Shy. [? Rhizocheilus. = Lepto- 
conchus monodonta, Quoy, teste Gld. Otia, p. 215. | 
446. 132. Terebra luctuosa, Hds. 
560. 140. Cerithium Gallapaginis (A. Ad.), Sby. Thes. [Sby.’s species = znter= 
ruptum, Mke., non C. B. Ad., no. 198, rough var. | * 


93. Smithsonian Institution.—At the time of the first Report, the tempe- 
rate fauna of the West Coast was only known through sources liable to error, 
the collectors having visited other regions besides Oregon and California, and 
the species described by American authors being but imperfectly understood 
in this country. The large accession to the number of authentic species, the 
uunportant elimination of synonyms, and the assignment of ascertained loca- 


* The review of the remainder of the first Report, nos. 69-92, will be postponed till after 
the production of the new materials, which are almost entirely from American sources. 


1863, > 
63 




















578 Rz?PoRT-—1863. 


lities, which are placed on record in this Report, are due almost entirely to 
the stimulus afforded to science in general, and to this branch especially, by 
the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, D.C. The fund bequeathed by 
Mr. Smithson, “for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men,’ 
having been declined by the Universities to which it was offered in the Old 
World, is held (in trust only) by the U.S. Government *. It is administered 
by a permanent body of Regents, according to a constitution drawn-out at 
their instance by the Secretary, Prof. J. Henry, LL.D. It may be safely 
stated that to his unswerving consistency, cautious judgment, and catholic 
impartiality it is mainly owing that, during various political and social 
changes, the Institution has not only steered clear of all party bias in the 
United States, but has distributed its advantages with equal hand on both 
sides of the Atlantic. The Natural History department is under the special 
superintendence of the Assistant-Secretary, Prof. Spencer Baird, M.D., whose 
indefatigable zeal, fertility of resource, and thorough knowledge of the re- 
quirements of the science have enabled the Institution, by a comparatively 
small outlay, not only to amass in a few years an enormous store of accurate 
materials, but also to eliminate from them a series of publications on various 
important branches of American zoology. The contributions of the Smith- 
sonian Institution to our knowledge of the West Coast fauna may be consi- 
dered under [A] its collections and [B] its publications. 

[A] Smithsoian Collections —According to the present law, all collections 
made in expeditions fitted ont by the Government become the property of the 
Smiths. Inst., with liberty to exchange duplicates. Its museum, therefore, 
is rich in types; and its liberal policy allows of all duplicates being trans- 
mitted to public collections, to schools of science, or to individuals engaged 
in special departments of study. Not being forced into an unalterable plan 
of operations, like many leading museums of the Old World, permission was 
given to send nearly the whole of the molluscs to this country, that they 
might be compared with the Cumingian, the Brit. Mus., and other leading 
collections+. The importance of thus establishing a harmony of nomencla- 
ture for species on both sides of the Atlantic can scarcely be over-estimated. 
The previous want of it can be abundantly seen by comparing paragraphs 
39, 43, 54, &c., in the first and in this Report. The West Coast collections 
belonging to the Smiths. Inst. are mainly from the following sources : 

a. The United States Exploring Expedition, under Capt. (afterwards Admiral) 
Wilkes, 1837-1840, v. par. 43. 

6. The North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Capt. Rogers, 1853-1855. 
Collector, Dr. Stimpson. 

¢. The Pacific Railroad Expedition, 49th parallel, under Governor J. J. 
Stevens, 1853-54. Collections made in Puget Sound by Dr. Suckley, 
and at Columbia River by Dr. J. G. Cooper. Dr. Suckley also collected 
at Panama. 

* The war has but to a limited extent curtailed the funds and interfered with the 
operations of the Institution. 

+ The Cunard Steamship Company have most liberally conveyed these stores across 
the Atlantic, free of cost. The British and American Governments have allowed special 
facilities for passing the Custom Houses without derangement. Similar acts of liberality 
and courtesy are continually afforded to the Smiths. Inst.—The materials for this Report 


have been placed unreservedly in the hands of the writer, although he went to Washing- 
ton as a complete stranger, and with no other introduction than his published writings. 


64 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 579 


d. The Pacific Railroad Survey, under Lieutenant R. 8. Williamson, 1853. 
Collector, Dr. A. L. Heermann. 

e. The Pacific Railroad Survey, under Lieutenant R. S. Williamson, 1855, 
Collector, Dr. J. S. Newberry. 

f. United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, under Major W. H. Emory, 
1852. Collector, Arthur Schott. 

g. Colorado Expedition, under Lieutenant J. C. Ives. Collector, Dr. J. 5. 
Newberry. 

h. The United States North-West Boundary Survey, under Com. A. Camp- 
bell. Collectors, Dr. Kennerley and Mr. George Gibbs. 

Besides the above official explorations on the American side, during a 
period in which the British Government only fitted out a single expedition 
coordinate with h, the Smiths. Inst. has received a large number of pri- 
vate collections from their correspondents, of which the following are the 
principal :— 

2. Mr. Jas. G. Swan, from Port Townsend, Cape Flattery, Neeah Bay, and the 
neighbouring shores of Vancouver; at intervals, during many years. 

j. Dr. J. G. Cooper, early private collections from Shoalwater Bay and various 
stations in California and from Panama; and lately the dredged collections 
of the California State Geological Survey, of which a portion were sent 
in advance by Dr. Palmer. 

k. California Academy of Natural Sciences, duplicates of their collection, 
with the privilege of inspecting unique specimens. 

1. Dr. E. Vollum, U.S.A., from Fort Umpqua. 

m. Lieutenant W. P. Trowbridge, from coast of Oregon and California. 

n. Dr. J. A. Veatch, from the peninsula of Lower California, and especially 
from Cerros Island. 

o. Mr. A. 8. Taylor, from Monterey. 

p- Mr. Andrew Cassidy, from 8. Diego. 

g. Rev. J. Rowell, now of San Francisco, from various stations in both faunas, 
and especially from Sta. Crux, and the Farallones Is. 

r. Mr. John Xantus, of the U.S. Coast Survey, from Cape St. Lucas. Speci- 
mens were received through him from Socorro Island (one of the Revilla- 
gigedo group), Tres Marias and Margarita Island. 

s, Captain C. P. Stone, from Guaymas and the northern part of the Gulf of 
California. 

t. Captain C. M. Dow, from the coast of Central America. 

u Dr. J. H. Sternberg, from Panama. 

. Dr. J. H. Frick, Mr. James Hepburn, and others, from San Francisco. 

w Mr. C. N. Riotte, U. S. Minister to Costa Rica, from Puntas Arenas. 

5. Mr. W. H. Pease, of Honolulu, collections made by his agents at various 

stations on the coast, particularly at Margarita Bay. 

Collections have also been received from various expeditions already tabu- 
lated in the first Report; and from stray quarters not here included because 
their accuracy may admit of doubt. The species received from the most im- 
portant of these sources will be enumerated in their order ; of the remainder, 
exact lists may be consulted by the student in the Smithsonian Catalogues, 
and the combined results will be found tabulated as ‘ Pacific Railroad Expe- 
ditions’ or ‘Smithsonian Collections.’ 

[B] Smithsonian Publications—These may be classed under three heads. 
(1.) Works published by the U. 8. Government, with more or less of assist- 
ance derived from and through the Smiths. Inst. (2.) The ‘Smithsonian 
Contributions to Knowledge,’ printed in 4to, and answering to the ‘Trans- 


5 65 


S 


& 





























ee ee  _____ 


= SS 























280 REPORT—1863. 


actions’ of English learned societies; and (3.) The ‘Miscellaneous Collece 
tions,’ in 8vo, answering to the ‘ Proceedings’ of the societies :— 

(1.) The series of ten 4to volumes, called ‘ Pacific Railroad Reports,’ con- 
tains a complete résumé of the natural history of the western slope of North 
America. The Recent and Tertiary Fossil Mollusca will be analyzed in the 
following pages. Accounts have also been published of the natural history 
of other expeditions.—The annual volumes of ‘ Reports of the Regents of the 
Smithsonian Institution,’ published by the U. 8. Government, contain exact 
accounts of the assistance rendered to the expeditions by the Smiths. Inst., 
as well as lectures and articles on special subjects. In these will be found 
full particulars of the principles which regulate the natural-history workings 
of the Institution*. 

(2.) The only paper bearing on our present inquiry as yet published in 
the ‘ Contributions’ is on the “ Invertebrata of the Grand Manan,” by Dr. W. 
Stimpson, which should be consulted by all who desire to institute a compa- 
rison between the sub-boreal faunas on the two sides of the Atlantic. 

(3.) The ‘Miscellaneous Collections’ are all stereotyped, and very freely 
circulated. Among them will be found “ Directions ” for collecting specimens 
of natural history, with special instructions concerning the desiderata on the 
Pacific coasts. These have been widely distributed among the various go- 
vernment officials, the employés of the U. S. Coast Survey, and the variously 
ramified circulating media at the command of the Smiths. Inst.; and have 
already borne a fair share of important results, although the war has 
greatly impeded the expected prosecution of natural-history labours. ‘“ Check 
lists” have been published ‘of the Shells of North America, by 1. Lea, 
P. P. Carpenter, W. Stimpson, W. G. Binney, and T. Prime,” June 1860. Ne. 
1 contains the Marine Shells of the “‘ Oregonian and Californian Province,” 
and No. 2 of the “ Mexican and Panamic Province.” They are chiefly com- 
piled from the first British Association Report, with such elimination of sy- 
nonyms and doubtful species, and addition of fresh materials, as had become 
available up to the date of publication. They were not intended to be quoted 
as authorities; and so rapid has been the accumulation of fresh information 
that no. 1 is already out of date. In the “ Terrestrial Gasteropoda,” by W. 
G. Binney, list no. 1 contains the “ species of the Pacific coast, from the ex- 
treme north to Mazatlan,’ to which many additions have since been made. 
In the list of “ Fluviatile Gasteropoda,” also by W. G. Binney, ‘ the letter W 
distinguishes those confined to the Pacific coast, WE is affixed to those 
found in both sections of the continent, and M designates the Mexican 
species. From the starting-point of this list considerable progress has 
already been made. In the brief list of “Cyclades, by Temple Prime,” the 
Mexican and Central American species are similarly designated; but the 
western species and those common to the Pacific and Atlantic United States 
are not distinguished. In the list of “‘ Unionide,” by Dr. I. Lea, whose life- 
long devotion to the elucidation of that family is everywhere gratefully 
acknowledged, the Pacific species are designated by a P. The large series 


* The ‘Lectures on Mollusca,’ in the Vol. for 1860, pp. 151-283, will perhaps be found 


_ useful as a digest of classical forms. It was to have been illustrated with copies of woodcuts, 


kindly promised by Dr. Gray, and since placed at the disposal of the Smiths. Inst. by the 
courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum ; but, unfortunately, the blocks were not 
to be found at the time. They will appear, however, in forthcoming Smithsonian publi- 
cations. The ‘Lecture on the Shells of the Gulf of California,’ in the Vol. for 1859, 
pp. 195-219, contains in a popular form much of the information distributed throvgh the 
Brit. Mus. Maz. Cat. 

66 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 58] 


of specimens, representing varieties and ages, in Dr. Lea’s private collection 
are well deserving of close study. Their owner shares the liberality of Mr. 
Cuming in making them available for all purposes of scientific inquiry. 

The Smiths. Inst. has just issued from the press the first part of the 
‘Bibliography of North American Conchology, previous to the year 1860,’ by 
W. G. Binney, containing references to all printed information on North 
American shells by native writers. Itis divided into Ҥ A. American descrip- 
tions of North American molluscs; § B. American descriptions of foreign 
molluscs; § C. Descriptions of foreign species by American authors in foreign 
works.” The work is prepared with unusual care and completeness, and 
with the accurate judgment which characterizes all Mr. Binney’s writings. 
It contains, under every separate work or paper, “a list of species therein 
described or in any important manner referred-to, together with their syno- 
nymy, locality, and the volume, page, plate, and figure relating to them.” 
The second part, containing similar references to American species described 
by European writers, is now passing through the press. Mr. Binney has 
most kindly sent the proofs to the writer (as far as p. 287), which have been 
freely used in preparing this Report, and have supplied various important 
sources of information. It undertakes to provide for the whole North American 
continent what has been here attempted for the West Coast; and in much 
greater detail, as not only the first description, but all subsequent quotations 
are duly catalogued. It may be regarded as a complete index of references 
to all works on North American malacology. The student, in making use 
of it, will remember that it is only with the Pulmonates that Mr. Binney 
professes an intimate acquaintance. For these the work may be regarded as 
complete. But, in other departments of the science, only those shells which 
are assigned by the authors to North America are quoted; consequently a 
large number of species are passed-over which are truly American, but are 
assigned to other places, or described without locality. Also, species really 
belonging to other faunas, but falsely attributed to North America, duly 
appear as though genuine; and the additional localities frequently assigned 
by the authors (which are often the real habitats) are seldom quoted. More- 
over the citations stop at Mazatlan; consequently, the tropical fauna of the 
West Coast is but imperfectly represented. Lastly, the authors are not pre- 
sented in chronological or indeed in any other ostensible order; but it is pro- 
mised that the necessary information will be given in the index on the com- 
pletion of the work. The student will further bear in mind that for many 
reasons no second-hand reference can serve the same purpose as a consultation 
of the original beok. With these cautions the work will be found invaluable 
by all who are engaged in working-out American species; and great thanks 
are due to Mr. Binney for undertaking the extreme labour of its compilation, 
and to the Smiths. Inst. for supplying the expense of its publication. Probably 
no such work has yet been printed on the malacology of any other country. 

Lastly, there is now in preparation a complete series of hand-books on 
North American malacology, copiously illustrated with wood engravings, and 
containing a digest of all that is known in each department. The marine 
shells of the Atlantic are being described by Dr. Stimpson, who is now also 
engaged in the dissection of the Freshwater Rostrifers; the marine shells of 
the Pacific are placed in the hands of the writer; the Pulmonates will be 
thoroughly worked-out by Mr. Binney, the Melaniade by Mr. Tryon, and 


67 

































































582 REPORT—1863. 


the Cycladidee by Mr. Prime. Thus it appears that the malacologists have 
been unusually zealous in advancing their before somewhat slumbering study ; 
and that the Smiths. Inst. has displayed unexpected liberality in preparing 
and issuing from the press works of a comprehensive character, for the “‘ in- 
crease and diffusion of” what will hereafter be regarded as an important 
branch of ‘knowledge among men.” 

94. North Pacific Exploring Expedition——In the year 1853, Dr. W. 
Stimpson, well known in very early life for his dredging-researches and ob- 
servations on the marine animals of the Atlantic coast, accompanied Captain 
Ringold as naturalist to the U.S. “ North Pacific Exploring Expedition.” Its 
principal object was to obtain more correct information with regard to the 
Japan seas and the extreme north of the Pacific, and it was only incidentally 
that it visited the Californian proyince. However, Dr. Stimpson’s extensive 
dredgings in the fiords of Japan developed the interesting fact, that while the 
southern shores presented a fauna essentially Indo-Pacific in its character, 
and abounding in the usual Cones, Cowries, Olives, &c., the northern slopes 
of the same islands presented an assemblage of forms far more analogous to 
the fauna of the Sitka and Vancouver region, and containing many species 
common to the American coast. During the course of the voyage dredging- 
collections+ were made by Dr. Stimpson at Madeira, Cape of Good Hope, Sydney 
Harbour, Coral Seas, Port Jackson, Hong Kong (also by Mr. Wright; New Ire- 
land, Lieut. Van Wycke; Gasper Straits, Squires ; vicinity of Canton, presented 
by Mr. Bowring; interior of Hong Kong, Wright); China Sea; Whampoa ; 
Bonin Island; Loo Choo Island; Ousima; Katonasima Straits; Kikaia; 
Kikaisima ; Kagosima {alas!]; Hakodadi ; Taniogesima (also Wright, Kent, 
Kern, Boggs, Carter); Simoda; Niphon (also Brook); Arvatska Bay, Kamt- 
schatka; Amincheche Island, Avikamcheche Island, Behring Straits; Senia- 
vine Straits, Arctic Ocean (also Captain Rogers); San Francisco; (Puget Sound 
and Shoalwater Bay, Dr. Cooper, Cat. no. 1849-1856); Tahiti (also Captain 
Stephens, Kern), Hawaii (also Garrett; Sea of Ochotsk, Captain Stevens). All 
these were duly catalogued, with stations, depths, and other particulars, and 
living animals preserved in spirits after being drawn. The expedition appears 
to have returned in 1856. Although Dr. Stimpson devoted his chief attention 
to articulate animals, and molluscs occupied but a subordinate share of his 
attention, it is safe to say that in this short period he collected more trust- 
worthy species of shells, with localities, than were received at the Smiths. 
Inst. from the united labours of the naturalists of Captain Wilkes’s celebrated 
expedition. Through some unaccouutable cause, certain of the most valuable 
boxes were ‘‘ lost” between New York and Washington ; the remainder were 
placed in the hands of Dr. Gould for description, with the MS. catalogue, a 
copy of which forms the “ Mollusca, Vol. I.,” nos. 1-2003, of the Smiths. 
Mus. Fortunately, Dr. Gould embraced the opportunity to bring the un- 
certain shells to London, and compare them with the Cumingian Collection, 

+ A fuller account of this expedition is here given than is justified from its contributions 


to the W. American fauna, because no other information respecting it is as yet available 
to the malacological student. 
68 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 585 


Thus a large body of species, named from types, was prepared for the New 
World ; but, unfortunately, through imperfect packing and the practice of 
marking by numbers only, much of the value of this identification was lost. 

The new species were described by Dr. Gould in the ‘ Boston Proc. Soc. Nat. 

Hist.,’? 1859-1861; and on completion of the series, the author collected 

the papers embodying the new species of the two great scientific expeditions, 

as well as his other scattered publications, and issued them in a most valuable 
book, entitled ‘ Otia Conchologica: Descriptions of Shells and Molluscs, from 

1839-1862, Boston, 1862; with “Rectifications,’ embodying such changes of 

nomenclature and synonyms as he desired to represent his matured views. 

In quoting Dr. Gould’s writings, therefore, this table should always be con- 

sulted. A considerable portion of the specimens have been returned to the 

Smiths. Inst., of which the larger species are mounted in the collection, and 

the smaller ones have been sent to the writer to compare with those collected 

by Mr. A. Adams,which were unfortunately being described in the London 
journals almost simultaneously. The war has unhappily postponed the in- 
tention of publishing the complete lists of species collected and identified with 
so much accurate care. The following, however, have already been deter- 
mined by Dr. Gould from the region in which American species occur. The 
list is given entire (so far as identified), because species as yet known only 
on one coast of the North Pacific may hereafter be found on the other. It 
contains (as in the comparison of the Caribbean and West Mexican fauna) 

(@) species certainly identical, (6) probably identical, (c) “‘interesting ana- 

gues,” and (d) representative forms. 

8.1.Cat. no. 

1263. Crepidula hystryx, var. Kagosima Bay, Japan. Dead on shore. [ =aculeata, 
Maz. Cat. no. 334.] 

1319. Poroma rubra, Mont. Kagosima Bay, Japan. [Vide Maz. Cat. no. 154.] 
Among sea-weeds and barnacles in 2nd and 5rd leve’s; rocky shore. 

1339. Natica marochiensis [? maroccana; v. Maz. Cat. no. 570}. Kagosima Bay, 
Japan. Dead on shore. 

1344. Acmea ?Steboldi; very near patina. Kagosima Bay, Japan. Rocks at 1. w. 

1351. Torinia variegata, Lam. Kagosima Bay, Japan. [ Vide Maz. Cat. no. 484.) 
Dead on shore. 

1414. Nassa gemmulata, Lam. [non C. B. Ad.] Kagosima Bay, Japan. 5 fm. sd. 

1476. Acar | Barbatia| gradata, Brod. and Sby. Taniogesima, Kagosima Bay, 
Japan. [Vide Maz. Cat. no. 194.] Dead in ten fm. ; sand and shells. 

407,476. Acar [Barbatia] gradata, Brod. and Sby. Port Jackson. 

1502. Lima squamosa, Lam. Taniogesima, Japan. [= LL. tetrica, Gld., teste Cum.] 

The remaining species from these localities are either local or belong to the 

Philippine and Polynesian fauna. At Simoda and Hakodadi we enter on a 

mixed fauna. 

1574. Haliotis discus, Rve. Simoda and Hakodadi. Rocks at low water, four 
fm. “ Kamtschatkana seems to be the small growth of the same.” [It is 
locally abundant, however, on the West Coast; while diseus has never 
been found there, and is much flatter. ] 

1577. Lutraria | Schizotherus Nuttallii, Conr.| Hakodadi Bay. Eight fm. sand. 

1579. Cytherea petechialis, Lam. Hakodadi Bay. Sand, 4th level. 

1582. Tritonium | Chrysodomus] antiquum, Ln. Hakodadi Bay (also Okhotsk and 
Arctic Oc., 1779). Low-water mark and laminarian zone, on weedy rocks. 

1585. Tritonium [Priene| Oregonense, Redf. Hakodadi Bay. Dead on shore, 
and in twenty fm. Also no. 1955. 

1588. Tellina Bodegensis, Hds. Hakodadi Bay. Dead on shore. 

1589. Mya arenaria, Ln. Hakodadi Bay. 

1592. Mercenaria orientalis, Gid. [A West Atlantic type, probably= JZ. Simp- 
sont, Otia, p. 169.] Hakodadi Bay. Six fm. sand, 


69 


| 584: REPORT—1863. 


8.1.Cat. no. 
1596. Venus rigida, Gid. [MS. non Gid., Otia, p. 85, Tapes, var. Petitiz, The 
| Japanese shell is Adamsi, Rve., from type]. Hakodadi Bay. Four to 
ten fm. sand. 


The above occur in connexion with local and with diffused tropical species. 


1601. Euthria ferrea, Rve. Simoda. Among stones and pebbles, 3rd level. [Al- 

most identical with the Cape Horn species, E. plumbea, Phil. } 

1630. Tritonium { Chrysodomus | cassidarieformis, Rye. East Coast of Japan, lat. 

| 37°, and Hakodadi. Twenty fm., black coarse sand. 

1632. Chiton “largest” [?Cryptochiton Stellert]. Hakodadi. On large stones 

and under shelving rocks, low-water mark. 

i 1634. Pecten, like [= | Islandicus. Hakodadi. Ten fm. shell-sand. *' 

1635. Sanguinolaria Nuttall, Conr.,=decora, Hds. Hakodadi. “ Possibly= Sole- 
tellina obscurata, Desh.” Sand, low-water mark. 

i 1637. Macoma lata, “ Gmel. in Mus. Cum.,= calearea, Chem.,=prorima, Brown, = 

i sordida, Couth.,= Suensont, Morch.” Hakodadi. 4th level, sandy mud. 

1639. Litorina Grenlandica, Chem. Hakodadi. Rocks, 1st level. 

| 1648. Cardium pseudofossile, Rve.,=blandum, Gld., perhaps= Californiensis, Desh. 
Hakodadi. Twenty fm. sand. 

1651. Terebratula{ Waldheimia| Grayi, Desh. Hakodadi. Shelly gravel, 8-15 fm. 

i 1665. Leda arctica, Brod. {= Y. lanceolata, J. Sby.]. Hakodadi. Sandy mud, 4-12 

| fm. Seniavine Str., 10-30 fm. 























1674. Drillia inermis, Hds. Hakodadi. Shelly sand, 4-10 fm. 
1700. Pecten Yessoensis, Jay. {Probably a var. of Amuswum caurinum.| Hakodadi. 





| | Weedy mud, 4 fm. 

1702. Cardium (Serripes) Grenlandicum. Awatska Bay, Kamtschatka. Mud, 

12 fm. Also Avikamcheche Is., Behring Str., and Arctic Ocean. 

1703. Yoldia thracieformis, Storer. Hakodadi. Mud, 12 fm. 

*i\ 1704. Mytilus edulis. Hakodadi. Also Avikamcheche Is., Behring Str., and 

MW Arctic Ocean. Low-water mark, and in 3rd and 4th level. 

1705. Cardium Californiense, Desh. Hakodadi. Mud, 12 fm. [= no. 1648.] 

1706. Mya truncata. Hakodadi; also Avikamcheche Is. Mud, 6-15 fm. Also 
Arctic Ocean, in mud, 30 fm. 

1708. Buceinum glaciale. Uakodadi, and Straits of Seniavine, at Amincheche 
Is., Behring Str. 

1710. Tritonium | Chrysodomus| antiquim+deformis, Rvye., and vars. Hakodadi 
and Avikamcheche Is. Gravel, 4 fm. 

1711. Buccinum tortuosum, Rve.,=scalariforme+vars. Straits of Seniavine. 

1714. Mya ?arenaria. Hakodadi and Avikamcheche Is. 

1715. Bullia {| Volutharpa| ampullacea, Midd. Hakodadi. Gravel, 5-6 fm. 

1716. Lanistes levigata, Gray (=discors, Lu., teste Dkr. in Mus. Cum.). Mud, 
20 fm. Hakodadi and Arctic Ocean ; common, in nests, 30 fm. ; no. 17389, 

1717. Trichotropis multicaudata {? = Tr. coronata, Otia, p. 121: related to insignis, 
Midd., teste A. Ad.]. Hakodadi. Gravelly mud, 15 fm. 

1718. [Lepeta] eeca, var. concentrica, Midd. Hakodadi and Arctic Ocean. 

1719. Trichotropis bicarinata, Sby. Hakodadi. Not uncommon in laminarian zone. 
Arctic Ocean ; common. 

1720. Macoma proxima, Brown. WHakodadi; mud, 5-25 fm. Awatska Bay. 
Arctic Ocean ; common, no. 1727. 

1721. Macoma edentula, Brod. and Sby. Hakodadi. Avikamcheche Is. 

1722. Crepidula grandis, Midd. Hakodadi. Okhotsk, 15 fm. : no. 2002. | 

1723. Venus fluctuosa, Gld., 1841. ? =astartordes, Beck, 1849. Hakodadi and Arctic | 
Ocean; not uncommon. Mud, 5-10 fm. | 

1725. Cardita (Actinobolus) borealis, Conr. Avikamcheche Is., Behring Straits; 
mud, 5-80 fm. Awatska Bay; 10fm.mud. Arctic Ocean; common. 

1726. Sazxicava pholadis, L.,=rugosa+distorta. Avikamcheche Is., Arctic Ocean. 
Awatska Bay; on shells, &e. Lam. zone; no. 1729. 

1728. Margarita obscura, Couth. Awatska Bay, Kamtschatka. Maud, 10 fm. 

1732. Bela turricula., Mont. Awatska Bay; mud, 6-15 fm. Also Seniavine Stz,j 
no. 1782, 

70 






































ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA, 5&5 


§.1.Cat. no. 


1735. 
1734. 
1735. 
1736. 


1737. 
1740. 
1741. 
1742. 
1744. 
1745. 
1747. 
1748. 


1749. 
1750. 
1751. 
1752. 
1753. 
1754. 


1756. 
1757. 


1758. 
1759. 
1760. 
1761. 
1762. 
1763. 
1765. 
1770. 
LT. 
1773. 
1774. 
1775. 
1776. 
IE 
1778. 
1781. 
1783. 
1784. 
1785. 
1789. 


1790. 
1791. 
17938. 
1796. 
1798. 
1799. 
1821. 


1836. 
1837. 
1838. 


Yoldia limatula, Say. Awatska Bay and Arctic Oc. Mud, common, 5-20 fm, 

Natica clausa, Brod. Awatska Bay. Mud, 5-15 fm. 

Yoldia myalis (or hyperborea). Awatska Bay. Mud, 10 fm. 

Leda minuta. Seniavine Str. ; Arctic Oc., near Behr. Str. Mud and pebbly 
sand, 15-30 fm., coarse strie. 

Leda minuta, var. Ditto. Mud and pebbly sand, 5-20 fm., fine striz. 

Modiolaria corrugata. Ditto. Mud, in nests, 30 fm. 

Rhynchonella psittacea. Ditto. Graveland sponges, 20-30 fm. 

Margarita striata, Leach. Ditto. Shelly gravel, common, 15-30 fm. 

Admete arctica, Midd. Ditto. Mud, 30 fm. 

Admete viridula, Couth. Ditto. Gravel, 4 fm.; mud, 10-30 fm. 

Velutina haliotoidea. Ditto. Gravel, 10-25 fm. 

Margarita argentata [Gld. Inv. Mass.]. Ditto. Mud, 30 fm.; shelly, 15- 
25 fm. 

Turritella (sp.), Migh. Ditto. Mud, 30 fm.; clean gravel, 4-20 fm. 

Trichotropis bicarinata, Ditto. _Pebbly mud, 5-6 fm. 

TInunatia pallida, Brod. Ditto. Mud, 10-30 fm. 

Cylichna triticea, Couth. Ditto. Mud, 15-80 fm. 

Velutina { Morvilia] zonata | Gld. Inv. Mass.]. Ditto. On stones, 5 fm. 

Nucula tenuis, Mont. Ditto. Mud, common, 20-30 fm. ; pebbly mud, 5-20 
fm. Also Hakodadi; sandy mud, 10 fm.; no. 1687. 

Trophon clathratus, Linn. Ditto. Mud, 20-30 fm.; gravel, 4 fm. 

Lunatia septentrionalis, Beck. Ditto. Gravelly mud, common, 20 fm.; 
gravel, 4 fm. 

Amicula vestita, Shy. Ditto. Gravel, common, 10-40 fm. 

Scalaria Grenlandica, Chemn. Ditto. Maud, 30 fm. 

TIamatia pallidoides. Ditto. Mud, 30 fm. 

Chrysodomus Islandicus, Chemn. Ditto. Mud, 30 fm, 

Patella { Lepeta| candida, Couth. Ditto. Mud, 30 fm. 

Chiton albus, Linn. Ditto. On shells in mud, 30 fm. 

Chrysodomus Schantaricus, Midd. Ditto. Mud, 20-30 fm. 

Astarte lactea, Br. and Sby. Arctic Oc. Mud, 30 fm. 

Pecten Islandicus, Chemn., var. Arctic Oc. Mud, 30 fm. 

Buccinum ?undatum (probably bicarinate var. of glaciale). Arctic Ocean, 

Buccinum ?undatum, var. pelagica. Arctic Ocean. 

Buecinum ? Ochotense, Midd. Arctic Ocean. 

Buccinum angulosum, Gray (= glaciale, yar.). Arctic Ocean. 

Buceinun ? tenue, Gray. Arctic Ocean. 

Mangelia, like simplex, Midd. Arctic Ocean. 

Bela rufa, Mont. Seniavine Str. Pebbly mud, common, 5 fm. 

Turritella erosa. Seniavine Str. Mud, 10-20 fm. 

Lyonsia Norvegica, Chem. Seniavine Str. Pebbly mud, 5 fm. 

Trichotropis insignis, Midd. Seniavine Str. Gravel, 10 fm. 

Bela decussata, Couth. SeniavineStr. Sandy mud, 10-20 fm. Also Awatska 
Bay ; no. 1730. 

Yoldia myalis, Couth. Seniavine Str. Mud, 10-20 fm.; pebbly mud, 5 fm. 

Bela harpularia, Couth. Pebbly mud, 5 fm. 

Margarita helicina, Fabr. Behring Str. Clean gravel and alg, 5 fm. 

Turtonia [? minuta, Faby.}. Behring Str. Common on sponges, 20-40 fm. 

Lunatia | Acrybia| aperta, Lov. Kamtschatka. 

Modiolaria nigra, Gray. Arctic Ocean. 

Chama lobata [= exogyra, Jay, non Conr.}. China Sea, west of Formosa. 
Shell-gravel, 30 fm, 

Purpura emaryinata, Desh. San Francisco. On rocks in 4th level. 

Litorina plena, G\d. San Francisco. On rocks in 3rd and 4th levels. 

Acmea textilis, Glid. San Francisco. On piles and rocks between tides. 


18385. Acmea patina, Esch. San Francisco. On piles and rocks between tides, 


1859. 
1840, 
1541. 


Cryptomya Californica, Conr. San Francisco. On sandy beaches. 
Macoma nasuta, Conr. San Francisco. Common in sandy mud, 1. w. 10 fm. 
Cardium Nuttallii, Cony. San Francisco. Common in sandy mud, 1. w. 10 fm, 


71 









































586 REPORT—1863. 


8.1.Cat. no. 

1343. Mytilus edulis, var. San Francisco. On rocks and gravel, 4th level. 

1844. Mytilus Californianus, Cony. Near entrance to San Francisco. On rocks 
and gravel, 4th level. 

1845. Tapes diversa, Sby. San Francisco Bay. Very common, low-water mark 

= V’. staminea, Conr., var.,= V. mundulus, Rve. ; v. anted, p. 570). 

1846. Chiton [Mopalia] muscosus, Gld. Entrance of San Francisco Bay. Not 
uncommon on rocks at low-water mark. 

1847. Cryptodon | Schizotherus| Nuttallii, Conr., jun. San Francisco. One sp. 

1848. Machera lucida, Conr. San Francisco. Common. [= J patula, Portl.] 


The shells brought back by the Expedition from Puget Sound and Shoal- 
water Bay were collected by Dr. Cooper, whom Dr. Stimpson met at San 
Francisco, and are not here catalogued, as they appear again in his own 
collections, v. infra, par. 101. 


1860. Lithophagus cinnamomeus. China coast, lat. 233°. Dead, 25 fm., sand. 
1924. Helix tudiculata, Bin. Petaluma, Cal.; under stems in open grove of scrub oak, 
1956. Mytilus splendens, Gld. Hakodadi Bay. Rocks below tide-marks, com. 
1957. Anomia olivacea, Gld. Hakodadi Bay. On shells or gravelly sand, 10 fm. 
1958. Cerastoma foliatum, var. Burnettii, Ad. and Rve. Hakodadi Bay and N. EL 
part of Niphon. Low-water mark, on rocks and boulders. 
1959. Haliotis Kamtschatkana, Jonas. N. E. shore of Niphon. See no. 1574. 
1960. Purpura Freycinetti, Desh. N. E. shore of Niphon. Common on rocks. 
1961. Purpura Freycinettii, var. with muriciform lamelle. N. E. shore of Niphon. 
1967. Placunanomia macroschisma, Desh. West Coast of Jesso. Gravel, 30 fm. 
1968. Terebratula pulvinata, Gld. Arctic Ocean. Gravel, 30 fm. 
2000. Puncturella noachina, Linn. Sea of Okhotsk. Gravel, 20 fim. 
2001. Astarte lactea, Brod. and Sby. Sea of Okhotsk. Gravel, 20 fm. 
2003. Terebratula globosa, Lam. Sea of Okhotsk. Gravel, 36 fm. [Perhaps Cali- 
Jornica, Koch. | 

The following, from among the new species described by Dr. Gould in his 
‘Otia Conch.,’ belong to the same province, and to forms which may be ex- 
pected to appear on the northern shores of West America. They were first 
published in the Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., under the dates quoted :— 
Otia,p. Bost. Proc. S.N.H. 
109. 1859. June. Natica severa, Gld., like heros, but with umbilicus resembling 

wufasciata. Hakodadi, W. 8. 

109: 5 » Natica russa, Gld., like clausa. Arctic Ocean, W. 8. 
115. 4, Dec. Patella pallida, Gld. Hakodadi. On stones and gravel, 10 fm. 
Los > ,, y  atella grata, Gld. N. E. shore of Niphon. 


TOS ae ss yy  <Acmea dorsuosa, Gld., like patina, var. monticula [monticola], 
Nutt. Hakodadi, on rocks of 2nd and 3rd lamin. zone. W.S. 
Ia; 55 Chiton (Leptochiton) concinnus, Gld., like albus, but with lines of 


punctures. Hakodadi, W. 8S. 

TSS ae 5  Chiton (Acanthochetes) achates,Gld. Kikaia, Hakodadi, W. 8S. 

118. 1859. Dee. Chiton (Molpalia) Stimpsoni, Gld., like Blainviller, without an- 
terior radiating lines. [On stones, clean bottom, 25 fm., 
and under stones and rocks, low-water mark.’”—Smiths. Cat. 
no. 1646. Not to be confounded with M. Stimpsoni, Gray. | 
Hakodadi, W. 8. 

120. 1860. Sept. Terebratula [? Waldheimia] transversa, Gld., like Grayi, with 
sue internal supports : [=Girayi, teste A. Ad.] Hakodadi, 

120. a » ° Lerebratella miniata, Gld., like Zelandica. Apophyses united 
to central crest. [= Waldheimia Koreanica, Ad. and Rve., 
teste Rve. from type. ‘On pebbles, clean bottom, 30 fin.” 
Smiths. Cat. 1597.]| Hakodadi, W. 8. 

12007 = 85 9» Rhynchonella iucida, Gld.; in aspect like T. ritrea, jur. 

121. =» y  Lrichotropis (Inhinoé) coronata, Gld.; like T. cihata, Kruger. 
Straits of Semiavine, Arctic Ocean, 20 fm. mud. W.S. 

72 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 587 


Otia, p. Bost. Proc. S.N.H. . i ; : : Ae 
122. 1860. Sept. Buccinum Stimpsoni, Gld.; like undatum, but quite distinct. 


Avikamcheche Is., Behring Str., W.8. Arctic Ocean, Rod- 
gers. | Not B. Stimpsonianum, C. B. Ad. ] 

NES. ay yy Neptunea (Stpho) terebralis, Gld.; like Icelandica. Arctic Oc. 

129... 5 ihe »  Lrophon incomptus, Gld.; like crassus. Hakodadi, W. 8. 

134. ,, Oct. Bela turgida, Gld. Kamtschatka, W. 8, 

153. 1861. Mar. Margarita ianthina, Gld.; like Schantarica. Arctic Ocean. 

Hod. 1, » Margarita albula, Gld.; like an overgrown arctica. Arctic 
Ocean., W. 8S. 

fot. » Margarita mustelina, Gid. Hakodadi; low water, W. S. 

159. A 3  Gibbula redimita, Gld.; like nivesa, A. Ad. Hakodadi, W. 8. 

Ges »  Lyonsia ventricosa, Gld.; shorter than Norvegica. Hakodaa, 
2-6 fm., sandy mud, W. 8. [“?=navicula, Jun.” A. Ad. | 

HGZs 55 »,  Lyonsia (Pandorina) flabellata, Gld.; like arenosa. Arctic 
Ocean, W. 5S. 

162. 4 4,  Theora lubrica, Gld. Hakodadi; common in mud, 6 fm., W.S. 

NGS... sy »  Lanopea fragilis, Gld. Hakodadi, W. 8S. 

C3 Sead »  Panopea ?generosa, var. sagrinata. Awatska Bay, Kamts- 
chatka, W. 8S. [“Epidermis projects $ in., as in Glycimeris, 

* Mud, 12 fm.” Smiths. Cat. 170i.] 

LGA. cr sigy y  Corbula venusta, Gld. Hakodadi, 5-8 fm., shelly sand, W. S. 

NBD: 1.0 bs y»  Solen strictus, Gld.; like corneus. Hakodadi, W. 8S. 

1G)... ss »  Solen gracilis, Gld. [non Phil. | Hakodadi, sandy beaches, W. S. 

TGS! | 5 »  Machera sodalis, Gld.; like costata. Hakodadi, W.S. 

1G5; 5, »  Solemya pusilla, Gld.; like velum. Wakodadi, 5 fm., mud, W.S. 

LG i 5; »  Lellina lubrica, Gld. ; like felix and fabagella, Hakodadi, 6 tm., 
sandy mud, W. 8. 

168. 5 = 4, —- Saxidomus aratus, Gld.; like V. maxima, Phil. San Francisco. 
Described as 4:5 in. long, yet | smaller than Mattalhit. [Open 

ays at Sir F. Drake’s; 1. w., sand.” Smiths. Cat. 1842.] 

GDS 55 y Venus (Mercenaria) Stimpsont, Gld.; like the Atlantic forms. 
Hakodadi, 6 fm., W. S. 

HOS 4%. y  Mysia (Felania) usta, Gld.; like an Astarte. Hakodadi, 8 fm., 
sandy mud, W. 8S. 

178. 4, Apr. Montacata divaricata, Gld. Hakodadi, on Spatn..gus-spines, W.S. 

175. + »  Nucula (Acila) insignis, Gld.; like mirabilis: {identical, teste 
A. Ad.]_ E. Japan, lat. 37°, and Hakodadi, W.S. [20 fm. 
black coarse andl oanits Cat. 1628. ] 

77 yy) yy ~— Mytilus coruscus, Gld.* Hakodadi; common on rocks between 
tide-marks, W.S. [?=M. splendens., no. 1956. | 

RT 55 Pecten letus, Gld.; resembles generally P. senatorius, is still more 
like P. [Amustum] caurinus. Hakodadi, shelly mud, 10 tm., 
W.S. [Non P. letus, Gld., in U.S. Expl. Exped. Shells, 
Otia, p. 95, = P. Diefenbach, Gray, teste Cuming. | 

95. The United States Expedition to Japan, under Commodore M. C. Perry, 
1852-4, was not undertaken for scientific purposes ; and no special provision 
was made either for collecting or describing objects of natural history. A 
large number of shells, however, were obtained, and identified by Dr. Jay of 
New York. In Vol. II. of the ‘ Narrative of the Expedition, dre.’ (Washing- 
ton, 1856, pp. 289-297) is given a list of Japanese shells, with descriptions and 
figures of the (supposed) new species. The following are related to the mal- 
luses of the West Coastt. Specimens of the most important may be seen 
in the Cumingian Collection. 

* The M. mutabilis, described on the same page from Kagosima, is a Septifer; it is pre- 
sumed that the learned author did not open a specimen. 

+ The student should also consult, for related forms, the ‘ Mollusca Japonica’ by Dr. 
W. Dunker, Stuttgart, 1861 ;—like all the other works of the same author, most valuable 
for the patient care, accurate judgment, and enlarged experience displayed; but relating 
chiefly to the subtropical portion of the fauna, 


73 

















588 REPORT—1863. 


Page. Pi. Fig. 

292. L 7,10. Mya Japonica, n.s. Volcano Bay, Is. Yedo. Closely related 
to M. arenaria: [identical, teste A. Ad.]. 

202. 1. 8,9. Psammobia olivacea, n. 8. Bay of Yedo. [Nearly allied to 
Hiatula Nuttalli. | 

293 13 1,2. Pecten Yessoensis, n. 8 Hakodadi. [Resembles Amusium 

tds oss caurinum, G1d. | 

295. 5. 16,17. Purpura septentrionalis, Rve. [ =P. crispata, var.|  ? Japar. 

295. 5. 13,16, PDBullia Perryi,n.s. Bay of Yedo, one sp. dredged. [= Volut- 
harpa ampullacea, Midd. 

296. Venerupis Nuttalli, Cony. os Japan. 

296. Tellina secta, Cony. Japan. 

296. Lapes decussata, Lu. | Probably J. Petit, var. or Adamsit. 
Japan. 

296. Gites sable In. Japan. 

296. Lanthina communis, Lam. Japan. 

296. Lanthina prolongata, Blainy. Japan. 


96. At the time that Dr. Gould was describing Dr. Stimpson’s Japanese 
shells in the Boston Proc. Ac. N. 8., Mr. A. Adams, R.N., one of the learned 
authors of the ‘Genera of Recent Mollusca,’ was making extensive and accu- 
rate dredgings in the same seas. The new genera and species have been and 
are being published, in a series of papers, in the Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. and 
in the Proc. Zool. Soc., preparatory to an intended complete work on the 
mollusc-fauna of the Eastern North Pacific. The collections of Mr. Adams 
have already displayed the Japanese existence of several species, as Siphonalia 
Kellettir, Solen sicarius, Homalopoma sanguineum, &c., before supposed to be 
peculiar to the West coast. Unfortunately for our present purpose, while 
the comparison of specimens was going on, Mr. Adams was unexpectedly 
called to service on board H.M.S. ‘ Majestic,’ and was obliged to pack up his 
collections. Enough has been ascertained, however, to prove that it will be 
unsafe henceforth to describe species from either coast without comparison 
with those of the opposite shores. 

97. Pacific Railroad Reports.—As it is necessary, in studying any fauna, 
to make comparisons far round in space, so it is essential to travel far back 
in time. The fullest account of the fossils of the West Coast of America is 
to be found in the ‘ Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the 
Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean,’ which form ten thick quarto volumes, 
copiously illustrated with plates, and published by the U.S. Senate, Wash- 
ington, 1856*. The natural-history department was conducted under the 
superintendence and with the aid of the Smithsonian Institution; and science 
is under special obligations to Prof. Spencer 8. Baird, the Assistant Secre- 
tary, for his Reports on the Vertebrate Animals. It would hardly be ex- 
pected in Europe that the best réswmé of the zoology, the botany, and the 
geology of the vast region between the Great American desert and the Pacitic 
should be found in a railroad survey. Unfortunately, it has not been the 
custom to advertize and sell the valuable documents printed at the expense 
of the U.S. Government, in the ordinary channels of trade. They often become 
the perquisites of the members cf Congress, and through them of the various 
employés, by whom they are transferred to the booksellers’ shelves. ‘Ihe 
fifth volume of the series is devoted to the explorations of Lieut. Williamson ; 
the second Part contains the Report by W. P. Blake, geologist and minero- 
logist of the expedition. In the Appendix, Art. IT., are found “ Descrip- 
tions of the Fossil Shells,” by T. A. Conrad. They were first published in the 


* This extremely costly and valuable assemblage of documents was selling in Washing- 
s0n, in 1860, at £5 sterling the set. 74 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA, 589 


‘Appendix to the Preliminary Geological Report,’ 8vo, Washington, 1855. 
They are divided into, I. ‘* Eocene,” and II. ‘* Miocene and Recent Forma- 


tions.” 
Plate. Fig. 
Tie, 1 
2: 
” 
mote 
Nee 4. 
. 5. 
F 10) 
+ 6. 
es 
. i 
FA 8. 
S12: 
9” 9. 
a: 
aria 
rt 
Neale 
erie) 
er 1G: 
e120 
oe Ory: 
99 
ae 
ey to8. 
14, 18 
» & 21 
eT 
£7) 209) 


OI Hop wr as 


9. 
10. 


ay 
12. 


13. 


14. 
15. 


I. Eocene (all from Canada de las Uviis *). 


Cardium linteum, Conr., n.s. Allied to C. Nicolleti, Conr. 

Dosinia alta, Conr., n.s. 

Meretrix Uvasana, Conr., n.s. 

Meretrix Californiana, Conr.,n.s. Allied to M. Poulsoni, Conr. 

Crassatella Uvasana, Conr., 0.8. 

Crassatella alta, Cony.,n.8s. In small fragments, but abundant, 
as at Claiborne, Al. 

Mytilus humerus, Conr., 1.8. 

Cardita planicosta, Lam., = Venericardia ascia, Rogers. First 
discovered in Maryland in 1829, by Conr.; occurs abundantly 
in Md., Va., Al., and is quite as characteristic of the Ameri- 
can as of the European Eocene period. 

Natica ? etites, Conr., 1833. 

Natica ? giblbosa, Lea, 1833, or N. semilunata, Lea; also found at 
Claiborne, Al. 

Natica alveata, Cony., n.s. 

Turritelia Uvasana, Conr., n. s. Allied to T. obruta, Conr.,= 7. 
lineata, Lea, from Claiborne, Al. 

Volutatithes [? Volutilthes| Californiana, Conr., n.3. Resembles 
V. Sayana, Cony. 

? Busycon B’akei, Conr., n.s. 

Clavatula Cali‘ornica, Conr., n.s. Allied to C. proruta, Conr., of 
Claiborne Eocene. 


Miocene and Recent Formations (from various localities). 


16. 
i 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 


2 


© 


Cardium movlestum, Conr., n.s. San Diego. [May be Hemicar- 
dium biangulatum, jun. | 

Nucula decisa, Conr., n.s. Resembles N. divaricata of the Ore- 
gon Miocene. {Closely allied to N. castrensis, &c., but too im- 
perfect to determine.] San Diego. 

Corbula Diegoana, Conr., n.s. San Diego. 

Meretriz uniomeris, Conr., n.s. Monterey Co. 

Meretrix decisa, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek. 

Meretriz Tulavena, Conr., n.s., [in list, “ Tularana”’ in text’. 
From a boulder in Tulare Valley. [Comp. Tapes gracilis, Gld. | 

Tellina Diegoana, Conr., n.s., San Diego. 

Tellina congesta. Conr., n.s. [Appears a Heterodonax, allied to 
bimaculata, Lam.] Abundant at Monterey, Carmello, and San 
Diego. 

Tellina Pedroana, Conr.,n.s. [P= T. gemma, Gld.] Recent 
formation. San Pedro. 

Area microdonta, Conr., n.s. Resembles A. arata, Say, of the 
Maryland Miocene. Miocene, ?Tulare Valley. 


* The existence of Eocene strata on the Pacific slope is ascertained by a single boulder 
of very hard sandstone, which, though very small, furnished fifteen species. Of these, 
three correspond with forms fram Claiborne, Alabama; and the “ finger-post of the 
Eocene” appears in its usual abundance. Mr. Conrad characterizes the specimens as 
“beautifully perfect ;’ which would not have been supposed from his descriptions and 
figures. They “seem to indicate a connexion of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during 
the Eocene period ;” and the author expects that ““when the rock shall have been disco- 
vered and imvestigated in situ, fresh forms will be obtained, with which we are already , 
familiar in eastern localities.” 


75 












































599 REPORT —1863. 


Plate oe No 


9 
ol, 


bo 
oe 


: Tapes diversum, Sby. [= Tapes staminea, Conr., var. DPetitit, 
(IIL. in text). Desh.| Recent formation. San Pedro. 
Ill. 25. 27. Saxicava abrupta, Conr.,n.s. [Probably the shortened form of 
Petricola carditoides, Conr.| Recent formation. San Pedro. 
y 24. 28. Petricola Pedroana, Conr., n.s. [Allied to P. ventricosa, Desh. } 
Recent formation San Pedro. 
[V. 83. 29. Schizotherus Nuttalli, Conr., “n.s.”= Tresus capax, Gld. Recent 
formation. San Pedro. 
Til. 23. 80. PLutraria Trasket, Conr., n.s. [Not improbably = Saxidomus 
Nuttallii, Conr., jun.| ?Miocene. Carmello. 
V. 45. 381. Mactra Diegoana, Conr.,n.s. Like M. albaria, of the Oregon 
Miocene. [Resembles Mulinia angulata, Gray.} ? Miocene. 
San Diego. 
y 35. 82. Modiola contracta, Conr.,n.s. [Very like M. recta, Conr.] ? Mio- 
cene. Monterey Co. Recent formation. 
» 40. 383. Mytilus Pedroanus, Conr., n.s.  [Probably=M. edulis, jun.] 
Recent formation. San Pedro. 
» 41. 34. Pecten Deserti, Conr., ns. [Resembles P. circwaris.] Mio- 
cene. Carrizo Creek, Colorado Desert. 
y 284. 85. Anomia subcostata, Conr.,n.s.  [? = Placunanomia,macroschisma. | 
Miocene. Colorado Desert. Allied to A. Ruffini. 
» 26-38. 36.  Ostrea vespertina, Conr., n.s. [Resembles O. lurida, var.| Mio 
cene. Colorado Desert. Like O. subfalcata, Conr. 
37. Ostrea Heermanni, Cony., n.s. Colorado Desert. 
»y 43. 38. Penitella spelea, Conr., n.s.* Recent formation. San Pedro. 
» 44. 89. Fissurella crenulata, Shy. [=Lucapina c.| Recent formation. 
San Pedro. 
VI. 52. 40. Crepidula princeps, Conr., n.s. [=C. grandis, Midd.| Recent 
formation. Santa Barbara. 
V. 389. 41. Narica Diegoana, Conr.,n.s. ? Miocene. San Diego. 
» 42. 42. Trochita Diegoana,Conr., n.s. [Like 7. ventricosa ; but may be 
Galerus contortus.| ?Miocene. San Diego. 
5 46. 48. Crucibulum spinosum, Conr.,n.s.t Recent formation. San Diego. 
VI. 49. 44. Nassa interstriata, Conr., u.s. [=N. mendica, Gld.]. Recent 
formation. San Pedro. 
» 48. 45. Nassa Pedroana, Conr.,n.s. [Comp. Amycla gausapata and its 
congeners.| { Recent formation. San Pedro. 
» 51. 46. Strephona Pedroana, Conr.,n.s. (Comp. Olivella betica.| Recent 
formation. San Pedro. 
» 500. 47. Litorina Pedroana, Conr.,u.s. [=L. plena,Gld.| Recent forma- 
tion. San Pedro. 
»y 47. 48. Stramonita petrosa, Conr.,n.s. [Is perhaps Monoceros lugubre. ] 
’—, Tulare Valley. 


* Mr. Conrad regards the “ coriaceous cup as characteristic of the genus.” It appears 
a subgenus of Pholadidea, differing m the form of the plate. Mr. ‘Tryon, “ Mon. Pho- 
lad.,” p. 66, restricts it to the Penitella penita, which (according to his diagnosis) has 
one central and two anterior dorsal plates. The closely related P. ovotdea he leaves in 
the original genus, as having “ two dorsal accessory valves,” although he allows that “its 
position cannot be accurately determined on account of the loss of its dorsal valves.” 
Conrad’s fossil has the shape of P. ovoidea; but although he says that it is “ widely dis- 
tinct” trom P. penita, 1am unable to separate it from the ovoid form of that species, 
which will be found in the Smithsonian series. 

+ This is certainly Sowerby’s species, to which Conrad gives a doubting reference. In 
the text he gives it as “ spinosum, Conr.,” in his table marking it as “ nov. sp.” 

t Conrad compares N. interstriata to N. trivittata, Say, and N. Pedroana to N. lunata, 
Say,and states that the two Atlantic species are “associated with each other both in the sea 
and in the Miocene deposits of Virginia and Maryland.” As the two correlative species 
are found together, living and fossil, on the Pacific side, there is presumptive evidence for 
their having descended from a common stock. 


76 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA, 591 


Fig. No. 
VI. 54. 49, ?Gratelupia mactropsis, Conr., ns. [?=Donax punctatostriatus. } 
?Miocene. Isthmus of Darien, Resembles G. ydeana, Cour. 
Eocene. 
55. 50. Meretrix Dariena, Conr., ns. [Comp. Cyclina subquadrata.} 
?Miocene. Isthmus of Darien. 

» O38 51. Tellina Dariena, Conr.,n.s. ?Miocene. Isthmus of Darien. 
VU 57. 52. Natica Ocoyana, Conr.,n.s. [Marked 51 on plate: err.] Ocoya 

or Posé Creek. 

y 67. 58. Nateca geniculata, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek. Resembles JN. 

alveata. 

» 962. 54. Bulla jugularis, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek. 

» 69, 58 Pleurotoma transmontana, Conr.,n.s. {Marked 60 on plate : err. 

Closely resembles Chrysodomus dirus, Rye.| Ocoya Creek. 
56. Pleurotoma Ocoyana, Conr.,n.s. [Omitted in the text. ] Qcoya Cr. 
» 72. 57. Syctopus { Ficula.| Ocoyanus, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek. 
VIL. 73. 58. Turritella Ocoyana, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek. 

» 16. 5&. Colus arctatus, Conr., n.s. “Ocoya Creek. 

» 10. 60. Tellina Ocoyana, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek. 

» 7%. 6), Pecten Nevadanus, Conr.,n.s. Very like N. Humphreysii, Masy- 

land, Miocene. Ocoya Creek. 
TX. 83. 62. Pecten caliliformis, Conr., n.s. Very like P. Madisonius, Say, 
Virginia, Miocene. Ocoya Creek. 

The following species are not described in the text, but quoted in the list. 
Vide p. 320 :— 

VUI. °78. 63. Cardium, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek. 
64. Area, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek. 

» £80. 65. Solen, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek. 

y fCl. 66. Dostnia, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek. 

» ?79. 67. Venus, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek. 

68. Cytherea ? decisa, Cour. Ocoya Creek. 

69.  Ostrea, sp. ind. San Fernando. 

70. Pecten, sp. ind. San Fernando. 

71. Turritella bisertata, Conr., ?n.s. San Fernando. 
VIL. °58. 72. Trochus, sp.ind. Benicia. 

» ?99. 73. Turritella, sp.ind. Benicia. 

y fil. 74. Buccinum Pinterstriatum. San Pedro. 

* 75. Anodonta Californiensis, Lea. Colorado Desert. 

Mr. Conrad, than whom there is no higher authority for American Tertiary 
fossils, considers the age of the Eocene boulder ascertained; and that “the 
deposits of Santa Barbara and San Pedro represent a recent formation, in 
which (¢este Blake) the remains of the Mammoth occur: and the shells indi- 
cate little, if any, change of temperature since their deposition.” But he 
acknowledges that the intermediate beds are of uncertain age. Those on 
Carrizo Creek he refers to the Miocene, some characteristic species being 
either identical with the Eastern Miocene or of closely releted forms. In 
addition to the species tabulated in this Report, he quotes, as having been 
collected in California by Dr. Heermann, “ Mercenaria perlaminosa, Conr., 
scarcely differing from M. Ducatelii, Conr.; and a Cemoria, Pandora, and 
Cardita of extinct species, closely analogous to Miocene forms.” The casts 
from Ocoya Creek were too friable to be preserved, and are figured and de- 
scribed from Mr. Blake’s drawings; these also are regarded as Miocene. The 
San Diegan specimens are too imperfect for identification ; they are referred 
to the Miocene by Conrad, but may perhaps be found to belong to a later 


* Several fossils are figured in plates vii. and viii.,.to which no reference is made in the 
text. It is unsafe to conjecture the genus to which many of them belong, but it is pre- 
surned that they relate to the indeterminate species here quoted. 


77 





= 


— 





—————— SSS SS SSS 














592 rerort—1863. 


age. The types of these species in the Smithsonian Museum a, ,°a. too ime 
perfect to determine specifically with any confidence ; and by no means it. o 
suitable condition to allow of important conclusions being drawn from them. 
98. The third article in the Appendix to the same volume of Reports 
contains a “Catalogue of the Recent Shells, with Descriptions of the New 
Species,” by Dr. A. A. Gould. The specimens were (apparently) in the hands 
of Dr. Gould for examination when he prepared the MS. for the first Report; 
and some of them were included in the ‘‘ Mexican War Collections,” B. A. 
eport, pp. 227, 228. “The freshwater shells were collected in the Colorado 
desert and other localities ; the land and marine shells between San Francisco 
and San Diego.” The following is the list of species as determined by Dr. 
Could, pp. 330-336. The specimens belong to the Smithsonian Institution, 
where a large portion of them were fortunately discovered and verified. 
They were collected by W. P. Blake, Esq., and Dr. T. H. Webb. 
Plate. Fig. No. 
1. Ostrea, sp.ind. Parasitic on twigs; thin, radiately lineated with 
brown. [= 0. conchavhila, Cpr.] Another species, elongated, 
solid, allied to Virginica [var. rufoides|. San Diego. 


2. Pecten monotimeris, Conr. San Diego. © 

3. Pecten ventricosus, Sby.,+tumidus, Sby. [Dead valves, of the 
form e@quisulcatus.| San Diego. 

4. Mytilus Pedulis {= M. tro:sulus, Gld., antea]. San Francisco, 

5. Modiola capax, Conr. San Diego. 

6. Venus Nuttall, Conr. [= V. succincta, Val.] San Pedro. 

7. Venus fluctifraga, Sby. San Diego. 

8. Tapes grata, Sayy=T. discors, Sby., “=straminea, Conr.”* San 
Pedro. 

XL 19,20. 9. Tapes gracilis, Gld.,n.s. Prel. Rep. 1855. [Quite distinct from 


every other Tapes known from the coast. It is supposed by 
Dr. Cooper to be the young of Saridomus aratus, which in 
shape and pattern exactly accord with the figure and diagnosis. 
But the “ Tapes” is figured without sculpture. The shell was 
not found at the Smiths. Inst.} San Pedro, Blake. 

10. Cycelas, sp. ind. Colorado Desert. 

XT. 21,22. 11. Cardium cruentatum, Gld., n.s. Prel. Rep. 1855. [P. Z. S. 1856, 
p- 201, = C. substriatum, Conr.] San Diego. [San Pedr., 
Blake, in text. | 

12. Lucina orbella, Gld. [ =“ Mysia (Spherella) tumida,” Conr.} San 
Pedro. 

13. Lucina Nuttallii, Cony. San Pedro. 

14. Mesodesma ?rubrotincta, Sby.t San Pedro. 

15. Tellina vicina, C.B. Ad. [Dead specimens of = Heterodonaz 
(“« Psammobia,” var.) Pacifica, Conr.| San Diego. 

16. Tellina secta, Cony. San Pedro. 

17. Sphenia { Cryptomya| Californica, Conr. San Diego. 

18. Petricola carditoides, Conr.,= cylindracea, Desh. Monterey ; San 
Pedro. 

19. Solecurtus Californiensis, Conr. San Diego. 

20. Gnathodon Lecontit, Conr.,= G. trigonum, Petit. Colorado Desert. 
[ Lecontet is probably the large Texan species: trigonus=men= 
dicus is a very distinct shell from Mazatlan. | 


* Neither Dr. Gould, nor Conrad himself, in his later geological writings, appears to 
have called to mind the true 7. staminea, to which the Smithsonian shells belong. It is 
the northern representative of 7. grata, but quite distinct: v. synonymy under Venus 
Petitii=rigida, pars. 

t No “ Mesodesma” was found among the shells returned to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, nor has any been heard-ot from the coast. Dr.Gould’s shell may have been Semele 
pulchra, which was in the collection. 

78 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 593 


Plate. Fig. No. 
21. Lottia scabra, Gld. [non Nutt., Rve.:= spectrum, Nutt., Rve.] San 
Francisco. 
22. Lottia patina, Esch. San Pedro. 
23. Scurria pallida, Gray,= Lottia mitra, Brod. [= Seurria mitra, 
Esch.,= L. conica, Gld., antea.| San Pedro. 
24. Calyptrea hispida, Brod. {= Crucibulum spinosum, Sby.| San 
Pedro ; San Diego. 
25. Crepidula incurva, Brod.* San Pedro. 
26. Bulla nebulosa, Gld. San Diego. 
27. Bulla (Haminea) virescens, Sby. San Diego. 
XT. 29. 28. Bulla (Haminea) vesicula, Gld.,n.s. Prel. Rep. 1855. [P. Z. 8. 
1856, p. 203.] San Diego, Blake. 

XI. 27,28. 29. Bulla (Tornatina) inculta, Gld.,n.s. Prel. Rep. 1855. S. Diego. 

[P.Z. 8. 1856, p. 208. Appears to be a Utriculus. | 
30. Trochus mestus, Jonas [ = Chlorostoma funebrale, A. Ad.,=mar- 
ginatum, Nutt. Jonas’s species is S. American.] San Diego. 

XI. 25,26. 31. Phasianella compta, Gld.,n.s. Prel. Rep. 1855. |P.Z.S. 1856, 
p- 204.] San Diego, Webb, Blake. 

32. Litorina, sp. ind. [var. plena, Gld.| San Diego. 
33. Melampus, sp. ind. [ olivaceus, Cpr.] San Diego. 
3%. Oliva biplicata, Shy. San Pedro. 

XI. 23,24. 35. Potamis pullatus, Gld.,n.s. Prel. Rep. 1855. [= Cerithidea fus- 

cata, Gld.,n.s. P.Z.S. 1856, p. 206. = C. sacrata, var., teste 
: Nuttall, Cooper.| San Diego, Webb, Blake. 

XI. 6-9. 36. Amnicola protea, Gld., n.s. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., March 1855. 
Colorado Desert (Gran Jornada), Webb, Blake. 

XI. 10,11. 37. Amnicola longinqua, Gld., n.s. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., March 
1855. Colorado Desert (Cienaga Grande), Blake. 

XI. 12-18. 38. Planorbis ammon, Gid., n.s. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., Feb. [Otia, 
Mar. in text] 1855. A very variable species. Colorado Desert 
and Ocoya Creek, Webb, Blake. 

XI. 1-5. 39. Physa humerosa, Gld.,n.s. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., Feb. 1855, 
Colorado Desert, Blake ; Pecos River, Webd. 

40. Succinea, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek. 

41. Helix Vancouverensis, Lea. San Francisco. 

42. Helix San-Diegoensis, Lea. Point Reyes. [No such species, 
teste Binney. | 

43. Helix infumata, Gld. [Otia, p.215.] Point Reyes. 

44, Helix Oregonensis, Lea. Cypress Point. 


99. The fossils of the various Western expeditions were being arranged in 
1860 in the Smithsonian Museum by Prof. J. 8. Newberry, M.D., a natu- 
ralist of rare experience and accomplishments, and author of ‘‘ Reports on 
the Geology, Botany, and Zoology of Northern California and Oregon.” Wash- 
ington, 1857. They are embodied in vol. vi. of the ‘ Pacific Railroad Re- 
ports.’ The following is a list of the fossils, which were described by 
Mr. Conrad in pp. 69-73, having first appeared in the Proceedings of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Dec. 1856, to which pagc-refer- 
ences are added. 

Dr. Newberry’s Californian Fossils. 

Page. Plate. Fig. 

6 ce 1. Schizopyga Californiana, Conr., Phil. Proc. Dec. 1856, p. 315. 
Partaking of the characters of Cancellaria and Pyramidella. | 
santa Clara, Cal. 

” ” 2. Cryptomya ovalis, Conr., p.314. {Closely approaching the recent 

species, C. Californica.| Monterey Co. 

” ” 3. Thracta mactropsis, Conr., p.313. Monterey Co. 


* The Crepidule returned in this collection were adunca and Prugosa, var. 


1863. 
79 














EEE 








EEE SSS 











594 reEport—18C3, 


Page. Plate. Fig. 

7 Il. 4. Mya Montereyana, Conr., p. 315. [Figure resembles Periploma 
argentaria.| Monterey Co. 

? Mya subsinuata, Cony. | Comp. Macoma inquinata.| Monterey Co, 

Arcopagia medialis, Conr., p. 814. Like A. biplicata, Conv.. of 
the Maryland Miocene. [Closely resembles Lutricola alta, Cour. } 
Monterey Co. 

a 9 7. Tapes linteatum, Conr., p. 514. California. 

5; a 8. Areca canalis, Conr., p. 314. Santa Barbara. 

; a 9. Arca trilineata, Conr., p. 314. Santa Barbara. 

5 Rs 10. Arca congesta, Conr., p. 314. California. 

71. Ul. 11. Asxinea Barbarensis, Conr. [Closely resembles Pect. intermedius. | 


2] ” 
” ” 


> ox 


7 5 12, Mulinia densata, Conr., p. 5138. ? Santa Barbara and shores of 
Pablo Bay. ; 
3 Dosinia longula, Conr., p. 315. Monterey. 


% 9 18. Dosimia alta, Conr., p. 315. Monterey. 

y 14. Peeten Pabloensis, Conr. San Pablo Bay. 

is sa 15. Pallkium Estrellanum, Conr., p.313. Estrella Valley. 
- | 16. Janira bella, Conr., p.312. Santa Barbara. 


2 ee }o Bil bie 1255, casdianaiOb 
Ves Male strea Titan, Conr., Phil. Proc. 1855. San Was DISPO. 
73 V. 25. Pandora bilirata, Conr., p. 267. [Closely resembles Kennerlia 
f a 


biearinata.| Santa Barbara. 
oh 5 24. Cardita occidentalis, Conr., 1855, p. 267. [P= C. ventricosa, Gld.] 
Santa Barbara. 
a ” 23. Diadora crucibuliformis, Conr., 1855, p. 267. [P= Punctureila 
cucullata, Gld.| Santa Barbara. 


Fossils of Gatun, Isthmus of Darien. 


72. V. 22. Malea ringens, Swains. Gatun. . 

3 45 19. Turritella altilira, Conr. Gatun. 

53 5 20. Turritella Gatunensis, Conr. Gatun. 

er 7 20. Triton, sp. ind. Gatun. 

Fe y 21. Cytherea Dariena, Conr. [The figure does not appear conspe= 


cific with that in the Blake collection, no. 50.] Galun. 


The northern fossils are supposed by Mr. Conrad to be of the Miocene period, 
and not to be referable to existing species. Those from Sta. Barbara, however, 
are clearly of a very recent age, and probably belong to the beds searched by 
Col. Jewett. But by far the most interesting result of Dr. Newberry’s ex- 
plorations was the discovery of the very typical Pacific shell, Malea ringens, 
in the Tertiary strata on the Atlantic slope of the Isthmus of Darien, not 
many miles from the Caribbean Sea. The characters of this shell being such 
as to be easily recognized, and not even the genus appearing in the Atlantic, 
it is fair to conclude that it had migrated from its head waters in the Pacific 
during a period when the oceans were connected. We have a right, there- 
fore, to infer that during the lifetime of existing species there was a period 
when the present separation between the two oceans did not exist. We 
may conclude that species as old in creation as Malea ringens may be found 
still living in each ocean; and there is, therefore, no necessity for creating 
‘“‘ representative species,” simply because, according to the present configu- 
ration of our oceans, we do not see how the molluses could have travelled to 
unexpected grounds. 

100. In vol. vu. of the Pacific Railroad Reports, part 2, is the Geological 
Report, presented to the Hon. Jefferson Davis, then Secretary of War, by 
Thos. Antisell, M.D. He states reasons for believing that during the Eocene 
period the Sierra Nevada only existed as a group of islands; that its final 
uplifting was after the Miocene period ; and that during the whole of that 


80 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. age 


period the coast-range was entirely under water. The Miocene beds ar¢ 
above 2000 feet in thickness, and abound in fossils generally distinct from 
those of the eastern strata. There is nothing in Calitornia answering to the 
Northern Drift of the countries bordering on the Atlantic. The molluscs of 
Dr. Antisell’s Survey were described by Mr. Conrad, pp. 189-196. He 
remarks that “the fossils of the Estrella Valley and Sta. Inez Mountains are 
quite distinct from those of the Sta. Barbara beds, and bear a strong resem- 
blance to the existing Pacific fauna. The Miocene period is noted, both in 
the eastern and western beds, for the extraordinary development of Pecti- 
nide, both in number, in size, and in the exemplification of typical ideas.” 
It also appears to be peculiarly rich in Arcade, which are now almost 
banished from that region, while they flourish further south.- The large 
Amusium caurinum and the delicate Pecten hastatus of the Vancouver district, 
as well as the remarkable Janira dentata of the Gulf, may be regarded as a 
legacy to existing seas from the Miocene idea; otherwise the very few 
Pectinids which occur in collections along the whole West Coast of North 
America is a fact worthy of note. Mr. Conrad has “no doubt but that the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans were connected at the Eocene period ; ” and the 
fossils here described afford strong evidence that the connexion existed during 
the Miocene epoch. All the species here enumerated (except Pecten deserti 
and ‘‘ Anomia subcostata”’) were believed to be distinct from those collected 
by the preceding naturalists. 


Dr, Antisell’s Californian Fossils. 
Page. Plate. Fig. 
190. IL 1,2. Hinnites crassa, Conr. [?= H. gigantea, Gray.] Sta. Mar- 
[I. err. typ.] garita. 
ee Pecten Meekit, Cony. San Raphael Hills. 


” 
Pecten deserti, Cony. Blake’s Col., p. 15. Corrizo Creek. 


” 


i EES ad. Pecten discus, Conr. Near Sta. Inez. 
191. a2: Pecten magnolia, Conr. | Probably= P. Jeffersonius, Say, Vire 
ginia.| Near Sta. Inez. 
= i 2- Pecten altiplicatus, Cony. San Raphael Hills. 
= Hil. 3,4. Pallium Estrellanum, Cony. (Janira.| Estrella. 
5 ya: Spondylus Estrellanus, Conr. [?Janira.] Estrella. 
192. V. 3,5. Tapes montana, Conr. San Buenaventura. 
os Wiel: Tapes Inezensis, Conr. Sta. Inez. 
5 IV. 1,2. Venus Pajaroana, Cony. Pajaro River. 
a IV. 3,4. Arcopagia unda, Conr. Shore of Sta. Barbara and Estrella, 
[Closely resembles A. biplicata ; ? = Lutricola alta. | 
5 VIL. 4 Cyclas permacra, Cony. Sierra Monica. Resembles C. pan= 
duta, Conr.,= Lucina compre sa, Lea. 
a MIAIG: Cyclas Estrellana, Cony. Estrella. 
ae Nikole Arca Obispoana, Conr. San Luis Obispo. 
193. V. 2,4. Pachydesma Inezana, Conr. [Like P. erassatelloides.| Stas 
Inez Mts. 
re VI. 1,2. Crassutewa collina, Cony. Sta. Inez Mts. 
3 IL. 3. Ostrea subjecta, Conr. “ May be the young of O. Panzana.” 
Sierra Monica. 
ae Ts, Ostrea Panzana, Conr. Panza, Estrella, and Gaviote Pass. 
a Dosinia alta, Cony. Salinas River. 
= VALE: G2 Dosinia longula, Cony. Salinas River. 
104 Wiley A: Dosinia montana, Conr. Salinas River. 
. Wel.” 5. Dosinia subobliqua, Conr. Salinas River. Also a small Venus, 
a Natica, and a Pecten. 
» VIII. 2,3. Mytilus Inezensis, Conr. Sta. Inez. 
” Vi. 6. Lutraria transmontana, Conr. Allied to LZ. papyrta, Conr. 


/ Los Angeles; also San Luis. 


6 81 


596  Report—1863. 


Page. Plate. Fig. 
lot Vile (vas Axinea Barbarensis, Conr. Los Angeles. [?= intermedius. ] 
” ViIlS 3. ? Mactra Gabiotensis, Conr. Gaviote Pass. May be a Scho 
zodesma. Associated with Mytilus sp. and Infundibuiwi 
Gabiotensis. 
a3 Vit, 6: Glycimeris Estrellanus, Conr. Panza and Estrella Valleys 
Allied to Panopea reflexa, Say. [? =P. generosa, Gd. | 
195. Perna montana, Cony. 3S. Buenaventura. Alhed to P. maculata 
. Vit. «iS. Trochita costellata, Cony. Gavyiote Pass. 
ets VAILTS 345 Turritella Inezana, Conr. Sta. Inez Mts. 
sida LLL, YO: Turritella variata, Cony. Sta. Inez Mts. 
<3 X. 5,6. Natica Inezana, Conr. [PLunatia Lewisi.] Sta. Inez Mts. 

As before, the fossils appear to be in very bad condition. The succeeding 
paleontologists who have to identify from them are not to be envied. Then 
principal value is to show what remains in store for future explorers. The 
extreme beauty of preservation in the fossils collected by Col. Jewett, rivalling 
those of the Paris Basin, and sometimes surpassing the conspecific lving 
shells, makes us astonished that so large a staff of eminent men, employed 
by the Government, made such poor instalments of contribution to malacolo- 
gical science. The plan, too often followed, of remunerating naturalists, not 
according to the skilled labour they bestow, but according to the number ot 
“new species” they describe, is greatly to be deprecated. Further knowledge 
concerning the old species may be more important in scientific inquiries than 
the mere naming of new forms. It is generally a much harder task to per- 
form, and, therefore, more deserving ot substantial as well as of honourable 
acknowledgment. 

101. The shells collected on the North Pacific Railroad Survey were in- 
trusted to W. Cooper, Esq., of Hoboken, New Jersey, for description: Dr. 
a | Gould being occupied with preparing the diagnoses of the N. Pacific K. EK. 
species. Judge Cooper was at that time the only naturalist in America known 
to be actively engaged in studying the marine shells of the West Coast, of 
which he has a remarkably valuable collection. He had rendered very valu- 
able service to the Smithsonian Institution by naming their speamens. Un- 
fortunately, there is such great difficulty even in New York city (of which 
Hoboken is a suburb) in obtaining access to typically named shells, as well as 
to many necessary books *, that, notwithstanding the greatest care, errors of 
determination are almost sure to arise. 

The “ Report upon the Mollusca collected on the Survey, by Wm. Cooper,” 
forms No. 6 of the Appendix, pp. 369-386, and errata. (Unfortunately the 


* Both Judge Cooper and Dr. Lea informed me (1860) that they had not been able 
even to see a copy of the plates to the U.S. Expl. Exped. Mollusca. Through special 
favour, | was enabled to obtain a series of the proofs to work by. The Smithsonian 
Institution, though intrusted with the keeping of the collections, was not favoured 
with a copy until after the war began, when the whole series was granted by Congress. 
Judge Cooper had derived great assistance from the British Association Report, and 
has communicated many corrections in it. In the alterations of synonymy, and in 
defining the limits of specific variation, I have had the benefit of his counsel and ex- 
perience; and have rarely felt compelled to differ from him. Having himself collected 
extensively in the West Indies, he had excellent opportunities of comparing fresh 
specimens from the now separated oceans. I was fortunate enough to meet his son, 
Dr. J. G. Cooper, at the Smithsonian Institution, and to examine the types of the 
species he collected (which are here enumerated) with the advantage of his memory 
and knowledge. His later contributions to the malacology of W. America will be 
afterwards enumerated: his valuable Treatise on the Forests and Trees of North 
America will be found in the Smithsonian Reports, 1858, pp. 246-280. 


ad 


























eae 





























ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 597 


work had been carelessly printed.) It contains the following species, the 
localities quoted in the text from other sources being here omitted :— 


Page. 
369. Murex foliatus, Gmel.,= M. monodon, Esch. (Cerostoma). San Diego, ? fossil, 
Cassidy. 

» Murex festivus, Hds. Dead. San Diego, Cassidy. 

» Triton Oregonensis, Redfield (non Jay, nec Say) = T. cancellatum, Midd., 
Rve., non Lam. Straits of De Fuca, Suckley, Gibbs, J. G. Cooper. 

370. Chrysodomus antiquus, var. Behringiana, Midd., one specimen. Straits of De 

Fuca, Suckley. (Comp. Chr. tabulatus. | 

»  Chrysodomus Middendorffii, Coop., n. s.,= Tritonium decemeostatum, Midd. 
One specimen on the shore of Whidby’s Island. Straits of De Fuca, J. G. 
Cooper. [= Bue. liratum, Mart. This being a remarkable instance of a 
“representative species,” it requires to be minutely criticized. Judge 
Cooper compared his specimen with 130 eastern shells, and noted the differ- 
ences with great fulness and accuracy. <A series of Middendorff’s Pacific 
shells having been brought to England by Mr. Damon, and sold at high 
prices, I made a searching comparison of one of them with the eastern 
specimens furnished me by Judge Cooper and other most trusty naturalists. 
According to the diagnosis of Middendorffii, it should be referred to C. de- 
cemcostatus, Say, and not to the De Fuca species, as it agrees in all respects 
with the eastern peculiarities quoted, except that the riblets near the canal 
are rather more numerous and defined. As it might be suspected that 
Mr. Damon’s shells were mixed, I have made a similar comparison with a 
shell from the N. W. coast, sent to the Smiths. Inst. by Mr. Pease, and with 
the same result. On examining the specimens in the Cumingian Collection, 
in company with A. Adams, Esq., we were both convinced that the eastern 
and western forms could not be separated. In the similar shells collected 
by Mr. Adams in the Japan seas there are remarkable variations in the de- 
tails of sculpture. |} 

871. Chrysodomus Sitchensis, Midd. [ =incisus, Gld.,=dirus, Rve.]. Str. De Fuca, 

Suckley, Gibbs. 

»  Nassa mendica, Gld. Puget Sound, Suckley. 

»  Nassa Gibbsit, Coop.,n.s. “ Resembles N. trivittata more than N. mendica.” 
Port Townsend, Puget Sound. [In a large series, neither Dr. Stimpson nor 
I were able to separate tuis species from N. mendica. Similar variations 
are common in british Nasse. Picked individuals from the Neeah Bay 
series would probably be named trivittata, if mixed with eastern shells. ] 

» Purpura lactuca, Esch.,+ M. ferrugineus, Esch., = P. septentrionalis, Rve. Puget 
Sound, Suckley, Gibbs; Shoalwater Bay, Str. de Fuca, J. G. Cooper. 
“Abounds on rocks and oyster-beds in Shoalwater Bay, the form and 
amount of rugosity depending on station. The oyster-eaters are smooth 
even when young.” —J. G. C. ; 

872. Purpura ostrina, Gld.,= P. Freycinetii, Midd., non Desh. +P. decemcostata 
Coop., non] Midd. Rocks above low-water mark ; from mouth of Hood’s 
anal to Str. Fuca; Puget Sound, common, J. G. Cooper. 

»  Purpera lapillus [Coop., non] Linn. [=P. saxicola, Val.] Str. De Fuca, 
Puget Sound, J. G. Cooper. “ Found with P. ostrina, and equally common.” 
[Some varieties run into the New England form of P. lapillus, sufficiently 
nearly to justify the identification ; but the bulk of the specimens are easily 
distinguished by the excavated columella. They pass by insensible erada- 
tions to P. ostrina, Gld., which is a rare and extreme variety. Many of the 
shells called P. Freycinetit by Midd. are certainly referable to this species. 
Some forms pass towards the true P. Freycinetii, Desh., while others are 
equally close to the very different P. emarginata, Desh. | 

» Purpura emarginata, Desh.,= P. Conradi, Nutt. MS. “Upper California,” 
Trask ; San Diego, Trowbridge. [This appears to be exclusively a southern 
form = saxicola, var. | 

+, Monoceros engonatum, Conr.,=M. unicarinatum, Sby. San Pedro, Dr. Trask. 

878. Monoceros lupilloides, Cour.,=M. punctatum, Gray. San Pedro, Dr. Trask. 


83 




































































= 
ry 


” 


9” 


” 


REPORT—18C65. 


3. Columbella gausapata, Gld. Str. de Fuca, Suckley. 


Columbella valga (Cooper, non} Gld. [= Buceinum corrnuyatum, Rve.j Ste. 
de Fuca, Suckley. 

Natica Lewisti, Gld.,=N. herculea, Midd. Puget Sound, J. G. Cooper, Suck- 

+ ley. “Shell sometimes remarkably globose, sometimes with spire much 

roduced.” W.C. “ Abundant throughout the N.W. sounds, and col- 

teeta in great numbers by the Indians for food. In summer it cravls 
above high-water mark to deposit its eggs” in the well-known sand-coils, 
which are “beautifully symmetrical, smooth, and perfect on both sides.”— 
BGC, 

Potamis pullatus, Gid. A variable species. U. Cal., Trask. 


. Melania plicifera, Lea. Very common in rivers, W.T., J. G. Coop er 


Melania silicula, Gld. [=one of the many vars. of M. plieifera, teste Lea]. 
In rivers, W. T., Nisqually and Oregon, J. G. Cooper. 

Melania Shortaénsis, Lea, MS. | = Shastaénsis, Lea}. Willopah River, J. G. 
Cooper. 

wie Nuttalliana, Lea, Phil. Trans. pl. 26. f. 89. Columbia River, J. G. 
Cooper. 

nee seminalis, Hds. U. Cal., Trask. [Belongs to Dr. Stimpson’s new 
genus, Fluminicola. | 

Turritella Eschrichtii, Miaa. [= Bittium filosum, Gld.]. Puget Sound, Sucke 
ley, Gibbs. 

“ Tatorina rudis, Gld., Stn.”” [Cooper, non Mont.]. Shoalwater Bay, De 
Fuca, J. G. Cooper, Suckley, Gibbs. “Very abundant on the N.W. coast, 
where it presents the same varied appearances as our eastern shell.”— JV. C. 
[To an English eye, it appears quite distinct. Z. rudis, Coop., with sub- 
tenebrosa, Midd., and modesta, Phil., are probably vars. of Z. Sttkana, Phil., 
= ZL. sulcata, Gld. | 

Litorina scutulata, Gid. On rocks, from the head of Puget Sound to De Fuca, 
J. G. Cooper. 


~ Litorina planaxis, Nutt. [=L. patula, Gld.]. San Luis Obispo, Dr. Antisell. 
. Trochus filosus, Wood,= T. ligatus, Gid.,=T. modestus, Midd. Str. de Fuca, 


J. G. Cooper; U. Cal., Trask. [=T. costatus, Mart. | 

Trochus Schantaricus [Coop., non] Midd. [= Marg. pupilla, Gld.,=M. calo- 
stoma, A. Ad.| Str. de Fuca, J. G. Cooper, abundant. 

Haliotis Kamtschatkana, Jonas. Nootka Sound, Capt. Lussell, teste Trask. 

Hatiotis corrugata, San Diego, Cassidy. 

Haliotis splendens. San Diego, Cassidy. 

Haliotis rufescens. San Diego, Cassidy. 

Haliotis Cracherodit. (None of the rare var. Californiensis.) S. Diego, Cassidy. 

Fissurella nigropunctata, Sby. Two specimens sent by Dr. Trask as coming 
from Catalina Is., U. Cal. [imported ]. 

Fissurella aspera, Esch.,? =cratitia, Gld., ? =densiclathrata, Rve. [ = Lincolni, 
Gray. This is certainly Gould’s species from type; but Reeve’s shell is 
southern, and appears distinct.] U. Cal., Lieut. Trowbridge. 


. Nacella instabilis. | 


Acmeu pelta. 
Acmea persona. 
Acmeua spectrum. 
Acmea scabra. 
Acmea eruginosa. 
Scurria mitra. 


The few shells collected of this family are mostly imper- 
fect, but appear to belong to the species quoted: for 
the synonymy of which, reference is made to the Bri- 
tish Association Report. 


Chiton muscosus. Still fewer materials, among which the quoted species 
Chiton submarmoreus. were identified. [The “swbmarmoreus,’ both of 
Chiton tunicatus. Midd. and Coop., may prove to be Zonicia lineata, 
Chiton lignosus. var.| Chiefly from Oregon. 


Helix fidelis, Gray,=Nuttalliana, Lea. Forests W. of Cascade Mountain, 
W. 'T., J. G. Cooper. 
Helix Townsendiana, Lea. “Common in open prairies near the sea, but not 
near Puget Sound,” W. T., J. G. Cooper. 
84 





Page. 
376. 


877. 


” 
” 


» 


378. 


I 
” 
” 
” 
” 
PP) 


” 
” 


” 
379. 


BP 


3” 


” 


” 


4) 


BL 
” 


” 
” 


ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 599 


TKlix Columbiana, Lea,=labiosa, Gld. “In wet meadows from Vancouver 
to the coast, not near Puget Sound,’ W. T., J. G. Cooper. 

Helix Vancouver rensis, Lea T | + spor tella, Gld., ‘teste Bland]. “ West of Cas- 
cade Mountain; most abundant under alder- -2TOVeS 5 ‘also on Whidby’s 
Island,” W. T., J. G. Cooper. 

Helir devia, Gid..= Baskerville’, Pfr. Two sp. in damp woods, near Van- 
couver, W. T., J. G. Cooper. 

Helix tudiculata, Binn. Rare, with the last, Vancouver; also Washington 
Territory, J. G. Cooper. 

Succinea Nuttalliana, Lea, Rare and dead, at Vancouver, J. G. Cooper. 

Limax Columbianus, Gld. “ Abandant in dense, damp ‘spruce- forests, near 
Pacific coast; grows to 6 inches, and is smooth, not rugose, when living,” 
J. G. Cooper. 

Limnea umbrosa, Gld. Lake Oyosa, Okanagan River, J. G. Cooper. 

Limnea emarginata, Say. Lake Oyosa, Okanagan River, J. G. Cooper. 

Limnéa jugularis, Say. Lake Oyosa, Okanagan River, J. G. Cooper. 

Physa elongata, Say. Near Puget Sound, ac Cooper. 

Physa heterostropha, Say. Ponds in W. T., J. G. Cooper. 

Physa bullata, Gld. MS. Lake Oyosa, W. 7D. J. G. Cooper. 

Ancylus caurinus, Coop., ?n.s. [P= A. Nuttaili, Hald., h Coop. MS.] Black 
River, near Puget Sound, J. G. Cooper. 

Planorbis cor -pulentus, Say. Lake Ovosa, W. T., J. G. Cooper. 

Planorbis trivolvis, Say. Exceedingly abundant in shallow lakes near Van- 
couver, W.T., J. G. Cooper. 

Planorbis plarwdatus, Coop.,n.s. “ A small carinated species, found only in 
lakes on Whidby’s Island,” J. G. Cooper. [Comp. P. opercularis, Gld. | 

Bulla nebulosa, Gid. Bay of S . Pedro, Lrash. 

Bulla tenella, A. Ad. , in Sby. Thes. pl. 154. f. 104 [?]. Puget Sound, one sp., 
Suckley.  [? = Haminea hydatis. | 

Ostrea edulis, Coop. [non Linn.:= 0. lurida, Cpr.]. De Fuca and Puget 
Sound, Gibbs; Shoalwater Bay, Coover. “ ‘Small i in Puget Sound; finer in 
Shoalwater Bay, which supplies 8. Francisco market ; large at Vancouver's 
Island ; very large near mouth of Hood’s Canal.” 

[Placunanomia macrosclisma, Desh. De Fuca, Gibbs; Nootka Sound, Capt. 
Russell. 

Pecten caurinus, Gld. De Fuca, Suckley. One of the specimens measures 
23 inches in circumference and 8 in. across. 


. Pecten ventricosus, Sbhy.,-tumidus, Sby. [= ?var. equisulcatus, Cpr.]. Upper 


Cal., Trask; San Diego, Cassidy. 

M, ytilus edulis, Ln. Shoalwater Bay, Cooper. “As abundant as in Europe 
and N. England, with the same variations, and when eaten penastonail 
causing urticaria.”—J. G. Cooper. 

Mytilus Cahfornianus, Cony. Puget Sound, Port Townsend, Suckley, Grbbs ; 
Upper Cal., Trask. One specimen is 91 inches long. 

Modiola capax | Cooper, non} Conr. on modiolus, Ln.]. Not common. Str. 
de Fuca, Gibbs, Cooper. 

Modiola flabellata, Gld. Puget S. and Str. de Fuca, Gibbs. [= M. recta, var. | 

Lithophagus, sp. ind., like faleatus. [Probably Adula stylina, Cpr.] Rocks 
near mouth of Umpqua River, Oregon, Dr. Vollum. 


. Arca grandis, Coop. [non Brod. and. Sby.,=.4. multicostata, Sby.]. One sp. 


living. San Diego, Cassidy. 

Margar ritana mar garitifera, Lea,= Alasmodonta falcata, Gld. River Chehalis, 
SEG a Vic) Les Cooper ; Shasta Riv er, Or., Trask. — After careful comparison 
with eastern U. 8. specimens, and those from Newfoundland and Europe, 
Judge Cooper agrees with Dr. Lea that the N.W. shells are at most a slight 
variety. “ The most abundant of the freshwater bivalv es, and the only one 
yet found in the Chehalis, the streams running into Puget Sound, and ‘most 
branches of the Columbia. No species is found in the streams running into 
Seon Bay. Eaten by the Indians E. of the Cascade Mountains,” 


89 


600 REPORT—1863. 


Page: 
381. Anodonta angulata, Lea,+A. feminalis, Gld. Plentiful in Yakima River, 
W.T., Cooper. A series of specimens of various ages leads Judge Cooper 
| to endorse Dr. Lea’s opinion of the identity of the two species. 

1 | y Anodonta Oregonensis, Lea. Rivers of W. 'T., Cooper. 

| : : : 

» Anodonta Wahlamatensis, Lea. Lagoons in Sacramento River, Dr. Trask. 
382. Cardium Nuttalli, Cony. Shoalwater Bay and Puget Sound, Cooper; San 

Franc., Dr. Bigelow, Trask. “The most abundant clam of Shoalwater Bay, 
inhabiting sandy mud, a few inches below the surface. The Indians feel 

for them with a knife or sharp stick with great expertness. In July many 
come to the surface and die, ? from the sun’s heat.’ 

yy Cardium quadragenarium, Conr. One valve. San Luis Obispo, Dr. Antisell. 
y Lucina Californca, Conr. San Diego, Cassidy. 
y  Cyclas, sp. ind. Whidby’s Island ; pools near Steilacoom, Cooper. 
yy Venus staminea, Conr.,+ Venerupis Petitii, Desh.,+ Venus rigida, Gld. [pars], 
| + Tupes diversa, Shy. Shoalwater Bay and Puget Sound, Cooper, Suck- 
| ley; San Francisco, Trask; San Diego, Lneut. Trowbridge. [To the 
i above synonymy, by Judge Cooper, the large series of specimens in the 
Smithsonian Mus. compels an assent. He considers Tapes straminea, of 
| | Sby. Thes., to be a variety of V. histrionica, but it more probably= T. 
i | grata, as Dr. Gould appears to have considered it, having copied Sowerby’s 
| error. Conrad named it, not from the colour, as was supposed when quoting 
i) | it as “ straminea,” but from the thread-like sculpture (teste Conr. ips.). 
| Whatever be the form, colour, or sculpture of the shell, Judge Cooper 
| | remarks in all the same characters of teeth and hinge; we may add also, of 
| 

| 














the pallial sinus. 

383. Saxvidomus Nuttall [Coop., non] Conr.,+ Venerupis gigantea, Desh.,4+ Venus 

|| maxima, Phil. [?]. Near Copalux River, south of Shoalwater Bay, com- 

mon at Puget Sound, Cooper; Bodegas, Cal., Trask. “ Much superior to 

i) | the Atlantic guahog as food, but called by the same name. Its station is in 

i somewhat hard sand, near l.-w. mark,’ J. GC. [Judge Cooper regards all 

| the Saxidomi of the coast, except S. aratus, as one species. The southern 
form, “with rough concentric striz and brown disc,’ is Conrad’s species ; 
“others from Oregon are much smoother, without regular strive.” These are 
S. squalidus, Desh. Dr. Cooper found “a fossil variety, in coast-banks 10 
feet above sea-level, which is well figured in Midd. and (less distinctly) by 
Desh. A Californian specimen measures 4°8 in. across.” The fossils, through 
disintegration, often assume the aspect of Venus Kennerleyi, the former 
oe remaining as vyarical ridges, while the softer interstices have 
perishe # 

9 Venus lamelhifera, Cony.,= Venerupis Cordiert, Desh. San Diego, Cassidy. 

384. Lutraria maxima, Midd., = L. capar, Gld. [ = Schizotherus Nuttalli, Conv. | 
Shoalwater Bay, Cooper. San Francisco, Trask. “ Lives buried nearly 2 feet 
in hard sand, near 1. w. mark, its long siphons reaching the surface; also in 
many pe of Puget Sound up to near Olympia. It is excellent food, and 
a chief article of winter stores to the Indians, who string and smoke them 
in their lodges. Length, 75 in. The burrows are found in the cliffs, 10 feet 
above high water, with all the other Mollusca now living; and two, not 
now found, were then common [viz. ?...]. Th» Indians have no tradition 
as to the elevation, and the ancient trees show no signs of the irregular 
upheavings which raised the former levels of low water, by successive 
stages, to a height now nearly 100 feet,” J. G. C. 

y Lellina nasuta, Conr. Common, from L. Cal. to the Arctic Seas. Shoal- 
water Bay, Cooper; Puget Sound, Suckley; San Francisco, Trask. : 

y  Tellina edentula [Cpr., Coop., not Brod. and Sby.,= Macoma secta, var. edulis, 
Nutt.]. Puget Sound, Gibbs. 

»  Tellina Bodegensis, Hds. Shoalwater Bay, rare, Cooper; mouth of Umpqua 
River, Vollum. 

385. Sangiinolaria Californiana, Conr. “Common at the mouth of the Columbia 
and other rivers, and high up salt-water creeks,” Cooper. [= Macoma 
mmconspicua, Brod. and Sby.] 

86 





















































ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 661 


age. 
ed Solen sicarius, Gld. One dead shell, near Steilacoom, Puget Sound, Cooper. 
“Probably abundant on the mud-flats near the mouth of the Nisqually 
River,” J; G. C. 

y» Machera patula, Portl. and Dix. (Coop. errata; Nuttall in text), = Solen 
maximus, Wood, non Chemn.,= Solecurtus Nuttallii, Conr.,= Machera cos- 
tata, Midd., non Say. Washington Ter., Cooper. ‘“ Burrows a few inches 
from the surface, at the edge of the usual low tide; is justly considered 
(except the oyster) the best of the many fine eatable molluscs of the coast. 
It is the only truly marine molluse found near the Columbia River; extends 
northwards wherever the beach is sandy, but not known in the Straits of 
derbucas JaGaG: 

” Hus ees (Platyodon), Conr. Dead valves, St. Luis Obispo, Dr, 
Anirsell. 

yy Sphenia Californica, (Cryptomya), Conr. San Francisco, Trask. 

886. Mytilimeria Nuttali, Cony. A group, nestling in a white, friable, arenaceous 
substance, was obtained at San Diego by Lieut. Trowbridge. 

Pholas | Pholadidea| penita, Conr., =P. concamerata, Desh. From worn rock 
which drifted into Shoalwater Bay, attached to the roots of Macrocystis, 
the giant seaweed, Cooper; De Fuca, Suckley; mouth of Umpqua River, 
Oregon, Dr. Vollum. 


The above list must be considered as a résumé, not merely of the shells of the 
N. P. Railroad Survey, but also of all those examined by Judge Cooper, from 
the Smithsonian Museum and from his own private collection. It is pecu- 
liarly valuable as preserving the notes concerning station, &c., of the original 
explorers, and has therefore required a more lengthened analysis. 

The land-shells collected by Dr. Newberry in the Pacific Railroad Survey were 
described by W. G. Binney, Esq., with his accustomed accuracy. His paper 
will be found in the Reports, vol. vi. pp. 111-114. The following are the 
only species enumerated :— 


* 


1. Helix fidelis, Gray, Chem., Pfr., Rve.,= H. Nuttalhana, Lea, Binney, sen., De 
Kay. Portland, Oregon, Newberry. Local. 

2. Helix infumata, Gld., Proc. Bost. N. H. 8., Feb. 1855, p. 127. Hills near 
San Francisco, Newberry. Extremely rare. 

3. Helix eruginosa, Gld., var. B. loc. cit. North of San Francisco, Newberry. 
Rare. 

4. Helix Dupetithouarsi, jun., Desh., Chem., Pfr., Rve.,= H. Oregonensis, Lea, 
Pfr. San Francisco, Benicia, Cal.; Klamath Lake, Oregon; Newberry. “One 
of the commonest and most widely distributed species of the Pacific region.” 

102. The U.S. Government also sent out a “ North-west Boundary Com- 
mission,” in charge of Archibald Campbell, Esq. The natural-history 

arrangements were superintended by the Smithsonian Inst., and Dr. C. B. R. 

Kennerly was appointed naturalist to the Expedition. At his request, I 

undertook to prepare a Report of the Mollusca, to be published and illustrated 

in a form corresponding to the Pacifie Railroad Reports; Dr. Aleock kindly 
undertaking to dissect the animals, and Mr. Busk to examine the Polyzoa. 

Dr. Kennerly died on his return from a three years’ exploration; and the 

civil war has thus far delayed any further publication. The materials have, 

however, been thoroughly investigated. They consist principally of dredg- 

ings in Puget Sound. On reference to the maps published by the U. 8. 

Coast Survey, it will be seen that this inland sea consists of a remarkable 

labyrinth of waters, fiord within fiord, and only indirectly connected with 

the currents of the Pacific Ocean. It might therefore be expected to furnish 
us with the species of quiet migration, and perhaps with those still living 
from a period of previous altered conditions. No doubt it will furnish new 
materials to reward the labours of many successsive naturalists. The pre- 


87 


aaa. 

















602 REPORT—1863. 


maturely closed investigations of Dr. Kennerley are only the beginning of a 
rich harvest. Dr. George Suckley, late assistant-surgeon of the U.S. army, 
was appointed to complete the natural-history work, after his lamented 
death. A complete list of the species collected will be found in the fifth column 
of the Vancouver and Californian table, v. infra, par. 112. The particulars 
of station, &e., and all the knowledge which the laborious explorer had col- 
lected, are lost to science. It is quite possible that some of the species here 
accredited to Puget Sound were obtained in neighbouring localities in the 
Straits of De Fuca. The specimens are in beautifully fresh condition, and 
of most of them the animals were preserved in alcohol. The following are the 
shells first brought from the Vancouver district by the American N. W. 
Boundary Commission, the diagnoses of new species being (according to 
custom) first published in the Proceedings of the Ac. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia. 


No. 

1. Zirphea crispata. Two living specimens of this very characteristic Atlantic sp. 

2. Savricava phoiadis. Several living specimens, 

3. Sphenia ovoidea, n.s. One sp. living. 

4. Cryptomya Californica. Several living sp. 

5. Thracia curta. One specimen. 

6. Mytilimeria Nuttall. Three sp. living at base of test of Ascidian. [The animal 
appeared too peculiar to venture on a dissection. It has been entrusied to 
Dr. Alcock, of the Manchester Museum. | 

7. Neera pectinata, n.s. One sp. living. 

8. Kennerlia filosa, n.s. and n. subg. Several living | specimens. 

9. Psammobia rubroradiata. One fresh specimen of uniform tint. 


10. Macoma (? v.) expansa. Adult broken; young living. Belongs to a group of 
forms classed together by some writers under lata or proxima, but the cha- 
racters of the hinge and mantle-bend have not yet been sufficiently studied. 

11. Macoma yoldiformis, n.s. One valve. 

12. Angulus modestus, n.s., but closely allied to the eastern A. tener, Say. Two 
sp. living. 

126. Angulus (?modestus, var. ) obtusus. Several fresh specimens. 

13. Clementia subdiaphana, n.s. Very rare, living. intermediate between Cle- 
mentia proper and the prora group of thin C alliste. 

14. Psephis Lordi, Baird. Several living sp. from which the subg. was eliminated. 

15. Venus Kennerlyi, Rve. Very rare. “One sp. living. Some of the shells called 
V. astartoides by Midd. may be the young of this. 

16. Petricola cardituides. Several fresh specimens. 

17. Astarte (? var.) compacta. One sp. living; may hereafter be connected with 4. 
compressa. 

18. Serripes Grenlandicus. Several young living specimens. 

19. Lucina tenuisculpta, n. s. Two living specimens, of which one had the surface 
disintegrated. 

20. Cryptodon serr ieatus, n.s. One living sp. 

21. Kellia Laperousit. A few living specimens. 

22, Kellia suborbicularis. A few livi ing specimens. 

23. Lasea rubra. One sp. living. 

24. Pythina rugifera, 0. 8. Two living sp. Intermediate between Pythina and 
Kellia. 

25. Tellimya tumida, n.s. One sp. living. 

26. Modioiaria levigata. Two living sp. 

27. Modiviaria marmorata. One sp. living. (A shell in the U. 8. E. E. Col., 
though marked “ Fiji” in Dr. Gould’s MS. list, probably came from Puget 
Sound, being thus confirmed. ) 

28, Nucula tenuis. Two sp. living’, 

29. Acila castrensis. One sp. living. 

30. Leda fossa, Baird. One normal sp. living. 


* These species were kindly determined by Mr. Hanleye 
88 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST GF NORTH AMERICA. 603 


No. 

31. Leda minuta, Linn. One sp. living*. 

32. Yoldia lanceolata, J. Shy. Two sp. living*. 

33. Yoldia amygdala. One sp. living*. 

34. Hamineah ydatis. Two sp. living. 

39, 36. Two species of Tectibranchiates, not yet worked-out by Dr. Alcock. 

7. Tornatina eximia, Baird. Abundant, living. 

38. Cylichna (?var.) attonsa. One livi ing sp. Probably a variety of cylindracea. 

39. Dentahum rectius,n.s. Very rare, dead. 

40. Acanthopleura scalra. One young living sp. 

41. Mopalia Grayii,n.s. One living sp. 

42. Mopaha Hinds. One living sp. 

43. Mopalia sinuata, n.s. Two sp. living. | 

44. Movala imporeata, n.s. Two sp. living. { 

45. Ischnochiton ( Trachydermon) trifidus, n. 8. One living a 

46. Ischnochiton (Trachydermon) flectens, n.s. One living s 

47. Ischnochiton (Trachydermon) retiporosus, n. 8. One livi ing sp. 

48. Ischnochiton (Lepidopleurus) Mertens. Rare, living 

49. Lepeta cecoides,n.s. Three sp. living. 

50. Calliostoma variegatum, n.s. One living sp. 

51. Margarita ?Vahli. Three sp. living, = I. pusilla, Jeffr., teste A. Ad. 

51b. Margarita (? v.) tenwsculpta. Perhaps a var. of Vahli, but sculptured. Several 
living specimens. 

62. Margar rita lir ulata, n.s. Several living specimens, forming a Darwinian group, 
of which var. #. subelevata, var. Be obsoleta, and Pyar. y. conica might pass 
for species from single specimens. 

55. Margarita inflata, n.s. Two sp. living. 

64, Me-alia lacteola, ?n. s. Two sp. living, but eroded. May prove a var. of 
lactea, but with different sculpture. 

545. Mesalia (?/acteola, var.) subplanata. Two sp. living, but eroded, 

55. Lacuna vincta. One fresh specimen. 

56. Rissoa comnacta, n.s. Not uncommon, living. 

57. Drilha incisa, n. s. Two fresh specimens. 

v8. Drillia cancellata, n. 8. One adelsacent specimen. 

59. Mangelia levidensis, n. s. One fresh specimen. 

60. Mangelia angulutat. One fresh specimen. 

61. Bela excurvata, n.s. (Like Trevelyana.) One fresh specimen, 

62. Chemnitzia (? v.) aurantiay. One fresh specimen. 

63. Chemnitzia torquatat. Two fresh specimens. 

64. Chemnitzia tridentatat. Two fresh specimens. 

65, Eulima micans, n.s. One fresh specimen, 

66. Velutina levigata. Several fine living specimens. 

67. Ocinebra interfossa. Fare, dead. 

68. Nitidella Gouldiit. Two living specimens, proving the genus, 

69. Trophon multicostatus. Two fresh specimens. 

70. Chrysodomus ?tabulatus, jun. One young sp. 

71. Chrysodomus rectirostris, n.s. One living sp. 

72,73. Two species of Cephalopods, not yet affiliated. 


A well-marked group in the genus, 


Besides adding more than 70 marine species to the Vancouver branch of the 
Californian fauna, from specimens in good condition, without a single bal- 
last or exotic admixture, the confirmation of many species, which before 
rested only on the uncertain testimony of the U.S. E. E. labels, and the 
affiliation of others which, on the same testimony, had been wrongly assigned 
to distant and erroneous localities, was no slight benefit to science. The 
iand and freshwater species of the Expedition will be found tabulated, with 
others, in the separate lists; par. 115. 

103. While the American naturalists were thus actively engaged in ex- 


+ These species were first found by Col. Jewett at Sta. Barbara. Vide p. 537. 
89 




















60+ REPORT—1863. 


ploring the regions south of the political boundary, similar explorations, on 

a less extensive scale, were being made under the direction of the British 

Government. The naturalist to the British North American Boundary Com- 

mission, during the years 1858-1862, was J. K. Lord, Esq., F.Z.S. He made a 

very valuable collection of shells in Vancouver Island and British Columbia, 

the first series of which was presented to the British Museum. The new 
species were described by W. Baird*, Esq., M.D., F.L.S., in a paper com- 
municated to the Zool. Soc., and published in its ‘ Proceedings,’ Feb. 10th, 

1863, pp. 66-70.—Another series of shells, from the same district, was pre- 

sented to the Brit. Mus. by the Lords of the Admiralty, collected by Dr. Lyall, 

of H. M. Ship ‘ Plumper.’ Two new species from this collection were describcd 
by Dr. Baird, in a separate paper, P. Z.8., Feb. 10th, 1863, p.71. The new 
species from Mr. Lord’s collections have been drawn on stone by Sowerby. 

The figure-numbers here quoted correspond with the proof-copy kindly fur- 

nished by Dr. Baird.— A third series was collected by Dr. Forbes, R.N., in the 

same Expedition. After Mr. Cuming had made his own selections, this passed 
into the ordinary London market. It contained several species of peculiar 
interest. The following are the (supposed) new species of the Survey :— 

P.Z.8: Plate I: 

Page: No. Fig. 

66 1 1. Chrysodomus tabulatus, Baird. One broken specimen, Esquimalt Harb., 
Vancouver Island, Lord. [One perfect shell, Neeah Bay, Swan. ] 

ee 2. 2 Vitularia aspera, Bd. Several living specimens, Esquimalt Harb., 
Vane. Island, Lord. [Belongs to a group of grooved muricoid Pur- 
purids, intermediate between Rhizocheilus and Cerostoma, for which 
the subgenus Ocinebra may be reconstituted. These shells are the 
rough form of Ocinebra lurida, Midd. 

67 3) 38. Chemnitzia Vancouverensis, Bd. { = torquata, Gld.]. Esquimalt Harb., 
Vane. Island, Zord. From the crop of a pintail Duck. [The 
artist has failed to represent the peculiar character of the species, 
which is, that the ribs end above the periphery, so that a smooth 
belt appears round the spire above the sutures. ] 

eo & 4 Amnicola Hindsii, Bd. Seven sp., River Kootanie East; nine sp., 

Wigwam River, west slope of Rocky Mts., 4626 ft. high, Br. Col., 
Lord. Resembles Paludina | Fluminicola] seminalis, Hds. 

. Bullina ( Tornatina) eximia, Ba. Esquimalt Harb., V. I., Lord. Alive 

in 12 fm.; dead in Duck’s stomach. [Not Ballina, Add. Gen. | 

. Succinea Hawkinsii, Ba, Six sp. Lake Osoyoos, Brit. Col., Lord. 

. Limnea Sumassiit, Bd. Like LZ. elodes, Say. Plentiful. Sumass 

Prairie, Fraser R., Brit. Col., Zord. {Extremely like Z. palustris. | 

» Physa Lordi, Bd. Plentiful. Lake Osoyoos, British Columbia, Lord. 

| Larger than Ph. humerosa, Gld., and with strong columeliar fold. ] 

» Ancylus Kootaniensis, Bd, Six sp., River Kootanie East; five sp., 

River Spokane, British Columbia, Lord. 


o oOo NO Cc 
co ao nO oo 


* It is due to the memory of Dr. Kennerley, as well as to the other natnralists con- 
nected with the various American surveys, and the officers of the Smiths. Inst., who so 
generously entrusted to the writer their unique specimens for comparison with the 
London museums, to state, that (with two exceptions) the new marine species of the 
British Survey would have been published long before the appearance of Dr. Baird’s 
paper, but for the derangement of the U.S. natural-history publications, consequent on 
the secession movement. Although the Smithsonian Inst. had offered to present to 
the Brit. Mus. their first series of duplicate specimens from these expeditions, which 
was exhibited at the Manchester Meeting of the Brit. Assoc., where this Report was 

called for, no notice was given to the writer of the valuable results of the british 
survey; and it was only through the private kindness of Drs. Sclater and Baird that 
he was prevented from adding to the list of synonyms, already, alas! so numerous 
and perplexing. 

+ These species are named after places, not after persons, as would be supposed 
by the terminations. 90 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 602 


BES. Plate If. 

age. No. igs 

69° 10 10° Chione Lordi, Ba. From a Duck’s stomach. Plentiful. Esquimalt 
Harb., V. I., Lord. ‘ 

ee 11 11. Sprerium (Cyclas) tumidum, Bd. Plentiful. Sumass Prairie, Fraser 
River, British Columbia, Lord. 

e- 12 12,18. Spherium (Cyclas) Spokanit+, Bd. Two sp., River Spokane; two 
young sp., Kootanie River, British Columbia, Lord. (Closely re- 
lated to tranidum, but more delicate. ] 

70 18 14. Lyonsia savicola, Bd. Holes in rocks in Esquimalt Harb., V. I., Lord. 
Japan, teste d. Ad. Closely resembles LZ. navicula, Ad. and Rve. 
{Abundant, and very variable in outline, sometimes like Saricava 
pholadis, sometimes like Mytilimeria. Neeah Bay, Swan. } 

oe» 14 15. Crassatella Esquimaltit, Ba. One sp. Esquimalt Harb., V. I., Lord. 
[A true Astarte, with external ligament, with one ant. lat. tooth in 
one valve, and one post. lat. tooth in the opposite, well developed. 
This character was noticed by J. Sby. in constituting the genus, 
but becomes obsolete in the typical species. The same peculiarity 
of margin is seen in Crassatella. The external rug are singularly 
irregular, and not always continuous. | 

71 165 Leda fossa, Bd. 10-15fm.; one sp. Esquimalt Harb., V. I., Lyall. 
[=L. foveata, Baird, MS., on tablet. ] 

ws 16 Nucula Lyall, Bd. 8-10 fm. ; one sp. Esquimalt Harb., V.I., Zyaill, 
Resembles N. divaricata, Hds., N. castrensis, Hds., N. mirabilis, 
Ad. and Rve., and especially WV. Cobboldie from the Crag. a the 
early stage, the sculpture has several angles, afterwards only one. 
Both Dr. Kennerley’s and Dr. Lyall’s specimens appear to be= 
Aci'a castrensis, Hds. | 


The Vancouver Collections having been deposited in separate drawers, 
except the series mounted for the table-cases, permission has been given 
(with the kind assistance of Dr. Baird) to examine them minutely, and pre- 
pare a revised list of the species. The marine shells will be found in the 
sixth column of the general Vancouver and Californian Table. The fol- 
lowing require special mention. 

No. 

17. “ Teredo fimbriata,” teste Jeffr.; out of block of wood from Nai-ni-mo Harb., 
V. 1, Lord. 

Teredo. Shelly tube of large sp. Esquimalt Harb., Lord. 

18. Netastoma Darwin. Esquimalt Harb., Lord. One adult but injured speci- 
men. [For this singular Pholad, with duck-bill prolongations of the valves, 
a subgenus of Pholadidea is proposed, as its characters do not accord with 
Jouanettia, under which it is placed in the Cumingian Collection. | 

19. “ Saxicava rugosa.” Several typical specimens ; Esquimalt Harb., Lord, taken 
out of interior of hard stone, into which they appear to have bored. 

20. “ Callista ?pannosa.” Esquimalt Harb., Lord, One young sp. [= Saxidomus 
squalidus, jun. | 

21. “ Tapes rigida.” Esquimalt Harb., Lord, common. [An instructive series, 
some with very close and fine, others with distant, strong ribs. Some have 
ribs large and rounded, approaching the sculpture of Cardia. Some change 
suddenly from one form to another. = 7. staminea, var. Petitit.] 

22. “ Cardium Californiense, Desh.” 8-15 fm. Vancouver Is., Lyall. [ =var. 
blandum. Tablet contains also young sp. of C. corbis. 

28. “ Cardita ventricosa, Gld.” 8-15 fm. tang Is., Lyall. [Not ventricose , 
exactly resembles the East Coast specimens of Ven. borealis dredged by Dr. 
Stimpson. 

24, “ Miiedonta ea Gld.” [=A. Oregonensis, Lea.] Lake Osoyoos, Br. Col. 
Lord. Twosp. Also Freshwater Lake, Nootka Sound, Lyall. 

-y, Anodonta ? Oregonensis, jun. _ Freshwater Lake, Nootka, V. I., Lord; one sp. 

25. Anodonta ? Nuttalliana. Freshwater Lake, Nootka, Vane. Is., Lord; one sp. 

26. Anodonta Waslanucensis. Fyveshwater Lake, Nootka, Vane. Is., Z:rd; four sp, 

91 
































606 REPORT—1863. 


No 
26. 


27. 


28. 


go co 


GON 


4d. 


45, 
46. 


Anodonta ? Wahlamatensis, jun. Sumass Prairie, Fraser River, Brit. Col, 
Lord; one specimen. 

Anodonta angulata. Fort Calville, Columbia R., Lord; one specimen [irregu- 
lar and much eroded. The hinge-line is waved and a false “tooth ” pro 
duced, in consequence of which it has been named } “ Alasmodon.”’ 

“ Pecten rubidus, Hds.” Vane. Is., Lyall. {Hinds’s type in Br. Mus. appears the 
ordinary form, of which P. hastatus=hericeus is the highly sculptured var. 
This shell, which is more allied to Islandicus, may stand as P. Hindsti, | 


9. Hinnites giganteus. Island 3 miles above Cape Mudge, Lyall. 
. Ostrea lurida. Esquimalt Harb., Zord. Dredged-up by Indians in small hand- 


nets with long handles, in 2-3 fm., on mud-flats. 


. © Placunanomia cepio, Gray.” Esquimalt Harb., Zord. On island rock, 


between tide-marks. [= P. macroschisma, smooth, hollow form. | 


. “ Chiton (Platysemus) Wossnessenskit, Midd.,= C. Hindsit, Rve.” Esquimalt 


Harb., Zord. One very fine specimen. { Quite distinct from Mopalia Hinasit 
(Gray); differs but slightly from M. muscosa, Gld. | 


. “Chiton ? levigatus.” Esquimalt Harb., Zord. One specimen. [=Ischno- 


chiton flectens. | 


. “ Chiton dentiens, Gld., ?= marginatus.” Esquimalt Harb., Lord. Two spe- 


cimens. [=schnochiton pseudodentiens. Not congeneric with the British 
Leptochiton cinereus = marginatus. | 


. Acmea “mitella, Mke.” Esquimalt Harb., Lord. [Probably A. pelta, jun. 


Not sculptured, as is the tropical species. 


. “ Acmea ?testudinalis, jun.” Esquimalt Harb., Zord. One young sp. [with 


extremely close fine strize ; colour in festoons of orange-brown pencilling on 
white ground.’ Might stand well for 4A. testudinalis, but probably =A. 
patina, var. pintadina. | 


. Margarita “ costellata, Sby.” Esquimalt Harb., Lord. [= MM. pupilla, Gld.\ 
. Crepidula lingulata, Gld. Esquimalt Harb., Zord. Three young sp. [Apex 


smooth, imbedded, passing into the aculeata type. The species probably= 
C. dorsata, Brod. | 


. “ Melania silicula, Gld., P=rudens, Rve.” Attached to weeds and floating 


sticks in swift stream on prairie, at Nisqually, W. T., Lord. [ =plicifera, 
small var. | 


. Priene Oregonensis. Port Neville, 6 fm., Lyall. [Very fine; but opercula 


probably misplaced. } 


. © Nitidella” gausapata, Gld. Esquimalt Harb., Zord. [A beautiful series of 


highly painted specimens. Operculum Nassoid, not Purpuroid; therefore 
ranks under Amycla. | 


. “& Vitularia lactuca.” Vancouver's Island, Lyall. [A fine series of Purpura 


crispata and yars., among which is a lilac-tinted specimen. | 


3. Purpura decemcostata, Vane. Is., Lyall. { =canaliculata, Operc. as in Ocinebra 


lurida. | 

“ Fusus Orpheus” [Bd., not] Gld. Esquimalt Harb., Zord. Five sp., with 
crabs. [= Ocinebra interfossa, very fine. | 

Trophon Orpheus, Gld. Esquimalt Harb., Zord. One fresh specimen. 

Helix Townsendiana, very fine. Sumass Prairie, Fraser River, Lord. 


46h. “ Helix Townsendiana, small var.” Fort Colville, Columbia R.; also sums 


47. 


mit of Rocky Mts., Lord. 
Helix fidelis, typical, jun. and adult. Wane. Is., Lord. 


476. Helix fidelis. Varge but very pale var. Sumass Prairie, Fraser R., Lord 


48. 
49. 


50. 
51. 


52. 


53. 


ot. 


“ Helix Thouarsit, jun.” Sumass Prairie, Fraser R., Lord. 
“ Helix labiata= Columbiana, var.” Vancouver Is., Lord, [closely resembling 
HT. rufescens |. 
“ Felix vellicata, Fbs.” Sumass Prairie, Fraser R., Lord. [= Vancouverensis. | 
Helix (like eee Fort Colville, Columbia R., Lord. Two specimens. 
Zonites like evrcavata}. Fort Colville, Columbia R., Lord. One specimen. 
Zonites [like elechrina | Fort Colville, Columbia R., Lord. Seven specimens. 
Pupa, sp. ind. jun. Lake Osoyoos, British Columbia, Zord. One specimen. 
[Genus not found before, north of Calfiornia. ] 
92 


5 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. C07 


No. 

55. “ Succinea rusticana, Gld.” Sumass Prairie, Fraser R., Lord. [Scarcely te ke 
distinguished from the European S. putris. | 

56. “ Planorbis corpulentrs, Say.” Lake Osoyoos; Syniakwateen ; Marsh, Koo- 
tanie East, Brit. Col., Lord. 

57. Planorbis ? subcrenatus, var. Sumass Prairie, Brit. Col., Lord. 

58. “ Limnea stagnalis,” typical, fine, and abundant. Lake Osoyoos, Fraser R., 
Lord. 

58. Limnea stagnalis, long narrow spire, mouth swollen, closely fenestrated. 
Marshy stream, Syniakwateen, Lord. 

5S. “ Limnea ?desidiosa, Say.” Lake Osoyoos; three sp., Lord. [Exactly re- 
sembles a var. of the widely distributed Z. cataracta, which was found im 
profusion in the Madison Lakes, Wisc. | 

60. “ Limnea ?desidiosa, Say.” Syniakwateen, Brit. Col., Zord. One sp. [Very 
turrited, whirls swollen; epidermis finely striated. The same species occuya 
as “ I. megasoma, Say. Lake Osoyoos.”] — ~ . 

Gl. “ Physa heterostropha, Say.” Sumass Prairie, Fraser R. A variety from Lake 
Osoyoos, Lord. 

62. Physa | probably young of Lordi, but with orange band inside labrum.] [Koo- 

tanie R. East, Brit. Col., Zord. One sp. 
Besides the shells preserved in the National Collection, the following 
species were also brought by the Expedition :— 


63. Terebratula unguculus, n. 8s. Vane. Is., Forbes. One adult specimen, Mus. 
Cum. [Extremely interesting as being the only sculptured species known 
recent. The young shells from California were naturally affiliated to 
Terebratella caput-serpentis by Messrs. Reeve and Hanley ; but the adult has 
the loop similarly incomplete. | 

64. Rhynconella psittacea. Vane. Is., Forbes. One specimen, Mus. Cum. 

65. Darina dechvis, n.s. Vane. Is., Forbes. One specimen. [The only other 
species of Darina is from the West Coast of S. America. | 

66. Clementia sibdiaphana. Vane. Is., Forbes. One broken sp. 

G7. Saxidomus brevisiphonatus, n. s. This unique shell is marked, “ Vancouver 
Island” in Mr. Cuming’s Collection, and is believed by him to have formed 
a part of Dr. Forbes’s series. The shape resembles Callista, without lunule. 
The mantle-bend is remarkably small for the genus. 

68. Melania, n. s., teste Cuming. Vane. Is., Forbes. [Two specimens, with very 
fine spiral striz, sent to Philadelphia for jdentieation'} 

69. Mesalia lacteola, Vane. Is., Forbes. One sp., Mus. Cum. 

70. Pteropoda, several species, of which two are new, teste Cuming ; but they may 
have been collected on the voyage. Forbes. 


The collections made on the British Survey are peculiarly valuable to the 
student in consequence of the great perfection of the specimens. They haye 
generally been obtained alive, and are often the finest known of their kinds. 
The occurrence, however, of a specimen of the tropical Orthalicus zebra, 
marked ‘ Vancouver's Island,” in Mr. Lord’s collection*, is a useful lesson. 
‘When such reliable data are thus found possessed of adventitious materials, 
it will not be regarded as a slight on the collections of the most careful 
naturalists when specimens are regarded as of doubtful geographical accuracy. 
In Dr. Lyall’s collections there also occur specimens of the well-known Patella 
Magellanica and Trophon Magellanicus, duly marked ‘“ Vancouver’s Island,” 
though no doubt collected in the passage round Cape Horn. The naturalists 
of the American Expl. Expeditions generally travelled across the continent. 

104. The latest exploration undertaken for State purposes is also for our 
present object by far the most important, both as relates to the number of 


* Mr. Lord writes, “The fact of my having found this shell, alive, on Vancouver 
Isiand is beyond question. How it got there Ido not pretend to say; it was very pos- 
sibly brought by some ship,” 

93 

















608 REPORT—18C3, 


species authentically collected and the thoroughly competent and accurate 
manner in which the necessary information is being recorded. It is no longer 
left to the great nations bordering on the Atlantic to send exploring expe- 
ditions to the Pacific. The State of California, only born in 1850, has so 
rapidly attained maturity that when she was barely ten years old she con- 
sidered science a necessary part of her political constitution, and organized a 
«State Geological Survey,” under the direction of Prof. Whitney. To this 
survey Dr. J. G. Cooper (whose collections for the Pacific Railway Explora- 
tions have already been reported, wide pp. 597-601) was appointed zoologist, 
and Mr. W. M. Gabb (formerly of Philadelphia) paleontologist. The friendly 
relations established with both these gentlemen at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion not only put them in possession of the special desiderata on the present 
branch of inquiry, but have resulted in unreserved interchange of facts and 
opinions, by means of which a large instalment of the malacological results 
of the Survey can be embodied in this Report. Dr. Cooper has not only ex- 
plored the whole coast and the neighbouring islands from Monterey to San 
Diego, but has dredged extensively from shoal-water to 120 fathoms, keeping 
accurate lists of all acquisitions from each locality. Having an artist’s 
pencil as well as a naturalist’s eye, he has drawn the animals from life, and 
already subjected many of them to dissection. The war has to some extent 
suspended the operations of the survey; but it is confidently expected that 
the State will do justice to herself by issuing, with suitable illustrations, 
the full results of her officers’ labours. The first public notice of the mol- 
luscs appears in the Proc. Cal. Ac. N.S., Nov. 3rd, 1862, pp. 202-207. 
Here Dr. Cooper, speaking of the new species, writes with a modesty which 
is not always credited to American naturalists by Europeans,—‘‘As they 
may have been collected either by the N.W. Boundary Survey or at Cape 
St. Lucas, it has been considered safest, in order to avoid confusion, to send 
specimens or drawings of them to [the writer], that he may compare 
them with the above collections, and decide whether they are really new.” 
He gives valid reasons, however, for describing the following soft Mollusca. 
Unfortunately for French and German naturalists, the diagnoses are in 
English only. 


Page. 
2u2. Strategus (n. g.) inermis,n. s. More highly organized than any other genus 


of Opisthobranchiata ; creeps slowly among the grasses in the muddy parts 
of San Diego Bay, looking like a large caterpillar. Not uncommon. 

203. Pleurophyllidia Californica, un. s. Closely resembles P. lineata of S. Europe. 
“From the distance of locality there can, however, be no identity of 
species.” [?] _ Numerous in Dec., crawling and burrowing on sandy flats 
in San Diego Bay; none in Jan., after the floods. [Dr. Cooper writes that 
the body of fresh water was so great in some places as to kill the marine 
molluses for a considerable distance beyond the estuaries, and thus mate- 
rially alter the pre-existent fauna. | 

204. Doris Montereyensis, n. s., 6-10 fm., adhering to sandstone. Monterey Bay, 
very rare. Small specimens in San Francisco Bay, Frick. 

904. Doris (Asteronotus) sanguinea, n. s. Under stones in San Diego Bay ; rare. 

204. Doris (? Asteronotus) alabastrina, n.s. Under stones in 8. Diego Bay. One sp. 

204. Doris (? Actinocyclus) Sandiegensis, n. 8. Very active among grass on mud-~ 
flats near low-water mark, San Diego Bay ; common before the flood. 

205. ABolis (? Flabellina) opalescens, n. 8. Common among grass in San Diego Bay. 


205. ols (? Phidiana) todinea, un. s. Among alge on rocks outside San Diego: 


Bay. 
207. Tritonia Palmeri, n. s. San Diego, common “in same localities as the Di- 
phyllidia. Named after Mr. Edward Palmer, a zealous naturalist, who 
assisted me while at San Diego.” 


94 











ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. CO9 


Dr. Cooper’s second paper ‘‘ On New or Rare Mollusca inhabiting the Coast 
of California,” in the Proc. Cal. Ac. N.S., Aug. 17, 1863, contains (English) 
descriptions of the following species. He observes that ‘* Santa Barbara and 
Santa Barbara Island are very different in the groups of animals inhabiting 
them, although the island is only thirty-five miles from the mainland. 
Catalina Island is twenty-four miles from the mainland, and the molluscs 
are very different from both the mainland and the other islands, being the 
richest locality on our shores.”’ 

Page. 

67. Aplysia Californica, Cp.; for which is constituted a subgenus, Neaplysia; 15 
inches by 5*. Three specimens ; San Pedro beach, after storm ; stomach full 
of alge. . Fig. 14. 

68. Navarchus, Cp. Pr. Cal. Ac., Apr. 1863. 

» Navarchus inermis, Cp.,= Strategus t., Cp., anted. Catalina Island, 10 fms., 
in seaweed. 1 specimen. 

y» Doris albopunctata, Cp. Santa Barbara, 20 fm., rocky bottom. Catalina 
Island, rocks, 1. w. 

wy Doris Montereyensis, Cp. Santa Barbara Island, rocks, 1. w. 

y Doris sanguinea, Cp. 4 sp. with the last. “Stellate structure not discovered.” 

» Doris Sandiegensis, Cp. 2 sp., with the last. “All these species belong to 
Doris, typical.” 

59. Triopa Catalinet, Cp. 4 sp., on algee among rocks, l.w. Catalina Js'and. 

93 Dendronotus iris, Cp. Several sp. thrown on beach by storm, Santa Barbara; 
1 sp. dredged on seaweed, 28 fm. Very variable in colour. ? =‘ Dendrono- 
tus, sp.,” Gld., E. EK. Moll. 

» olis Barbarensis, Cp. 1 sp., 16 fm., rocky bottom, Santa Barbara. 

60. Flabellina opalescens, Cp.,= Aolis 0., Cp., antea. With the last: also shore 
of Santa Barbara Island, rare. 

» Lhidania todinea, Cp.,= Aolis t., Cp., antead. Santa Barbara, beach, 1 sp. 

» Chiorera leonina, Gid. 1 sp., in 20 fm. Santa Barbara. 

Sept. 7th, 1863. Dr. Cooper described a very interesting new genus of 
Pulmonates, only found at the head of one ravine in Santa Barbara Island, 
with “myriads of Helix Kelletini | =H. Tryon, v. note *, p. 116], and two 
other species, probably new.” Full particulars of its habits are given. It 
has the mantle of Zima, dentition of Heliced@, and shell resembling Dauwdle- 
bardia and Homalonyx | = Omalonyx, D'Or». ]. 

62,63. Binneya notabilis, Cp. 3 living and 18 dead shells. Fig. 15 (fiye views). 

Jan. 18th, 1864. The remaining land-shells of the Survey were described 
(with Latin diagnoses) by Dr. Newcomb, in a paper communicated to the 
Academy by Dr. Cooper. Specimens of many of them will be found in the 
Cumingian Collection. 

116. Helix Tryoni, Newe. Santa Barbara and 8. Nicholas Islands, abundant ; 

living. “= H. Kellettic, Cp., p. 63.” 

Helix crebristriata, Newe. San Clemente Island; abundant. “ Closely allied 

to H. intercisa, and very variable.” 

117. Helix rufocincta, Newe. Catalina Island, estivating under stones; rare. 
S. Diego; 1 dead sp. Outline like H. Pytyonesica: umbilicus open or 
nearly closed. 

» Helix Gablit, Newe. San Clemente Isl. 1 sp., like H. facta. 

118. Helix facta, Newe. Santa Barbara Isl., very common; San Nicholas Ist., 
rare. Somewhat like H. Rothz. 

» Helix Whitneyi, Newe. Near Lake Taho, Sierra Nevada, 6100 feet high. 
3 sp. under bark, near stream, with H. Brewert and H. chersina. Resembiles 
IT. striatella. 

* Molluscs, as well as trees, assume giant proportions in California: e. g. SchizotLerus 

(with siphons) 16 in., Amusium 8 in., Lunatia (crawling) 16 in., Mycidus 9 in., Xe. 

+ Vide note t, p. 604. 
1863, 


” 


98 


610 REPORT—18638. 


Page. 
Liowerelee Brewert, Newe. Near Lake Taho; 8 sp. (Also1 sp. from mountains in 
Northern California, Prof. Brewer.) Like H. arborea. 
” ae Duranti, Newe. Santa Barbara Isl. “ Like Planorbis albus=hirsutus, 
71d, 
Dr. Newcomb also identified the following species in the State Collection :— 
119. Hehzx arrosa, Gld. Common near mouth of 8. Francisco Bay. 
» Helix arrosa, yellow var. Santa Cruz, Fowell. 
y tHelix ?Californiensis, Lea, or ?Nickliniana, Lea; var., Cooper. 
y Helix Carpenteri, Newe. Broken dead shell, head of S. Joaquin Valley, Gabb. 
», ttelix Columbiana, Lea. Near 8. Francisco. 
9, lelix chersina, Say. Very large, near Lake Taho, Cooper. 
» Hehx Thouarsti, Desh. Pt. Cypress, Monterey, Cooper. 
» Helix exarata, Pfr. Mt. Diablo, Brewer; Santa Cruz, Rowell. 
» Helix fidelis, Gray. Humboldt Bay and mountains, lat. 42°, Brewer. Black 
var., Frock. 
5, Hehx infumata, Gld. Near Ballenas Bay, Rovell. 
» Helix Kellettii, Fos. 8. Diego, Catalina Isl., fine var., Cooper. 
y Helix loricata, Gld. Near Oakland, Newcomb. 
9, Helix Newberryana, Bin. Temescal Mountains, near Los Angeles, Brewer, 
», Helix Nickhniana, Lea. Common near 8. Francisco Bay, Cooper. 
» Helix sportella, Gid. Near 8. Francisco Bay, Cooper. 
9) ee Mormonum, Pfr. San Joaquin Valley, Gabb; north to Mt. Shasta, 
rewer. 
9 Helix Traskit, Newe. Mountains near Santa Barbara, Brewer. May be= ZZ. 
Thouarsti, var. 
» Helix tudiculata, Bin. Near S. Diego and 8. Pedro, Cooper. 
Helix Vancouverensis, Lea. De Fuca, Gabb: perhaps extends south to Hum- 
boldt Bay. 

Dr. Palmer sent a valuable consignment cf shells collected by him between 
San Diego and S. Pedro to the Smithsonian Institution. Dr. Cooper obtained 
permission to send the first series of duplicates, duly numbered, for identi- 
fication, to the Smithsonian Institution. This invaluable scries was lost in 
the ‘Golden Gate.’ The gold was recovered, and much of it stolen; the far 
more precious shells remain, unnaturally located, in their native element— 
a puzzle, perhaps, to paleontologists in some coming age. Other series, though 
not so complete, have since been received in safety; and through the libe- 
rality of the Californian Survey and of the Smithsonian Institution, as well as 
through the energy and kinduess of Dr. Cooper, they are already being dis- 
tributed to the Cumingian Collection, the British Museum, the museums at 
Cambridge, Mass., Philadelphia, Albany, Montreal, Xc., as well as to the col- 
lections of working naturalists. The stations being now discovered, it is to be 
hoped that in a few years Californian shells will cease to be objects of great 
rarity in this country. At the request of Dr. Cooper, in order that he might 
proceed with other departments of his labours, all the new species which have 

been seen in England have been described in conjunction with those from 
other sources. On those which are only known here by the beautiful drawings 
sent by the collector, it would be unsafe and premature to impose a name. 
The diagnoses are being published in the Proc. Cal. Ac. N.8., and should be 
accredited to the zealous zoologist of the Survey, rather than to the mere 
artist-in-words who endeavours to represent their forms to the reader. It 
will be understood that the lists now to be presented, though corrected to the 
date of going to press, are still incomplete; and that the information has been 


96 





























a 


ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 611 


compiled from Dr. Cooper’s letters received at different times, without oppor- 
tunity for his revision. Should errors, however, have escaped detection, they 
will, no doubt, be corrected, and omissions supplied, in the forthcoming Re- 
ports of the Survey. The species either new to science, or now first found in 
the Californian branch of the fauna, are as follows :— 


No. 
le 
2. 


24. 
25. 


26. 


27 


28. 
29. 


v 


ol. 


32. 


a< 
vow. 


o4. 
oo. 
56, 
37, 


92 
vO. 


39, 
40. 


1 


Defrancia intricata. 8S. Diego, on Phasianella compta, &e. Maz. Cat., no. 13. 

Terebratula unguiculus. Monterey to S. Diego: young shells in 6-20 tm.; 
not rare. 

Terebratella ?caurina, Catalina Is., 80 fm. ; living; rare. 

Waldheimia Grayi. Catalina Is., 120 fm. 

Zirphea crispata. Fragments from 8. Diego appear (very unexpectedly) to 
belong to this northern species. 

Corbula luteola, n.s. S. Pedro—S. Diego; common near shore. 

Neera pectinata. Santa Barb., Cat. Is., 40-60 fm. (Puget Sd., Kennerley). 


. Kennerlia bicarinata, n.s. Cat. Is., 40-60 fm. ; rare. 

. Entodesma inflata, Conr.,=diaphana, Cpr. Near 8. Diego; 1 valve (Palmer), 
. Plectodon scaber, n.g. and n.s. Cat. Is.; 2 similar valves, 40-60 fm. 

. Macoma inqunata. 8S. Francisco ; rare. 

. Macoma yoldiformis. 8S. Diego. (Puget Sound, Kennerley.) 

. Macoma indentata, n.s. 8. Diego. 

. Angulus variegatus, n.s. Mont., Cat. Is., 20-60 fm. ; rare. (Neeah Bay, Swan.) 
. Arcopagia lamellata. 8. Diego. = Maz. Cat., no. 58. 

. Gdalia ( Cooperella) scintilleformis, n. subg., n.s. 8. Diego. Santa Barbara Is, 
. Semele rupium. Catalina Is.; not rare. (Also Galapagos.) 

. Semele pulchra. 8. Diego. (Also Cape St. Lucas, Acapulco.) 

. Semele incongrua, n.s. Catalina Is., 40-60 fm. ; common. 

. Psephis salmonea, n.s. 8. Diego, Cat. Is., 30-40 fm. ; rare. 


Psephis Lordi. Cat. Is., 20-40 fm.; common. (Puget Sound, Kenneriey.) 
? Astarte fluctuata,n.s. Cat. Is. ; 2 similar valves ; 40 fm. (Very like the Crag 
fossil, 4. omaria, jun.; but Dr. Cooper considers it a Crassatella.) 


. Venericardia borealis. Cat. Is., 120fm. The typical, flat New England form. 


The small swollen var.,= V. ventricosa, Gld., is also found at Cat. Is., in 
30-40 fm. 

Miodon prolongatus. (Neeah Bay, Swan.) Identified from tracing only. 

Trapezium. One extremely young sp.=Maz. Cat., no. 120 (not like 7. Du- 
perryt). S. Diego. 

Chama ?spinosa. 8S. Diego. (One young valve sent.) 

Cardium (?modestum, var.) centifilosum. Cat. Is., 30-40 fm. [The differences 
between this and the Eastern Pacific shell are probably only varietal. | 

Hemicardium biangulatum. Cat. Is., living in 10-20 fm. (Also Acapulco, 
Panama.) 

Tiocardium elatum. 8. Diego; very large (Maz. Cat., no. 124). 


. Lucina tenuisculpta. S. Diego, living in 4 fm. (Also Puget Sound, Kennerley.) 


Var., dead in 120 fm., Cat. Is. (approaching LZ. Mazatlanica, Maz. Cat., 
no. 144). 

Lucina ‘eat Cat. Island, 120 fm. “ = Z. acutelirata, Conr., foss, K. KE.” 
[Exactly agrees with British examples. } 

Cryptodon flecuosus. Cat. Is., 120 fm. Ditto. 

Kellia suborbicularis. 8. Diego ; Cat. Is., 30-40 fm. Ditto. 

Kellia (var.) Chironit. S. Diego. (Also Neeah Bay, Swan.) 

Lasea rubra. Cat. Is., shore (typical). 

Lepton meroéum, n.s. 8. Diego. 

Tellimya tumida. S$. Diego. (Also Puget Sound, Kennerley.) 

Pristes oblongus, n.g., 0.8. 5. Diego. 

Crenella decussata. Cat. Is., 10-40 fm.; not rare. (The ordinary British, not 
the New England form.) 

Barbatia gradata. 8. Diego; Maz. Cat., no. 194. 

Axinea intermedia. Monterey—S. Diego, Cat. Is., 40-60 fm. [Scarcely differs 
from the South American shell, It is the A. Barbarensis, Conr., of Pac. R, 
Ki. fossils, teste Cooper. } 

97 


612 : RePorRT—1863. 


No. 
42. Acila castiensis. Cat. Is., 40-60 fm. (Also Puget Sound, Kennerley.) 
3. Leda cuneata, teste Hani. Mont.—S. Diego; Cat. Is., 10-60 tm. 
44. Leda hamata, n.s. Santa Barbara; Cat. Is., 20-60 fm. ; common. 
45. Verticordia ornata, D’Orb. Santa Barbara; Cat. Is., 20-40 fm. | Exactly ac- 
cords with the Japanese species, novemcostata, teste A. Adams. | 
; 46. Bryophila setosa. (Cape St. Lucas, Xantus.) Identified from tracing, no. 980. 
. Lima orientalis (in Mus. Cum.,= dehiscens, Conr., teste Cooper). Mont.-—San 
Diego; Cat. Is., beach to 20 fm. ; common. 
. Limatula subauriculata. 40-120 fm., Cat. Is.; not rare: 1 valve in 4 fm., San 
Diego. [Exactly agrees with British specimens. | 
. Janira dentata. Monterey, 8. Diego, beach to 20 fm. (Also Cape St. Lucas, 
Nantus. ) 


ee 
Oo Ww 


50. Cavolina telemus. Cat. Is.; dead in 30-69 fm. (Also Vancouver, Lyall.) 

51. Tornatina carinata, 8S. Diego. (Also Mazatlan, Reigen.) 

52. Pedipes liratus. S. Diego. (Also Cape St. Lucas, Xantus.) 

53. Dentalium (var.) Indianorum. Mont.—Cat. Is., 20 fm.; common. [ Probably 





a striated var. of pretioswm, which Sowerby doubtfully, and Dr. Baird cone 
fidently, affiliate to D. entale. | 

54. Dentalium semipolitum. 8S. Diego. (Also La Paz.) 

9). Dentalium hecagonum. 8. Diego. (Also W. Mexico.) 

56. Acanthochites avicula, n.s. Cat. Is., 8-20 fm. ; rare. 

57. Acanthopleura fluca, n.s. Cat. Is. 

58. Ischnochiton veredentiens, n.s. Cat. Is., 10-29 fm. 

59. Ischnochiton (Lepidopleurus) pectinatus, n.s. Cat. Is., beach. 

60, Ischnochiton (Lepidopleurus) scabricostatus, n.s. Cat. Is., 8-20 fm. 

GL. Ischnochiton (Trachydermon) pseudodentiens. S. Diego. (Also Puget Sound, 
Kennerley.) 

62. Zschnochiton (Trachydermon) gothicus, u.s. Cat. Is., 8-20 fm. 

63. Leptochiton nerus, u.8. Cat. Is., 20-80 fm. 

64. Nacella (?paleacea, var.) triangularis. Monterey. 

65. ? Nacella subspiralis. Cat. 1Is., 10-20 fm. [May be the young of the long-lost 
Paiella calyptra, Mart. ; unless that be a broken Crepidula adunca. | 

68, Scurria (? var.) funiculata. Monterey; rare. 

i7. Puncturella cucullata. Monterey. (Also Puget Sound, U. 8. E. E.) 

63. Puncturella Cooperi, n.s. Cat. Is., 50-120 fm. ; not rare. 

6, ?Imperator serratus, ??n.s. Monterey ; Cat. Is., 10-20 fm. [Dr. Cooper thinks 
this shell probably the young of Pomaulaz. | 


70. ? Leptonyx bacula, n.s. Cat. Is., beach, dead. 

71. Gibbula optabilis, n.s. 8. Diego. 

72. Calliostoma supragranosum, n.s. 8. Diego. 

73. Calliostoma gemmulatum, u.s. 8. Diego. 

74. Calliostoma splendens, n.s. Mont.; Cat. Is., 6-40 fm. 

75. Margarita (?var.) salmonea. Mont. ; Cat. Is., 6-40 fm. [Intermediate be- 
tween widulata and pupilla. | 

76. Margarita acuticostata. Mont.; Cat. Is., 8-20 fm. [Fossil, Santa Barbara, 
Jewett. . 

Whe Sikevtetia peramabilis, ?n.s. Cat. Is., 40-120 fm. ; living. [Differs but sl'ghtly 
from S. aspecta, Japan, A. Ad.] 

78. Ethalia supravallata, n.s., and var. nvallata. 8. Diego. 


19. SLvotia fenestrata, ns. Cat. Is., beach to 40 fm. ; dead. 

8). Liotia acuticostata, n.s. Mont.; Cat. Is., 10-20 fm. 

SL. Crepidula excavata, var. jun. Santa Barbara Island. 

82. Galerns contortus, 0.8. Mont.—S. Diego, 20--40 fm. 

83. Aipponyx serratus. Santa Barbara Island; 1 sp. Maz. Cat., no. 346. 

84. Ciecum crebricinctum, n.s. Mont.—S. Diego; Cat. Is., 8-20 fm. 

55. Cecum oe ns. S. Diego. [Two fine species of the Anellum 
group. 

86. Trritella Cooper, Pn.s. S. Diego; Cat.Is.; common. [May prove identical 
with one of Conrad’s imperfectly described fossils in P. R. E. E.] 

87. Mesalia tenuisculpta, n.s, 8. Diego; shoal water. 


98 











No. 


88. 
89. 


90. 


91. 


92. 
93. 
94. 
95. 
96. 
97. 
98. 
99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 
104. 
105. 
106. 
107. 


108. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 
114. 


115. 
116. 
iy¢ 
118. 
119. 
120. 


121. 
22) 
123. 
124, 
fia: 
126. 


127. 
128. 
129. 
150. 
151. 


ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 613 


Bittium armillatum. 8. Diego. [ Fossil, Santa Barbara, Jewett. ] 
paor wea S. Diego ; Cat. Is., beach to 40 fm. | Fossil, Santa Barbara, 
ewett. 

Isapis fenestrata, n.s. 8S. Diego. (Also Neeah Bay, Sivan.) 

Isapis obtusa, n.s. Mont.—S. Diego; Cat. Is., 10-20 fm. 

Rissoina interfossa, n.s. Mont.; Cat. Is., 8-10 fin. 

Rissoa acutelirata, n.s. 8. Diego *. 

Fenella pupoidea, n.s. Mont., 20 fm.; rare. 

?Amphithalamus lacunatus, n.s. 8. Diego. 1 immature specin2t. 

Diala acuta, u.s. Mont.; Cat. Is., beach to 10 fm. 

Iniala marmorea, 1.8. Monterey, 8S. Diego; very rare. 

Styliferina turrita, n.s. S. Diego. 

Jeffreysia translucens, n.s. S. Diego. 

Cythna albida, n.s. 8. Diego. 

Trivia Solandri. Santa Barbara and St. Nicholas Is. ; common. 

Obeliscus Pvariegatus. S. Diego. (Also La Paz, Cape St. Lucas.) © 

Chrysallida pumila, n.s. S. Diego; Cat. Is. 

Chrysallida cincta, n.s. Sta. Barbara Is.; very rare. 

Chemnitzia chocolata, n.s. 8. Diego. 

Chemnitzia (?tenurcula, var.) subcuspidata. S. Diego. 

Eulima micans, ns. S. Diego. Cat. Is., 30-40 fm. (Also Puget Sound, 
Kennerley.) 

Eulima compacta, ?n.s. 8. Diego.| §Dr. Cooper has not decided whether 

Eulima rutila,?n.s. Monterey. | these be distinct species. 

Scalaria bellastriata, n.s. Monterey. 

Scalaria subcoronata, 0.8. Monterey. 

Scalaria crebricostata, n.s. Monterey, S. Diego. 

Scalaria ? Cumingu. S. Diego. 

Scalaria PIndianorum, var. 8. Diego. [Probably conspecific with the Van- 
couver shells. | 

Opalia borealis. Farallones Is. (Also Neeah Bay, Swan.) 

Opalia spongiosa, n.8. Monterey. 

Opalia retiporosa, n.s. Cat. Is., rare and dead in 40 fm. 

Cerithiopsis columna, n.s. Monterey. 

Cerithiopsis assimilata. Cat. Is.= Maz. Cat., no. 563. 

Triforis Padversa. Cat. Is., 10-40 fm., very rare. [The specimens sent can~ 
not be distinguished from the Herm shells. | 

Priene Oregonensis. ‘Comes south to Monterey.” 

Nassa insculpta, n.s. Cat. Is., living in 40 fm., rare. 


Amycla undata,n.s. Cat. Is., not rare in 40 fm. 


Amycla chrysalloidea, n.s. 8. Diego, shoal water. 

Anachis subturrita, n.s. 8. Diego. 

Trophon trianguatus, ?u.s. Cat. Is., 60 fm. [Resembles the young of 
Murex centrifugus. | 

Argonauta argo. “ Hundreds on beach at Sta. Cruz Is.” 

Octopus punctatus, Gabb. San Clemente Is. 

Onychoteuthis fusiformis, Gabb. San Clemente Is. 

Ommastrephes giganteus, D’Orb. San Clemente Is. 

Ommastrephes Ayresii, Gabb. San Clemente Is. “ Hundreds on the beach.”’ 


Besides the above, several species are now satisfactorily assigned to the fauna, 
the evidence for which was before considered doubtful. Such are— 


132. 


99 
2). 


134, 


Waldheimia Californica, Koch [non auct.,=globosa, Patagonia]. 120 fm. 
Catalina Is. 

Clidiophora punctata. 8S. Diego to Sta. Cruz; valves common, but rare living. 

135, Standella Californica, planulata, et Pnasuta, Conrad’s types being lost, 
and his species imperfectly described from very young specimens, a difficulty 


* Most of the minute shells from S. Diego, quoted without station, were found in the 
shell-washings of the consignments from Dr. Cooper and Dr. Palmer, 


99 





























614 


15 


138. 
PO: 
140. 
141. 


144. 
145. 





REPORT—1863. 


attends their identification. Dr. Cooper found very large valves (resembling 
Schizotherus) in abundance, but much deformed by the entrance of sand, and 
apparently killed by the fresh waters of the great flood. The large shells 
belong to two very distinct species, which are probably those of Conrad ; 
among the small shells is perhaps a third, which may be Dr. Gould’s sup- 
pressed nasuta. 

Raéta undulata. This remarkable reverse of the Atlantic R. canaliculata is 
also confirmed by rare valves from the 8. Diegan district. It is not con- 
generic with Harvella elegans, to which it bears but a slight external resem- 
blance. 


. Lapes tenerrima, Large dead valves of this very distinct species were found 


with the Standelle, and confirm Col. Jewett’s young shells described as from 
Panama. 

Pecten paucicostatus. Sta. Barbara Is. [Described from Col. Jewett’s valves. ] 

Bulla Quoyti. S. Diego. Maz. Cat. no. 226, 

Truncatella Californica. 8S. Diego. 

Acmea rosacea. Monterey to 8. Diego. This shell is named prleolus, Midd., 
in Mus, Cuming, but does not agree with the diagnosis. It can hardly be 
distinguished from Herm specimens of A. virginea. It was first brought by 
Col. Jewett, but referred to Panama. 


. Amphithalamus inclusus. 8. Diego. [Several specimens of this minute but 


remarkable new genus confirm a solitary shell in Col. Jewett’s mixed 
collections. | 


. Myurella simplex. Very variable in sculpture, as befits the species which 
fk ' ry P ) P 


forms the northern limit of a group common between the tropics. Col. 
Jewett’s shell was in poor condition, and supposed to be the young of a 
Gulf species. 
Volvarina varia. 8. Diego, Cat. Is. a Barbara, Jewett; also C.S. Lucas. ] 
Nassa Cooperi, Fbs. 8. Diego, Cat. Is. [This Kellettian shell has a double 
right to its name, now that Dr. Cooper has ascertained its habitat. ] 


The information on station, &c., which Dr. Cooper has sent with regard to 
previously known species, will be found incorporated in the general table of 
the fauna. The following notes, extracted from his letters, are too valuable 
to be omitted :— 


Haliotis Cahforniensis, “This form is so rare that I think it only a var. of 
Cracherodit.” 

Hlaliotis, Several specimens from the Farallones present characters inter- 
mediate between corrugata, rufescens, and Kamtschatkana. It is not yet 
ascertained whether they ave hybrids or a distinct species. 

“ Livona picoides I have not found, though I have seen fresh ones from Pt. 
Conception.” 

?Serpulorbis squamigerus. Common south of Pt. Conception; has no 
operculum.” [The young begins like V. anellwm, Morch. | 

Macron lividus. Point Loma, 8. Pedro, common; extends northwards to the 
Farallones. [= Planazis nigritella, Newcomb, MS.; non auct. } 

“ Olivella semistriata, Gray, fide Newe., is a species found N. of Monterey only.” 
[As Dr. Gray’s species is from Panama, that of Neweomb is probably 
O. beetica. | 

“ Nassa interstriata, Conr., foss. (P= N. paupera, Gld.) ; resembles N. fossata, 
Gld. (= B. elegans, Rve.*), but distinct. Common south from Sta. Barbara.” 
[Probably =N. perpinguis, Hds. N. paupera is quite distinct,= N. striaca, 
C. B. Ad., teste Cuming. ] 

“ Fissurella violacea I have seen from Catalina Is.’ [Esch.’s shell is generally 
considered S. American. ? May Dr. Cooper's be a form of volcano. 

Acmee.* With regard to limpets and other variable shells, Dr. C. writes:— 
“From my examination of large numbers of specimens, I am more and 
more compelled to believe that hybrids are very frequent between allied 


* Nassa elegans was first published, by J. Sowerby, in the Min. Conch. 1824, 
100 





"a 


ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 615 


species, and that the comparatively few links that are met-with in large 
series of two forms should not be allowed to unite them, but be considered 
as hybrids.” 

Lnnatia Lewisti. Abundant on beach. [One sp. measures 53 in., and the 
animal of a much smaller one (4 in.) is Ll inches long. | 

Ostrea. “The same species throughout to S. Franc.: 8. “Diego,” Cooper. [Be- 
sides the typical northern shell, 0. lur ada, are well- marked Pvars. laticauduta, 
rufoides, and expansa. | 


There are also several species which are quoted in Dr. Cooper’s letters, or 
appear from his sketches to be quite distinct, or at least new to the fauna ; 
but they have not yet been sent for identification. Among these the following 
are the most important. The MS. numbers refer to the tracings which Dr. 
Cooper kindly copied from his original drawings. Where a “—” appears, 
the information is derived from his letters only. 


MS. No. 
402. Allied to ? Thracia. 
—  Cyathodonta, probably plicata, Desh. (Cape St. Lucas, Xantus). 
620a. Figure accords exactly with Venus toreuma, Gld. Catalina Is., beach. 
1058. Figu ure accords with Lioconcha hieroglyphica. Catalina Is., 120 fm. 
1060. Resembles Sunapta. Catalina Is., 40 fm. 
676. Resembles Crassa‘ella Pacifica. 
874. Lucina. 
983. Nucula, with concentric sculpture. Sta. Barbara, 15 fm. 
— YFoldia. One fresh valve of a large and remarkable species, 2°6 by 1-2 in, 
with fine concentric sculpture, very inequilateral. Sta. Cruz; on beach. 
75la. ?Lanthina. 
1077, 1078. Chitonide. Two highly sculptured species. Sta. Barbara, 12 fm. 


~— PGadinia. Cat. Is., Cooper; Farallone, Is., Rowell. “The animal differs in 


having pectinated flattened tentacles. It may be the type of a new genus 
Rowellia.” 
466. Emarginda, [The first appearance of the genus on the W. American coast. ] 
Alda. Glyphis. 
3a4a. Like Haplocochleas. Sta. Barbara, 15 fm. 
664. Like Pyrgola. 40 fm. 
— Trivia sanguinea. Dredged dead in Cat. Is. 
— Trivia. “ Thinner and larger than sanguinea. Common in Lower Cal.” [?= 
Pacifica. | 
— “ Terebra specillata.” One sp. near S. Pedro. 
— FPleurotomide. Several species are represented only by single specimens, 
Among them are 
588. Drillia. 
1021. Drillia, 2 in. long, shaped like Mitra. One worn sp. Catalina Is., 120 fm 
1020. Drillia, rev ersed. Catalina Is., 60 fm., living. 
479a. Clathurella (large). Sta. Barb., 20 fin: 
663. Clathurella, 15 fm., Sta. Barb. 
1852. ? Clathw “ella, 40 fm, 
1053. ? Daphnella, ’60 fin. 
419, 426. Two species of shells resembling Daphacle 
1055, ? Bela, 80 fm. 
423a. Mangelia, 15 fm., Sta. Barb. 
597b. Shape of Cithar ie without ribs. Catalina Is., beach. 
1028. “?Aclis,” reversed. One sp., Cat. Is., 120 fin. [The figure more resembles 
a young Vermetid. | 
463. “ Cancelluria ? Tritonie, Shy. Agrees with Dr. Newcomb’s specimen.” §. 
Diego, one dead on beach, 2} in. long. 
817. Cancellaria. Fragment of a second species equally large. 
1038. Sigaretus. 40 fm., dead, Cat. Is. 
1050. Lamellaria. 10 fm., Sta. Barbara. 
(885a, 464, 818.) Naticide. 3 sp. 
101 








616 REPORT—1863. 


MS. No. : 
576. Possibly a scaly var. of Monoceros engonatum ; like the Purpura, var. imbrie 


cata, of Europe, but of different colour and texture ; P=spiratum, Blainv. 
1001. Figure resembles Vevilla fuscolineata, Pse. Sandwich Is. 
—  Nassa, smooth, with thick lip.” Cat. Is., 30 fm. [Comp. inseapta.] 
— ?Macron Kellettii. Cat. Is., dead, in 60 fm. 
— Chrysodomus ?tabulatus. Cat. Is., 120 fm., young, dead. 
— Fusus, “like geniculus, Conr.”  Farallones Is. 
411. Trophon, like multicostatus. 
515b. Muricidea. Cat. Is., 40 fm. [The young shells called Trophon, Typhis, 
&c., by Dr. Cooper can scarcely be identified without a series, and from 
tracings only. | 
515d. 2? Typhis. Sta. Barb., 15 fm. 
520. Pteronotus centrifugus, jun. S. Pedro; rare on beach. 
3846. Muricidea, like alveata. Mont.—S. Diego. 
956. ?Stphonalia. Monterey, Sta. Barb., beach. 
In Prof. Whitney’s Preliminary Report on the Survey, Proce. Cal. Ac. p. 27, 
May 4th, 1863, he states approximately as the result of Dr. Cooper’s mala- 
cological labours, up to the close of 1862 :— 


No. of species in the collection ............se00.- mis cyocetae csaenoe 


Of which are new to California, and believed to be undescribed .... 125 
Other supposed Californian species not yet collectedss fascceiie. CaO 


In a Survey conducted with such care, even negative evidence is of some 
importance, though not conclusive. Dr. Cooper has not been able to obtain 
the following species :— 

Discina Evansiv. 

Strigilla carnaria. {My. Nuttall’s specimens were probably Atlantic. ] 

Venus dispar. 

Trapesium Californicum. [= Duperryi,= Guiniacum. | 

Lucina bella, | Perhaps =pectinuta, Cpr. ; but the type seems lost. ] 

Modiola nitens. {Probably an error in the Cumingian label. | 

Mytilus glomeratus, “= edulis, vay.” {Perhaps an accidental var. from being 
crowded on a floating stick. | 

Barbatia pernoides. {Very probably an error in Dr. Gould’s label. ] 

Arca multicostata. ‘“ Must have been brought to 8. Diego.” 

Pecten purpuratus. [Ascribed to the fauna from abundant valves marked 
“Cal.” in the U.S. E. E. collections, but certainly from 8. America. Dr. 
Cooper has unfortunately not been able to discover any of the species 
described by Has. | 

Radius variabilis. ‘“ Doubtless exotic.” 

Polinices perspicua. ‘ Probably Mexican.” 

Ranella triquetra. “ Probably Mexican.” [Guaymas. ] 


105. Having now’presented to the student an analysis of all that is yet 
known of the results of public surveys, it remains that we tabulate what has 
been accomplished by private enterprise. Mr. J. Xantus, a Hungarian gen- 
tleman in the employ of the United States Coast Survey under the able 
direction of Professor Bache, was stationed for eighteen months, ending July 
1861, at Cape St. Lucas, the southern point of the peninsula of California. 
It is a source of great benefit to natural science that the Secretary of the 
Sinithsonian Institution is also one of the acting members of the Coast Survey 
Board; and that a harmony of operations has always existed between the 
directors of these two scientific agencies in Washington. The publications 
of the Coast Survey have earned for themselves a reputation not surpassed by 
those of the oldest and wealthiest maritime nations. For obtaining data on 
geographical distribution, Cape St. Lucas was a peculiarly valuable station, 
being situated near the supposed meeting-point of the two faunas (Vv. B.A. 


102 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 617 


Rep.p.350); and also, not being a place of trade, or even an inhabited district, 
likely to be free from human importations, although we should be prepared 
to find dead exotics thrown on its shores both by northern and by tropical 
currents. In his solitary and what would otherwise have been monotonous 
lite, Mr. Xantus found full employment in assiduously collecting specimens 
in all available departments of natural history ; having received ample in- 
structions, and the needful apparatus, from the Smithsonian Institution, 
The bulk of the shells at first received from him were worn beach npeci-= 
mens; but afterwards several species were preserved, with the animals, in 
alcohol. Mr. Xantus generously presented the first series of the molluscs to the 
Smithsonian Museum, reserving the second for his native land. The first 
available duplicates of the shells not occurring in thé Reigen collection will 
be found in the British Museum or in the Cumingian cabinets*. Although the 
whole series would have found little favour in the eyes of a London dealer or 
a drawing-room collector, it proved a very interesting commentary on the 
Reigen and Adams Catalogues: it added about sixty mew forms to the accu- 
rately located species of the marine fauna, besides confirming many others, 
which rested previously on doubtful evidence ; and disproved the intermixture 
of northern species, which, from the map alone, had before been considered 
probable. 

The collection is not only essentially tropical, but contains a larger propor- 
tion of Central American and Panama species than are found in the Reigen 
Catalogue. This may partly be due to the accidents of station, and partly to 
this projecting southern peninsula striking the equatorial currents. It must 
also be remembered that the Reigen Catalogue embraces only the Liverpool 
division of his collection ; and that many more species may have existed in 
that portion of the Havre series which did not find its way to the London 
markets. Mr. Xantus also obtained individuals of identical species from 
Margarita Island, and a series containing living specimens of Purpura plano- 
spira (only thrown up dead on the promontory), from Socorro Island, one of 
the Revilla-gigedo group. <A very few specimens of Haliotis and of Pacific 
shells may have been given to him by sailors or residents: they were not 
distinguished from his own series in opening the packages. The collection is 
not yet complete. In consequence of the French occupation of Mexico, it 
was with difficulty that Mr. Xantus himself ‘ran the blockade” at Manza- 
nello; and he was compelled to leave there thirty-one boxes of shells, alco- 
holies, &c., subject to the risks of war. 

The Polyzoa were placed in the hands of Mr. G. Busk for examination, 
and the alcoholics were intrusted to Dr. Alcock, the Curator of the Manches- 
ter Natural History Society. Neither of these gentlemen have as yet been 


* During the period that Mr. Xantus was out of employment, owing to the derange- 
ments of the war, a portion of the duplicates were offered for sale, and “will be found ~ in 
some of the principal collections. 


103 


518 REPORT—1863. 


able to report concerning them. ‘The first notice of the shells appears in the 








Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, Dec. 1859, pp. 331, 332. The new species 
are described in the ‘ Annals and Magazine of Nat. Hist.,’ 1864, vols. xiii. and 
xiv., as follows :— 
A. N. H. Vol. XTII. 
Sp. Page. 
1. 3811. <Asthenotherus villosior, n.¢. 1 living sp. and fragm. 
2. 4,  Solemya valvulus. 1 living sp. 
oily = Gs Tellina (Peroneoderma) ochracea. 1 sp. 
4. 312. Psammobia (? Amphichena) regularis. Valves. 
5. 4, Callista pollicaris. 1 sp., living (= C. prora, var., teste Rve., C. I. f. 45). 
6 4, Callista (Ppannosa, var.) puella. Extremely abundant, living. Also 
Acapulco, Jewett. (Very variable, yet always differing from the 
typical South American shells.) 
7. 315. Lvocardium apicinum. Extremely abundant, living. Also La Paz; Aca 
pulco, Jewett. 
8. ,,.  Lucina lingualis. Extremely abundant, valves. 
9. ,,  P Crenella inflata. Valves; very rare. (Anaberrant form.) Also Panama, 
C. B. Ad. 
10. 814. Bryophila setosa, n.g. Abundant; living among sea-weed, on Purpura 
planospira. Also California, Cooper. 
ll. 4, PAtys casta. Rare: allied to Cylichna. 
12. 5 Ischnochiton parailelus. Rare ; living. 
18. ,, — Ischnochiton (2var.) prasinatus. 1 living sp. Possibly a form of paral- 
lelus. 
14. 315. Ischnochiton serratus. 1 living sp., like Elenensis. 
15. 474. Nacella peltoides,= Nacella, sp. ind., Maz. Cat., no. 262. 





16. ,,. -demea (?var.) atrata. Intermediate between P. discors, Phil., and P, 
Jloccata, Rve. Also La Paz, Margarita Bay. 

17. ,,. Acmea strigillata. Intermediate in characters and station between 
A. patina and A. mesoleuca. Also Margarita Bay. 

18. 475. Glyphis saturnalis. Not uncommon ; living. 

1. 4, Eucosmia variegata. (Probably a subgenus of Phasianella.) Rare, dead. 

20% is Eucosmia (?varieqata, var.) substriata. Very rare. 

21. 2, Encosmia punctata. 1 sp. 

22. 476, Encosmia cyclostoma. 1 sp. 

23. 4, Haplocochhas cyclophoreus, n. g. (? Related to Ethalia.) Very vare, dead. 

24, ,  Narica aperta. 1 sp. 

25. ., Fossarus parcipictus. 3 sp. 

2G. 477. Fossarus purus. 1 sp. 

z7. 4, Litorina pullata,= Latorina, sp. ind., Maz. Cat., no. 399. Abundant. 

28. ,,.  Litorina (Philippit, var.) penicillata. Like the W. Indian L. (ziczac, var.) 
lineata. Alvundant. 

“9. 4, -Rissoa albolirata. 1 sp. 

aOi Fenella crystallina. 1 sp. 

31. 478. PHydrobia compacta. May be a Barleeia. 1 sp. 

32. 4, Hyala rotundata. 1 sp. 

33. 4, PDiala electrina. 1 sp. 

34. ,, Acirsa {teste A. Ad.] menesthordes. 1 sp. 

39. 5, Cythna asteriaphila. Imbedded in a star-fish, like Styina. 1 living sp. 

OOss es Bittium nitens. 1 sp. 





87) 45 Mangelia subdiaphana. 1 sp. 

od. 46  Drillia appressa. 1 sp. 

39, 4, Cithara fusconotata. Very rare. 

40. 4, Obeliscus variegatus. 2 worn sp. Described from a fresh Guaymas 
shell, Mus. Cal. Ac. 

ANN ns... (Odostomia) Evalea equisculpta. 1 sp. 

42. 47. (Odostomia) Evalea delicatula. 1 sp. 

43. yy — Chrysallida angusta. 1 sp. 


104 








‘all ae 


ON MOZLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 619 


A. N. H. Vol. XIV. 

Sp. Page. 

44, 47. Lulima fuscostrigata. 1 sp. ‘ 

45. 4,  Opalia crenatoides. 1 perfect and a few rubbed specimens. This, and 
the Santa Barbara fossil, O. ?var. insculpta, are so close to the Por- 
tuguese O. crenata, that additional specimens may connect them. 

46. 4, Truncaria eurytoides. Common; rubbed. Also Guacomayo, in the 
Smithsonian Museum. 

47. 48. Sistrum (Pochrostoma, var.) rufonotatum; connected with type by a few 
intermediate specimens. are ; dead. 


43, 4, PMitideila millepunctata. AlsoGuacomayo, Mus. Smiths. Very rare,dead. 
49. ,, = Nitedella densilineata. Very rare; dead. 

50. ,, PAnachis tincta. 1 sp. 

51. 49. <Anachis fuscostrigata, 1 sp. 

52.  ,,  Pisania elata. A few worn specimens; like Peristernta, without plait. 


The following table contains the species previously described, with the ad- 
dition of the other localities in which they are known to occur. The numbers 
in the first column are those in Prof. C. B. Adams’s Panama Catalogue: a 
P in the same column signifies that the species has been found at Panama 
by other collectors. The second column contains the shells of La Paz, col- 
lected by Major Rich and others, and are marked by an italic P. In the 
third column, A shows that the shell has been found at Acapulco, on good 
authority ; and C, that it is known at other stations on the Central American 
coast. The fourth column exhibits the corresponding numbers of the species 
in the B. M. Reigen Catalogue; and G shows that the shell has been found 
in the Gulf district by other collectors. In the fifth column, Cal. stands 
for Upper, and L for Lower California; Marg. for Margarita Bay, Gal. for 
the Galapagos, E for Ecuador and the tropical shores of S. America, and WI 
for the West Indies. The sixth column continues the numbering of the 
species from the list in the ‘ Annals.’ 


Pan. | La |Aca-|Maz.| Other | yo, 


Cat Paz. pul.| Cat. | habitats. List of Cape St. Lucas Shells. 








517 AL L4y) Se 53| Discina Cumingit. On Margaritiphora. 
iP 22; KE 54| Gastrochena ovata. In Spondylus. 
A | 23} Marg.| 55} Saxicava pholadis. In Spondylus. 
56| Eucharis, sp. ind. 1 dead valve, resembling W. 
Indian species. 

















P 35 57 | Sphenia fragilis. In Spondylus. 
G 58| Thracia squamosa. 1 broken pair. 
P L 59| Thracia (Cyathodonta) plicata (“? =truncaca, 
Migh.’’). 1 sp., jun. 
1 G 60 | Lyonsia inflata. 1 sp. 
36; E 61} Lyonsia picta. 1 valve. 
463} P| Cj} 55 62| Tellina Cumingit. 1 pair. 
469 A E 63 | Tellina rubescens {= Hanleyi}. Smashed valve. 
| 472 64 | Strigilla sincera. 1 valve. 
| Aj 67 65 | Strigilla lenticula. Valves. 
ee 66 | Lutricola viridotincta. 2 valves. I 
| 485 Al 67 | Semele bicolor. Valves. | 
G | Marg.| 68) Semele Californica, var. Valves. 
| AD! els 69 | Semele flavescens. Rare. 
1489 A| 43} E 70| Cumingra trigonularis, jan. In Sponedylus. 
473) P| A WI | 71) Heterodonax bimaculatus. Abundant ; normal, and 
| numerous vars. 





108 






























































ree REPORT—1863. 
oye la bea: (anes ee 
ton [Ace! Moa] Other | Xo, iia crete nemeeaie 
pet Nf 
| A | 750|(Mar.)| 72) Donav, var. celatus. Valves. | 
76 75 | Donaxv ? C mradi, yan. 
456 Cage. | oK5 74| Donax ?navieua, jun. 
493, PC 80 7) | Mulinia angulata, Valves. 
P 79; WI | 76} Standella fragilis, 1 sp. living, and numerous 
adult valves. 
446| P|C} 838] E 77| Trigona radiata, jun. 
78| Trigona nitidula, Sby. Several living sp. agree 
exactly with ‘Shy.’ s figure. fae Lam.’s 
Mediterranean shell is different 
448 Cc! 90; E 79| Dosinta Dunkert. Rare. 
e 88 E.Mar.| 80) Dosinia ponderosa. Several pairs [jun.=distans]. 
444 A| 92 81) Callista aurantia. 
447| P| A| 93/E.Mar.| 82} Callista chionea. 
C | 96) Marg.| 83) Callista vulnerata. Living, and dead valves. 
98| E 84| Callista (Fvar.) alternata. 7 living. 
L 85 | Amiantis callosa. Rare, living [= C. nobilis, Rve. |. 
P G |L.Mar.| 86} Chione suecincta. Very rare. 
BG, i 87 | Chione pulicaria, vay. lilacina. Valves, abundant. 
Py A. i 88 | Chione neglecta. Living and valves. 
106 88) Chione undatella+vayr. bilineata, Rve. (pars). Very 
rare. | Probably = neglecta, vay. | 
435 (SPO (113), as 89 A wmalocardia subimbriccta. Valves. 
a 90) Tapes squamosa, 1 sp. 
FE A | 24| 91} Petricola robusta. Tn Spondylus. 
27 82) Rupellaria linguafelis. 
117))\ 93) Crassatella varians. Living. Large and abundant. 
492 C E 94) Crassatella gibbosa. Valves. 
2 118 95 | Lazaria Californica. Very rare. 
C 96) Venericardia crassa. 1 valve. 
405 C | 121d 97) Chama Buddiana, jun. On syenitic rock. 
407 A|121/) E 98) Chama echinata, Brod. Living, from Socorro Is. 
Pp C | 121! Marg. | 98b) Chama frondosa, var. 
123)) 1 99| Chama Pevogyra. Worn valves. 
P| A | 122} Gal. |100| Chama spinosa. 1 sp. 
Pk E | 101) Cardiwm consors. Valves. (Very fine at Acapulco.) 
433 © | 125 E.Mar.| 102) Cardium procerum. Valves. 
434 126; FE | 108) Cardium senticosum. Valves. 
By Paes L |104 Hemicardium biangulatum. Valves. 
P|} C/}1386; WI | 105) Codakia tigerrina. Living, very large, and young 
| valves. [Of the Pacific. Is. type. ] 
iP 137 Pac.Is.| 106) Codakia ?punctata, jun. 
| P| P|A|147| E_ | 107| Lucina eburnea. Living, rare. 
be A | 140 108 | Lueina excavata. 1 valve. 
145 109 | Lucina prolongata. Valves. 
143 110 | Lucina cancellaris. Valve. 
i G 111 | Diplodonta subquadrata. 1 sp. 
Cc 112) Diplodonta calculus. Several living sp. 

113 | Miltha Childreni. (A few fresh specimens corr(t 
the habitat “ Brazil,” previously assigned to this 
extremely rare and Temariable shell, which ap- 
pears to be a gigantic Felania. } ‘ 

P A | 153 114) Kellia subor biewlari as. In Spondylus. 
A | 154 115) Lasea rubra. 6 sp. living. 
P C | 167 116 | Mytilus palliopunctatus. ‘Fragment. 
Po} PVA Acs 117 | Mytilus maltiformis. Abundant. 
P 169) 118) Septifer Cumingianus. Common. 
106 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. Gan 


























| | 
E lees een Meas feceer No. List of Cape St. Lucas Shells. 
a oe 
P| A }170|L.Mar.} 119 Modiola capar. A few living sp. “Gal.” [?]. 
A |172| Gal. |120 Crenella coarctata. In Spondylus. 
iP A | 176 121 Lathophagus aristatus. In Spondylus. 
Ee A | 175 122 Lithophagus plumula. In Spondylus. 
P|.C | 18h 123 Arca multicostata. Adult valves, and jun. living. 
iP C\189| E | 124 Byssoarca Pacifica. Rare. 
418 a 430! TI 1125 Byssoarca mutabilis. Valve. 
430| P E {126 Barbatia Reeviana. Valves. 
192 127 Barbatia vespertilio. Valves. 
494 C | 193 128 Barbatia illota, Valve. 
423 | P 195} KE |129 Barbatia sohda. Rare. 
416 A | 194/8.Mar.) 130 Barbatia gradata. Valve. 
P G 131 Axinea gigantea. Large valves, and jun. living. | 
, 696 132 Axinea, sp. ind. 
j201| E  |183 Pinna lanceolata. Fragment. 
395 200 134 Pinna maura. 1 sp., jun. 
P | P| A | 202 135 Pinna rugosa. 1 sp., yun. 
391| P| C | 204 136 Margaritiphora fimbriata. Living. 
E {1387 Avicula Peruviana. Valves. 
393 | P| A | 205 138 Isognomon Chemnitzianus. Common, living. 
206 139 Isognomon Janus. 4 sp. living. [One has close 
ligament-pits, passing into costellatus, just as no. 
158, var. passes into mevsus. | 
P\|A| Gj E |140 Pecten subnodosus. Several valves, and 1 living. 
| P. intermedia is only a var. of this species. | 
387! P| A | 207 |K,Mar.| 141 Pecten ventricosus. Valves. [The young is 7. 
circularis, Sby., pars. | 
ee G 142 Janira dentata. Very plentiful. 
. P. 143 Lima tetrica. 1 living, and valves [ = L. squamosa, 
teste Cuming. W.I1., Mediter., Pac. Is. ]. 
590 Gal. | 144 Zima arcuata. 1 fresh pair. {Can hardly be separa- 
ted from L. fragilis, Gal., Pac. Is.,in Mus. Cum. | 
385 208 145 Spondylus calcifer. Valves. Red var., and speci- 
ie ae men changing into purple. 
356 C | 210 146 Plicatula penicillata. 1 sp. on Fasciolaria. 
B81 A | 211 147 Ostrea iridescens. A few living. 
383 | P 212) Marg. | 148 Ostrea ? Virginica, jun. 
215) E | 149 Ostrea Columbiensis. Valves. 
384 | P 215} Marg.|150 Ostrea amara. On Pomaulax. 
Cal. | 151 Cavolina ?telemus. Fragment. (Pelagic.) 
. 52. 
cA ae (Nudibranchs and Aplysia. Not yet determined. | 
321| P| A |} 224) EE | 157 Bulla Adamsi, and var. Common. 
225} L |158 Bulla nebulosa. Rare. 
A | 226|L.Gal.| 159 Bulla Quoyt. Very rare. 
L |160 Haminea vesicula. Plentiful, living. 
see 229] PL |161 Hamimea cymbiformis. 1sp. [Closely related to 
| HH. virescens. | 
' 240 | Mare. | 162 Siphonaria equiirata. Dead. [ful. 
iP | A | 239 163 Siphonaria lecanium, with var. palmata, &e. Plenti- 
164 Oxchidium Carpentert. Very rare. 
235 |L.Cal. | 165 Melampus olivaceus. Rare. 
| 166—| [The rest of the Pulmonates will be tabulated 
172 afterwards, vide p. 630. | 
243 173 LIanthina decollata. Very rare. 
L | 174 Ischnochiton Magdalensis. Large and highly sculp- 
| 








tured. Very rare. 





107 


622 rnrerort—1&63. 








Pan. | La Aca-| Maz.| Other No 
-| Cat. | Paz. pul.| Cat. | habitats. ‘ 


| 


List of Cape St. Lucas Sheils. 











C }252) E175) Lschnochiton limaciformis. 2 specimens. 






256 176 | Ischnochiton Bean. 1 sp. 
258 177 | Acanthochites arragonites. A few living sp. 
\ C | 261 178 | Patella discors. Dead. 
A | 260 179 | Patella pediculus. Dead. 
264 | Marg. | 180} Acmea fascicularis. Abundant, living. 
268 181 | Aemea mitella, jun. 


P| A |273| Gal. | 182) Fisswrella rugosa, jun. [A var. is first black, with 
two white rays: afterwards changes to whitish. 























307 C 183 | Fissurella microtrema. Common. {Passes into 
rugosa. | 
274 184) Fissurella nigrocineta. 1 young sp. 
P|\|A}279) E  |185) Glyphis inequalis. Rare. 
281 186) Rimala Mazatlanica, 2 sp. 
L. Cal.) 187 | Haliotis Cracherodit. (Turtle Bay.) 
L. Cal.| 188 | Haliotis splendens. (Margarita Island, with 4,5, 
and 6 holes.) 
L {1&9} Callopoma Fokkesit. Dead. 
L. Cal.| 100 | Pomauax undosus. Fresh, with Gulf Polyzoa. 
P| C | 286 191) Uvanilla olivacea. Dead. 
A. | 288 192 | Uvanilla unguis. Dead. 
289 | Marg.| 193) Calliostoma eximium. Dead. 
274| P 194 | Omphalius coronuatus. Dead ; not uncommon. 
263 295 195 Vitrinella Panamensis. 1 sp. off Spondylus. 
304} P| A | 326| Marg.) 196 | Nertta scabricosta. Abundant. 
305 | P| C | 327 |E.Mar.| 197 | Nerita Bernhardi. Abundant. 
336) P|) A | 343 ).Mar.) 198) Cructhulum imbricatum. Dead. 
337 | P| A | 344) E.Mar.| 199) Crauctbulum spinosum. Dead. 
344) P| A | 334\E. Cal.| 200) Crepidula aculeata. Dead. West and East Indies. 
PA E.Mar. 201 | Crepidula ? arenata, jun. * 
345 A | 337 C.Mar.| 202 Crepidula excavata, jun. et var.* 
346| P 340 |E.Mar.| 203) Crepidula onyx. Dead. 
328| P| A|347| E | 204) Hipponyx antiquatus. Dead. 
327} .|A|349 205 | Hipponyx barbatus. Pacific Is. Fresh sp. 
329} P| A }350| Gal. | 206 | Mipponyx Grayanus. Rare. 
823 | P| A | 352 207 | Aletes centiquadrus. On Margaritiphora, &c. 
3D5 208 | Bivonia contorta. Frequent, on shells. 
A | 3859 209 | Petaloconchus macrophragma. Frequent, on shells. 
vi Lj 210) Spiroglyphus lituella. On Purpura planospira and 
muricata, from Socorro Is. 
367 211) Caecum subimpressum. Very rare. 
P | A }380 212) Turritella tigrina et var. Cumingit. 
Iz 213 | Turritella sanguinea. (Whirls not shouldered.) 
193| P| A | 381} Gal. | 214) Cerithium maculosum and dwarf var., like medio- 
leve. Abundant. 
196; P| A | 383 215) Cerithium uncinatum. Common; dead. 
200} P| A |} 387 |G.Mar.| 216 | Certthium stercus muscarum. Rare; dead, 
P| A |388} Gal. | 217 | Cerithium interruptum, Mke. Common. 
197| P| A | 3889} Marg. | 218 | Rhinoclavis gemmata. Rare. 
Marg. | 219) Pyrazus incisus. Rare. 
2206 395 |PE.Mr.| 220 | Cerithidea Mazatlanica. Dead. 

* A difficulty attends the identification of young specimens of these rare species, no 
series having yet been obtained. “ C. excavata, var.,” in Mus. Cum, is exactly interme- 
diate between the two. The young of excavata has a large swelling umbo projecting beyond 
the margin ; the umbo in “? var.” has the margin spreading round it, as in ony, jnn., 
and in consequence appears turned in the contrary direction. The umbilicus above the 
deck exists in both forms; but if is not an absolutely constant character, even in adunca, 

108 











ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COASY OF NORTH AMERICA. 623 


r 





























Een. pe Mee | oe No. | List of Cape St. Lucas Shells. 
| 232 © | 397 | Marg. | 221) Litorina aspera. Very rare. 
|} 234} P| C | 396 222 | Litorina conspersa. Common. A distorted specimen 
has a Lacunoid chink: another a Nassoid shape. 
P 398 986) Litorina Philippit. Rare: v. anted, var. peniecillata. 
273 P 401| E_ | 223| Modulus catenulatus, jun. 
244 224| Rissoina firmata. Rare. 
245 225] Rissoina fortis. Very rare. 
A | 408 226 | Rissoina stricta. Rare. 
245 227 | Rissoina clandestina. Dead. 
247 228 | Rissoina infrequens. Dead, worn. 
246 414 229} Alvania tumida. 1 sp., off Spondylus. 
C}417| L_= | 230) Barleeta subtenuis. 1 sp. 
411 2311! Barleeta lirata. 1 sp. 
422 232 | Gemella, sp. 1 sp. 
420} L | 233) Jeffreysia Aldert. 1 sp. 
419 234 | Jeffreysia bifasciata. Very rare. 
425 235 | Alaba supralirata. Not uncommon. 
427 236 | Alaba terebralis. 1 dead, broken specimen. 
A | 424 237 | Planaxis nigritella. Dead; some of the specimens 
niay be a dwarf form of 
42 2376) Planaxis ? planicostata. 
4 435} PL | 238) Radius variabils. 1 sp. 
6| P| A |438| E_ |239)| Aricta arabicula. Very rare. 
8| P| C E_ | 240} Aricia punctulata. Very rare. 
P. 241 | Luponia Sowerbyt. 1 living and several worn. 
de 242 | Luponia albuginosa. Dead; plentiful. 
[ Cyprea tigris and Pteroceras lambis ; doubtless 
received through traders. | 
9| P| A | 439 243 Trivia pustulata. Dead. 
10} P| A | 440 \Gal. E.| 244| Trivia radians ; intermediate specimens towards 
e P| A |441 245 | Trivia Solandri. Dead. 
IAA Gal. |246| Trivia Pacifica. 1 sp. 
12; P| A |442| E_ | 247) Trivia sanguinea. Dead. 
A 248 | Erato Maugerie. [Exactly like the W. Indian 
specimens: also Crag fossil, teste 8. Wood. ] 
13 A. Gulf E| 249} Erato scabriuscula. Rare. 
122 C | 447 250 | Strombus galeatus, un. 1 sp. 
124| P| A | 448} Gal. E) 251) Strombus granulatus. Abundant; dead. 
1133| P 449| KE | 252) Strombus gracilior. 1 dead specimen, 
iP C 253 | Subula strigata. 2 dead specimens. 
C 454) E | 254) Subula ? luctuosa, jun. 
P| A | 455 255 | Euryta fulgurata. Dead, 
A |456| E | 256) Euryta aciculata. Dead. 
C 257 | Terebra lingualis. 1 sp. 
P G 258 | Myurella variegata. Very rare. 
450 259 | Myurella albocincta. 1 dead specimen. 
452 260) Myurella subnodosa. 1 dead specimen. 
P | C | 457 261 | Pleurotoma funiculata, Rare; dead. 
163 461) E> |262) Drillia aterrima. Rare; and var. Melcherst. 
465 263 | Drillia albovallosa, 1 sp., dead. 
467| E | 264) Drillia luctuosa. 1 sp., dead. 
12 265 | Drillia maura, Val. Fragment. 
A 266 | Daphnella casta. 1sp. [Coearser strie than W. I. 


species, but scarcely differs from ecrebriplicata, 
Rve., “ Philippines.” ] 
A 267 | Cithara stromboides 1 sp. [Probably=triticea, 
fete | | Kien. | 


109 








' 


C24 REPORT—18G3. 





| Pan. La Nese Maz.| Other 





























110 300| Bezoardica abbreviata. 1 living, with very small 
normal operculum. Common; dead. — [| Varies 
greatly in form and sculpture, like the Texan 


analogue,” which may be conspecific. | 


3 391 | Triton vestitus. Isp. {Scarcely differs from pilearis. | 
132 302 | Ranella celata. 1 sp., dead. 
L |303| Ranella Californica. Very rare. Grows 4 inches 
long. 


151 A |582| Gal. | 304) Latirus ceratus. 2 dead sp. 
P 584} E  |305| Fasctolaria princeps. 2 dead sp. 





Cat. |Paz.| pul.| Cat. | habitats. alee List of Cape St. Lucas Shells. 
T17 | Baek E_ | 268 | Conus princeps. Dead. 
11S Py ok Gal. E| 269| Conus brunneus. Dead. 
118} P| A |476 270 | Conus purpurascens and var. regalitalis. Dead. 
} 114} P| A | 480 271 | Conus gladiator. Dead. 
1116} P| A |481| Gal. |272| Conus nux et var. pusillus [Gld. non Chem. ]. 
| Living; plentiful. 
118 \C |G 273 | Conus scalaris. 1 sp., dead. 
Pees E_ | 274) Conus tornatus. Rare, dead. 
270) Py A 275 | Solarium granulatum, and ? var. quadriceps. Com- 
mon. 
L_ |276| Odostomia ?straminea. 1 sp. 
489 277 | Syrnola lamellata, 1 sp., oft Spondylus. 
954 501 278 | Oseilla exarata=terebellum. 1 sp. 
| 293 507 279 | Chrysallida communis. 1 sp., off Spondylus. 
927 518 280 | Chemnitzia Panamensis. Very rare. 
519 281 | Chemnitzia Adamsi. 1 sp., off Spondylus. 
524 282 | Chemniizia prolongata. 1 sp., off Spondylus. 
582 283 | Chemnitzia flavescens. 1 sp., off Spondylus. 
194 A |563} Le | 284) Cerithiopsis assimilata. 1 sp., off Spondylus. 
207 507 | L_ | 285} Cerithiopsis tuberculoides. 1 sp. 
208 C {391 286 | Triforis alternatus. 1 sp., off Spondylus. 
P 287 | Scalaria ? tiara. 1 sp. 
295| P| A |570| Gal. | 288] Natica maroccana. Com. W. Afr.; ? Pacific Is. 
PP ae 289 | Natica zonaria. Common. Opere. grooved as in 
canrena | ==alapapilionis, var., teste Rve.: non 
Chem. }. 
A 290) Natica catenata. Common. 
302| P| A {576} E |[291| Polinices uber. Common. [The young shells go 
through all shapes, from globose to pointed. 
Operc. thin, light green, horny. ] 
P A| G | Gal. | 292) P-linices otis et var. fusca. Rare; dead, 
P, G | Marg. | 293) Polhinices bifasciata. Living; rare. 
PiVAll iG E |294! Neverita glauca. 1 sp. 
577 295 | Lamellaria, sp. ind. 1 sp. 
146 A |579 296 | Ficula ventricosa. Not uncommon. Animal pre- 
served of both sexes, and of surpassing beauty. 
66 C| G |E.Mar,| 297 | Malea ringens. 1dead sp. [ Fossil, Atlantic shores, 
Newberry. | 
112| P| A| G@ | Gal. | 298) Oniscia tuberculosa. Very rare. 
111| P| A| G | Gal. | 299) Leventa coarctata. Very rare. 
P|\C 
131 C 





18 A 306 | Mitra crenuta, Rve., teste Dohrn. Isp. [P=nu- 
cleola. 
19 307 | Mitra ise C.B.Ad. 1 sp. 
20 586 | Gal. E) 308} Strigatedla tristis. Rare. 
A|G| E> |309| Aneta harpa. 1 sp. 
P 589 310| Volutella margaritula. Off Spondylus ; common. 
14 537 311) Marginella minor. Off Spondylus; rare. 


110 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 625 


Pan. La |Aca-| Maz. | Other No. 


| 


Cat. |Paz.| pul.| Cat. [aabitate: List of Cape St. Lucas Shells. 




























A 312 | Volvarina varia. Rare. {Cannot be distinguished 
from some W. I. specimens. | 


A PWI1 | 313) Persicula imbricata. 1sp. [Can scarcely be sepa- 
rated from txterrupta, jun. Also Guacomayo. | 
314 | Persicula phrygia. Rare. [Closely allied to fru- 
mentum. Differs from the W. I. sagittata by 
having the painting in loops instead of zigzag, 
and an orange callosity over the sunken spire, 
bordered by a spotted sutural line. | 


36| P G | Marg. | 315| Oliva porphyria. 1 sp. 
P33] P| A | 591 316 | Oliva Melchersi, var. Rare. 

P. 2592) Marg. | 317 | Oliva subangulata. Very common, dead. [This 
species, very rare elsewhere, is known by the 
shouldered shape, toothed paries, and violet- 
stained mouth and columella. | 

P 600 318) Olivella dama. Rare; dead. 

P 596 319 | Olivella tergina. Rare; dead. 

39 595 520 | Olivella undatella. 3 sp.; dead. 


6OL 321| Olivella zonalis. Rare; dead. 
598| PWI | 322) Olivella v. aureocincta. 3 sp.; dead. 
597| E_ | 823) Olivella anazora. Very rare; dead. Perhaps a var. of 
34} P 324| Olivella gracilis. Extremely abundant. {With 
many varieties: among which is one with dark 


Pre OPQ 


median and sutural bands and light spire ; an- 
other with dark spire; another pure white, of 
which the young is ¢rconspicua, C. B. Ad. ‘The 
Acapulean varieties are somewhat different. | 








AG 325| Harpa crenata. Dead. 
76) P| A | 606 |E.Mar.) 326} Purpura bisertialis. Abundant. 
P| A |607 327 | Purpura trisertalis. Common. 
69| P| A |608| Gal. | 3828) Purpura triangularis. Not uncommon, 
P| A | 603 |G.Mar.| 3829) Purpura patula. Common. Also West Indies. 
P| P|C \605| E | 330) Purpura muricata. Rare; dead at C.8. L.; living 
at Socorro Island. 
P Gal. | 331 | Purpura planospira. Dead shells at C. 8. L. and 
La Paz; abundant and fine at Socorro Island. 
74 611 332 | Rhéxocheilus nux+tall var. {= Californicus. | 
107 A Gal. | 325) Ststram carbonarium. Living ; plentiful. 
89| P| A |613} WI |334| Mitidella cribraria. Abundant. 
94 A|615| E |335| Columbella major. Tare. 
86| #| A {617} E_ | 336] Columbella fuscata. Abundant. 
A 1337 | Columbella festiva. Not rare. 
90| P Gal. |338| Columbella hemastoma. Not rare. 
E {889} Columbella solidula. Abundant *. 
A EK | 840} Columella Reevet | = Sta. Barbarensis, Cpr. (error) }. 
E | 341} Columella baccata. Rare. 
Vm 342 | Conella cedonulli. 1 sp. 
P 624 |L.Mar.| 343 | Nassa tegula. Rare; pale var. 
dD C |632 344 Nassa versicolor. Rare; dead. 
| 45 | Pl A 345 | Nassa corpulenta. Very rare. 














* The young shell is thin, semitransparent, with Alaboid tuberous vertex. The nuclear 

* partis rather more tumid than the next whirl, and set slanting as in some Chrysodomi. 

Adolescent, whirls smooth, except a sutural line. Sculpture of adult gradually developed, 

with spiral lines, sometimes all over, sometimes only anteriorly and posteriorly. Last 

whirl sometimes with blunt radiating riblets, but generally smooth. Siphonal notch deeply 
cut back, as in Strombina, to which the species may belong. 




























































































626 REPORT—18653. 





























1 
Fan aun a oie ae | oer No. List of Cape St. Lucas Shells. 
——— | eee eee ee eS 
ee Gal. | 346 | Fusus Thouarsit [+ Nove-Hollandia, Rve.)}. Rare ; 
dead. 
P 639, E_ | 347| Stphonatia pallida. Very rare. 
109 Gal. | 848} Engina Reeviana. 1 sp. 
iP A Gal. | 349| Engina crocostoma. 1 sp. 
P C | 647 350 | Anachis coronata, Very rare. 
652| E | 351} Anachis teniata [ = Gaskoinei]. Very rare, 
99 362 | Anachis pulchrior. Very rare. 
G 353 | Anachis ?pallida, Phil. Very rare. 
98 E | 3854} Anachis ?parva, var. Dead shells: may be pyg- 
med, Var. 
650 355 | Anachis serrata. A few perfect specimens. 
(100) | A |(651)) (E) | 356] Anachis pygmea (var. auriflua). Rare. 
P| C | 657 357 | Strombina maculosa. Very rare. 
37 E_ | 358} Strombina gibberula. Very rare. 
64| P| A | 662 359 | Pisania sanguinolenta. Dwarf var.; common. 
60 A 360 | Pisania lngubris. Rare; dead. 
P| C | 664 361) Murex plicatus. Rare; dead. 
140 | P | A | 665 362 | Murex recurvirostris. 1 sp., dead. 
P | A | 669 363 | Phyllonotus bicolor. Rare. 
PA 1671 364 | Phyllonotus princeps. Rare; dead. 
136| P | A |673 365 | Muricidea dubia. Rare; dead. 
366 | Argonauta argo. 1 large sp. of the Pvar. papyracea.| 
Pelagic. 
367 | Octopus, sp. Pelagic. 











As would be expected, the bulk of these species (203 out of 367) are the 
same as have been already enumerated in the Reigen Catalogue. Of those 
which do not appear in the Mazatlan lists, no fewer than 37 appear in the 
Panama collections (beside 10 others, known to inhabit the equatorial region). 
Of those not quoted from Mazatlan, 34 are also found in the Acapulco 
region, and 30 at La Paz. Of the whole number, 79 have also been found 
in South America, and 28 in the Galapagos. 38 have also been found in 
Margarita Bay, of which Pyrazus incisus and Siphonaria equilirata are Lower 
Californian rather than Gulf species; but only 13 belong to that portion of 
the Lower Californian fauna which is known to reach 8. Diego, exclusive of 
the same number of Gulf species, which also stray into the 8. Diegan district. 
There are also 10 species, which (with more or less distinctness) represent 
West Indian forms. Of these, five, viz. Heterodonax bimaculatus, Evato 
Mauyerie, Volvarina varia, Persicula imbricata and phrugia, are néw to the 
Gulf fauna: the other five appear in the Reigen Catalogue. 

106. The most extensive collections in the Vancouver district, both as far 
as the number of species and of specimens is concerned, have been made for 
the Smithsonian Institution by Mr. J. G. Swan, teacher at the Indian Reserve, 
Neeah Bay, W. T. For several years * valuable consignments have been 
received from him of shells collected at Cape Flattery, Port Townsend, and 
other stations. Latterly he has trained the native children to pick up shore- 
shells in large quantities. The labour of sorting and arranging these has 
been enormous; it has, however, been repaid not only by observing the 


* In consequence of boxes having been received at different times, through the accidents 
of transit, it has not always been possible to ascertain with certainty to whom, among 
simultaneous collectors, should be allowed priority in the discovery of new species. 


112 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 627 


variations of form in large numbers of individuals, but by the discovery of 
several new species and the addition to the district-fauna of many others. 
The duplicates are made-up in series for distribution by the Smithsoman 
Institution ; and, though of the worst quality from a “ collector’s”’ point of 
view, they will be found very serviceable by real students, being carefully 
named in accordance with this Report. He has now received a dredge, con- 
structed for him by Dr. Stimpson; and if he succeeds in training the young 
Indians to use it, there is little doubt that a rich harvest of fresh materials 
will shortly be obtained. Some of the collections were made on the neigh- 
bouring shores of Vancouver’s Island, among which was a large series of 
Puchypoma gibberosum, Chem., with attached Bivoxia, noth of an essentially 
Eastern Pacific type, the former having been brought from Japan by Mr. A. 
Adams. The Indians have taken a fancy to the opercula of this shell for the 
purpose of ornamenting their canoes. As it is an article of trade among 
themselves, it is remarkable that so large ashell should have so long escaped 
the notice of collectors. Dead specimens have been washed-up in California ; 
but it is not known even to enter the Straits of De Fuca alive. The shore- 
pickings of the Indian children, which have already added 25 species to 
science, are singularly free from ballast-importations, although they present 
a few (supposed) extra-limital shells, probably washed-up by the ocean 
currents. The following are the species new to the Vancouver fauna ; the 
remainder will be found tabulated in the 7th column of the general Table, 
par. 112, ifra. 


Waldheinia Coreanica, valves. 

. Aylotrya pennatifera, teste Jeffr. 

. Chdiophora punctata, one worn valve. 

. Macoma ?edentula. Two living shells may be the young of this species, or an 

extreme var. of ¢nquinata. 

. Mera salmonea. Plentiful. 

. Angulus variegatus. Rare. : 

. Semele rubrolineata. One large valve may belong to this species, or (more 
probably) be distinct and new. 

. Standella ? Californica. One young valve. 

. Miodon prolongatus, n. subg.,n.s. Several valves of this curious shell, inter- 
mediate between Lacina and Venericardia, accord with forms not before 
eliminated, from the Coralline Crag and Inferior Oolite. 

10. Lazaria subquadrata. One valve. 

11. Diplodonta orbelia. Very large valves. 

12. Kellia (var.) Chironit. A few valves. 

13. Adula stylina. Plentiful. 

14. Axrinea (? septentrionalis, var.) subobsoleta. Numerous valves. 

15. Siphonaria Thersites,n.s. Rare, dead. Like tristens?s and other Cape Horn and 

N. Zealand types. The genus was not known north of Margarita Bay. 

16. Mopalia (Kennerleyt, var.) Swannit. One sp. and valves. 

17. Ischnochiton (Trachydermon) Nuttall. One sp. 

18. Haliotis Kamtschatkana. Rare. 

19. Pachypoma gibberosum, Chem. Living; plentiful. 

20. Leptonyx sanguineus, Linn. Very plentiful. (Japan, A. Ad.;= Homalopomz 

sanguineum, ante p. 588 (nom. preoc.); Mediterranean, Philippi.) 

21. Chlorostoma funebrale (et var. subapertum. One sp.). 

22. Calliostoma canaliculatum. Living ; abundant. 

23. Margarita cidaris, n. s. One fresh specimen, with aspect of Turctca. 

24, Margarita helicina. Very rare. 

25. Gaibbula parcipicta. One sp. 

26. Gibbula succincta, n. s. Rare. 

27. Gibbula lacunata, n. 8. One sp. 


8 113 


NO Poor 


£& 00 
























































628 rREPORT—1863. 


28. Gibbula funiculata, n. s. Very rare. 

29. Hipponysx er anioides, n. 8. Plentiful. 

30. Bivonid compacta, u. s. Frequent on Pachypoma; externally resembles Petas 
loconchus macrophragma. 

31. Bittium (2 var.) eswriens. Common, dead. 

2. Lacuna porrecta, nu. s.  Plentiful, with intermediate Pvars. exequata and 
effusa. 

33. Lacuna (? solidula, var.) compacta. Rare. 

34. Lacuna variegata, n. s. Not common; resembles the Japanese L. decorata, 

35. Isapis fenestrata, n. 8. Very rare. 

36. Alvana reticulata, n. s. Very rare. 

87. Alvania filosa, n. s. One specimen. 

38. ? Assiminea subrotundata, n. s. One specimen. 

39. ? Paludinella, sp. One specimen. 

40. Mangelia crebricostata, n. s. Very rare. 

41. Mangelia interfossa, n. s. Several dead specimens. 

42. Mangelia tabulata, n. s. Several dead specimens. 

3. Daphnella effusa, n. 8. One broken specimen. 

44, Odostomia satura, n. s. and Pvar. Gould. Very rare. 

45. Odostumia nuciformis, n. s. and P var. avellana, Very rare. 

46. Odostomia inflata. Very rare. 

47. Odostomia tenuisculpta, n. 8. Very rare. 

48. Scalaria Indianorum, n.s. Rare. 

49. Opalia borealis. Very common. This fine species, indicated by Dr. Gld. (E. 
E. Mol., p. 307) under Scalaria austr alis, closely resembles O. Ochotens#s, 
Midd. It is not referred to in the ‘ Otia, and the locality was naturally 
suspected. 

50. Cerithiopsis munita, n.s. Rare. 

51. Cerithiopsis columna. Very rare. 

52. Cerithiopsis tuberculata. | Rare. No differences have been detected on comparing 

53. Triforis adversa. the Herm and Neeah Bay specimens. 

£4. Trichotropis inermis. A few specimens differ from the decorticated J. cancels 
lata, and agree with ee s diagnosis. 


55. Canceliars va modest, n. One sp. ‘and fragment. 
56. Velutina prolongata, Nn. S. Very rare 


57. Olivella biplicata. Very fine and abundant. 
58. Purpura (var.) fuscata. Forbes’s species, the locality of which was before un- 
certain, is here connected by easy transitions with the normal saaicola. 
9. Columbella (var.) ? Hindsii. May be a stunted form of A. gausapata. 
60. Amycla tuberosa. Rare. 
Gl. 


Chrysodomus tabulatus. One beautifully perfect specimen; described and 
figured from Mr. Lord’s broken shell, sent simultaneously. 


The following appear to be due to currents :— 


62. Pachydesma crassatelloides. Fragment. 
63. Fissurella volcano. One broken specimen. 


107. A collection of shells received from the Farallones Islands by Mr. R. 
D. Darbishire, of Manchester, soon after the publication of the first Report, 
contained several species at that time new to science, but in too imperfect a 
condition for description. Among them were— 


Martesia intercalata, Maz. Cat., no. 19. Burrowing in Haliotis rufescens. 
Odostomia inflata, n. 8. Young shells, abundant, in Haliotis rufescens. 
Ocinebra lurida. 

Ocinebra interfossa, 0. 8. 


Collections from the same locality were afterwards sent by the Rev. J. 
Rowell, and are tabulated with the rest of the Smithsonian series in the 4th 
column of the general Table, par. 112. 


114 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 629 


108. In 1860, previously to the ecmmencement of the Californian Geo- 
logical Survey, Dr. J. G. Cooper joined a military expedition across the Rocky 
Mountains, under the command of Major Blake, U.S.A. Having forwarded 
his notes and specimens to Judge Cooper, they were placed in the hands of 
Mr. Thomas Bland, of New York. He prepared a “ Notice of Land and 
Freshwater Shells, collected by Dr. J. G. Cooper in the Rocky Mountains, &c.,” 
which appears in the ‘Ann. Lyc. N. H. of N. York,’ 1861, pp. 362 et seq. 
We have here the judgment of one of the most distinguished students of 
American land-shells, whose labours on the tropical forms have accumulated 
facts so important in their bearing on the Darwinian controversy *. The fol- 
lowing is an outline of the Report, which is peculiarly valuable for the copious 
notes on the station and distribution of species :— 


No. 

1. Helix Townsendiana, Lea. “ Both slopes of the Bitter Root Mountains, from 
2200-5600 tt. high. Large var. at the base of the range to 4800 ft. Smail 
var. in dry prairie at junction of Hell-Gate and Bitter Root Rivers; also in 
Wash. Ter., west of the Coast Mountains. The most wide-spread of the 
species,” J. G. C.; Puget Sound, Cape Disappointment, teste Bland. 

2. Helix Mullani, n.s., Bland. ‘ Under logs and in dry pine-woods: dead, Coeur 
d’Aléne Mission: living, west side of Bitter Root Mountains,’ J. G. C.; 
St. Joseph’s River, 1st Camp, Oregon, teste Binney. Closely allied to H. Co- 
lumbiana, Lea,=labiosa, Gld. A beautiful hyaline var. was found under a 

_ stone, by the Bitter Root River, 4000 ft. high. 

8. Helix polygyrella, n.s., Bland. “ Moss and dead wood in dampest parts of 
spruce-forests ; common on the Coeur d’Alene Mountains, especially eastern 
slope,’ J. G. C. Entirely unlike any other N. A. species, and having affi- 
nity with H. polygyrata from Brazil. 

4. Helix Vancouverensis, Lea,= H. concava, Bin. sen. olim, non postea, nec Say ; 
=H. vellicata, Fbs., certainly ; =H. sportella, Gld., probably. ‘‘ West sice 
of Coeur d’Aléne Mountains, W. T., in forests of Conifer, such as it in- 
habits west of the Cascade Range. Between these two ranges, for 200 milcs, 
is a wide plain, quite uninhabitable for snails, on account of drought. Th's 
sp. and H. Townsendiana probably travel round it through the northein 
forests in lat. 49°,” J. GC. Also Crescent City, Cal., Newcomb; Oregon 
City, Whidby’s Is., W. T.; Mus. Bland. Found on the Pacitic slope, from 
Puget Sound to San Diego. 

6. Helix strigosa, Gld. “ Aistivating under pine-logs, on steep slope of shale, 
containing veins of lime, 4000 ft. high, near Bitter Root River, Rocky Moun- 
tains,” J. G. C.; Big Horn Mountains, Nebraska; Rio Piedra, W. New 
Mexico; teste Bland. One sp. reached N. York alive, and deposited six 
young shells. [?May not these have been abnormally hatched in the body 
of the parent, from the unnatural confinement. | 

6. Helix Cooperi, Binn., jun. “ East side of Mullan’s Pass, Rocky Mountains, 
W. T., at an elevation of 5500 ft.,” J. G. C.; Black Hills of Nebraska, Dr. 
V. Hayden; Big Horn Mountains, Nebraska; west side of Wind River 
Mountains; Rio Piedra, W. N. Mexico, teste Bland. Passes by varieties 
towards H. strigosa, Gld. Hayden’s shell from Bridger’s Pass, Nebr., referred 
to by Binn., jun., Journ. A. N. S. Phil. 1858, p. 115, as H. svlitaria, var., is 
the young of this species. 

7. Helix solitaria,Say. Both slopes of Coeur d’Aléne Mts., 2500 feet high, J. G..C. 
Also Prairie States, teste Bland. 

8. Helix arborea, Say. “ Damp bottom lands, along the lower valley of Hell-Gate 
River, 4500 ft. high,” J. G. C. Found from Labrador to Texas, and from 
Florida to Nebraska ; also on the River Chama, N. Mex.; also Guadaloupe, 
teste Beau and Férussac, letter to Say, 1820; teste Bland. 


* Vide “ Geographical Distribution of the Genera and Species of Land Shells of the 
West Indies, &c.,” by Thomas Bland. Reprinted from Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., vol. vii: New 
York 186. + 

116 





















































630 REPORT—1863. 


No. 
9, Helir striatella, Anth. With H. arborea, J.G.C. From Caneda FE. to Kansas, 
and trom Pembina (Red River N.) to Virginia; teste Bland. 
10. Suecinea rusticana, Gld. “ Rocky Mountains of bitter Root Valley, 2500- 
A500 ft. JG. C. 


The freshwater shells collected on the Rocky Mountains by Dr. Cooper 
were determined, with the assistance of Dr. Lea and of Messrs. Binney and 
Prime, as follows :— 


ll. Limnea fragilis [as of] Linn. [Binney]. Hell-Gate River; Missouri River, 
above the Falls. [=Z. palustris, auct. | 

12. Limnea humilis, Say. Hell-Gate River. 

13. Limnea bulimoides, Lim. [Binney]. Missouri River, above the Falls. 

14. Limnea desidiosa, Say. Missouri River, above the Falls. 

15. Physa hypnorum, Linn. Hell-Gate River. 

16. Physa heterostropha, Say. Hell-Gate River; Missouri River, above the Falls, 

17. Planorbis trivolvis, Say. Hell-Gate River. 

18. Planorbis Pparvus, Say. Hell-Gate River. 

19. Anceylus, sp. ind. 

20. Melania plicifera, Lea. Hell-Gate River. 

21. Leptoxis, sp. ind. 

22. Amnicola, sp. ind. 

23. Spherium [ Cyclas] occidentale, Prime. Hell-Gate River. 

24. Spherium Ros striatinum, Lam. Missouri River, above the Falls. 

25. Unio luteolus, Lam. 

25. Margaritana margaritifera, Linn. Missouri River, above the Falls; also Spokan 
River, below Lake Coeur d’Aléne,= A. faleatus, Gld.; the purple var. hitherto 
only found on the Pacific slope. 


109. The land-shells of the peninsula of California present points of great 
interest to the student of geographical distribution. While those of the 
eastern shore of the Gulf belong exclusively to the Mexican or Central Ame- 
rican fauna, those of the western present in their general features that form 
of the South American type which belongs to the region of the Andes. The 
contrast between the Glandine and painted Bulimids of Mazatlan, and the 
small dull forms, or solid white shells of the peninsula, is evident even to the 
superficial observer. They are catalogued by Mr. Binney in the ‘ Proe. Ac. 
Nat. Se. Philadelphia,’ 1861, pp. 331-338, and are as follows, outline-figures 


being given of the new species :— 


No. 

1. Helix areolata, Shy. CerrosIs., Dr. Veatch. 

2. Helix Pandore, Fbs. Margarita Is. (Binney). 

3. Bulimus excelsus, Gld. La Paz. (Mus. Cal. Acad. N. 8.) 

4. Bulimus vesicalis, Gla. Lower California. [Altered in ‘ Otia,’ p. 184, to B. 


sufflatus ; nom. preoc. 
5, Bulimus pallidior, Sby.,=vegetus, Gld. With B. incendens, v.infra. (S. Ame- 
rica, Cuming.) [Cape St. Lucas List, no. 166. ] 
Bulmus proteus, Brod. One large and many young specimens; Cape St. Lucas, 
Xantus. (Mountains of Peru, teste Pfeiffer.) |[C.S. L., no. 167. 
Bulimus Xantusi, n.s. Promontory of St. Lucas. 4 sp.* Xantus. [No. 168.] 
Bulimus artemisia, n.s. Promontory of St. Lucas. 1 sp., on small species of 
Artemisia; Xantus. [C.8. L., no. 169, | 
Bulimus pila, u.s. Todos Santos Mission and Margarita Is., in rocky spots 
under mosses, not uncommon, Xantus. Resembles B. suffatus, jun. [ No. 170.] 
10. Bulimus incendens,n.s. In great numbers with B. pallidior, Sby., climbing 
high “copal” or copaiva trees, on dry hills 800-1000 ft. high; Cape St. 
Lucas, Margarita Bay, Xantus. Resembles B. excelsus, Gld._ [No. 171.] 
ll. Pedipes lirata, Binn. Cape St. Lucas, Xantus. [C.S. L., no. 172.] 


116 


o 


o wn 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 631 


110. At the time of the preparation of the first Report, not a single 
naturalist was known in Europe to be resident on the western slope of North 
Amcrica, to whom communications could be addressed on the subject of it. 
There was, however, even at that time, a ‘“ Californian Academy of Natural 
Sciences,” which met at S. Francisco, and published its ‘ Proceedings.’ This 
Academy is now in a flourishing condition, under the presidency of Col. L. 
Ransom. The general zoological department is under the care of Dr. J. G. 
Cooper; the shells under that of Dr. J.B. Trask, Vice-President of the Academy, 
whose name has already appeared in Judge Cooper’s Report, anted, p. 597 ; 
and the fossils under that of Mr. W.M.Gabb. The corresponding secretary 
is Dr. W. O. Ayres; and the librarian Prof. J. D. Whitney, the director of 
the State Geological Survey. Already the nucleus has been formed of a very 
valuable collection, many of the critical species in which have been sent to 
England for identification. The coasting-trade between S. Francisco and 
many stations in L. California, the Gulf, and the Mexican coast, offers pecu- 
liar facilities for obtaining valuable information. Two of the contributors to 
the Californian Academy require special and grateful mention. Dr. Wesley 
Newcomb (whose labours had greatly enriched the State Collection at his 
native city, Albany, New York, and whose researches among the Achatinelle 
in the Sandwich Islands are well known) is stationed at Oakland, near Fran- 
cisco, and has already furnished valuable papers, an abstract of which is here 
given, as well as emendations and additions to the British Association Report, 
which are included in their appropriate places*. The Rev. J. Rowell has long 
been a regular correspondent of the Smithsonian Institution, and has sub- 
mitted the whole of his West-coast collections for analysis. He has dis- 
played peculiar industry in searching for small species on the hacks of the 
larger shells, especially the Haliotids of the Californian coast, and the Ostvea 
iridescens, Which is imported in large quantities from Acapulco for the San 
Francisco market f. 

In the ‘ Proce. California Ac. Nat. Sc.,’ vol. i. pp. 28-30, Feb. 1855, Dr. 
J. B. Trask published descriptions of Anodonta Randalli, Trask, Upper San 
Joaquin ; Anodonta triangularis, Trask, Sacramento River; Anodonta rotund- 
ovata, Trask, Sacramento Valley ; Alasmodonta Yubaénsis, Trask, Yuba River. 

In the ‘ Ann. Lye. N. H. New York,’ vol. vi. 1860, p. 146, Dr. Newcomb 
describes the first Pupa found on the Pacific slope, viz. Pupa Rowellii, Newe. 
Near Oakland, Cal. ‘* Approaches nearest to P. ovata, Say.” 


* The “ Chiton amiculatus,’ Newe., MS.,= Cryptochiton Stellert. ‘ Rare near S. Fran- 
cisco ; somewhat more abundant in the Bay of Monterey.’”’ His “‘ Panopea generosa,” in 
the Albany Museum, was found to be Schizotherus Nuttalliz. 

+ As an instance of the way in which mistakes arise, may be placed on record a series 
of shells sent to Mr. Rousseau, of Troy, New York, by Mr. Hilman, formerly of that 
city, now a resident at San Francisco. They were sent as Californian ; yet, of the thirty- 
four species which it contained, only one could be called a native of that province. All 
the rest were tropical. and of that peculiar character which belongs to Acapulco. No 
doubt, the gentleman had obtained them from a trader to that city. If only a few species 
had been sent, mixed with Californian shells, they might have puzzled the learned ; for they 
were obtained, on the spot. by a gentleman of known integrity. As itwas, the magnitude of 
the error led to its discovery: but in how many similar cases such error is thought impos- 
sible !—Strigilla carnaria; Donax carinatus, puncto-striatus; Heterod. bimaculatus; Cal- 
lista aurantia, chionea; Petr. robusta; Card. consors, biangulatum; Liocard. apicinum ; 
Trigona radiata, Hindsii; Anom. subimbricata ; Lima tetrica; Siphonaria gigas, lecanium ; 
Patella discors, pediculus; Fiss, rugosa; Crue. imbricatum, spinosum, umbrella; Crep. 
aculeata; Hipp. antiquatus, barbatus; Cerith. uncinatum; Modulus disculus; Natica 
maroccana, catenata; Polinices uber; Leuc. cingulata; AEneta harpa; Purp. triangularis, 
The single shell from the temperate fauna is Glyphis aspera, 


be 































































































632 REPORT—1863. 
In the ‘ Ann. Lyc. N. H. New York,’ 1861, p. 287, the Rev. J. Rowell, of 


San Francisco, describes the second species of Pupa* discovered on the 
western slope, viz. “ P. Californica, Row., San Francisco: plentiful.” 

On February 4th, 1861, Dr. Wesley Newcomb published (Latin) dia- 
gnoses of the following Californian Pulmonates in the « Proceedings of the 
Cal. Ac. Nat. Sc.,’ vol. 1. pp. 91-94. A second Part bears date March 18th, 
pp. 103, 104. 


e. 

91. Helix Bridgesti, Newe. San Pablo, Cal. 1 sp. Distinct from all described forms. 

Helix Trasku, Newe. Los Angelos, Cal. “ Distinguished from H. Thouarsit 
at a glance.” 

92. Vitrina Pfeiffert, Newe. Carson Valley. More rounded than diaphana, Drap. 
94. Pisidium occidentale, Newe. Ocean House, 8. Francisco, Rowell. 

103, Helix Carpentert, Newe. Tulare Valley, Mus. Cal. Ac. Belongs to the Cy- 
clostomoid group, and has the aspect of a desert species. [Quite distinct 
from H. Carpenteriana, Bland, Florida. | 

Helix Ayresiana, Newe. Northern Oregon; Mus. Cal. Ac. Resembles HZ 
reticulata, Pfr., a Californian species not identitied by the author. 

104. Physa costata, Newcomb. Clear Lake, Cal., Veatch, Mus. Cal. Ac. 


5 


In the ‘Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, 1861,’ pp. 367-372, Mr. W. M., 
Gabb published “ Descriptions of New Species of American Tertiary Fossils,” 
in which occur several Californian shells. The authorities for the localities 
are not given, and the diagnoses are in English only. Considerable confusion 
often arises from the study of tertiary fossils without knowledge of recent 
shells, and vice verséd. Mr. Gabb’s writings on the Cretaceous fossils of Ame- 
rica display an ability with which this paper is perhaps not commensurate. 
Some errors which had been found very difficult to understand are here cor- 
rected by the author himself, who regrets the incompleteness of his earlier 
work. 


v68. Turbonilla aspera, Gabb. Sta. Barbara, Miocene. [ = Bittiwm, sp., teste Gald, 
MS. 

Mocha striata, Gabb. Sta. Barbara, ? Miocene. [= Lacuna carinata, Gld. 
teste Gabb MS. and specimens. Mr. Gabb considers that Litorina Pedroana 
Conr., is the same species, which is probably not correct. | 

369. Sphenia bilirata, Gabb. Sta. Barbara. [Description accords with Sazicava 
arctica, jun., var.; but Mr. Gabb considers it a good species. 

Venus rhysomia, Gabb. ? Miocene, Sta. Barbara. [= Psephis tantilla, Gld., 
teste Gabb MS. and specimens. } 

371. Cardita monilicosta. ? Miocene, Sta. Barbara. [Description accords with 
Venericardia ventricosa, Gld. jun.; but Mr. Gabb considers it a good species. | 

Morrisia Hornii. ?Miocene. Sta. Barbara. “ First pointed out by Dr. 
Horn in a rich fossiliferous marl, and not uncommon.” 


In the ‘ Proceedings of the Calif. Ac. Nat. Sc.’ for April 7th, 1862, pp. 170- 
172, Mr. W. M. Gabb published detailed English “ Descriptions of two Species 
of Cephalopoda in the Museum of the Academy,” of which one, Onychoteuthis 
jusiformis, is said to be from Cape Horn, the other from California. 


” 


170. Octopus punctatus, Gabb. Common near San Francisco. Also abundant in 
Scammon’s Lagoon, Lower California, Capt. C. M. Scammon. Arms more 
than seven feet long, Dr. W. O. Ayres. “ Differs from O. megalocyathus, 


* That the race of small Pupe is very ancient on the North American continent, as in 
Earope, is evident from the very interesting discovery. by Prof. Dawson, of a fossil Pupa, 
én situ, nestling in an upright tree, fossilized in the Nova Scotian coal-beds; which can _ 
scarcely be distinguished, even specifically, from some living forms. 


118 








ON MOLLUSCA OF TIIE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 633 


Page. 
Couth., E. E. Moll. p. 471, in absence of lateral membrane, size of mouth and 


cupules, and general coloration.” 
171. Onychoteuthis fusifo mis, Gabb. “Cape Horn,” Mus. Ac. [San Clemente 
Is., Cal., Cooper, MS. | 

From the ‘ Proc. Cal. Ac. N.8.,’ 1863, p. 11, it appears that at least one 
molluse, a Teredo or Xylotrya, has already established for itself an economic 
celebrity. Piles have been entirely destroyed in six months from the time 
they were placed in the water. 

On March 2, 1863, Mr. Auguste Remond published, in the same Journal, 
English ‘‘ Descriptions of two new Species of Bivalves from the Tertiaries of 
Contra Costa County: ”— 

13. Cardium Gabbiit, Rem. Late tert. deposit near Kirker’s Pass, in shelly sand, 
with Tapes regularis, Gabb, and Murex ponderosus, Gabb, both extinct. 
“ Easily recognized by heavy hinge and enormous laterals; lunule cari- 
nated.” [? Lrocardiwm. | 

Ostrea Bourgeoisu, Rem. Same locality. 

On April 20, 1863, Dr. Cooper described (in English) the following mol- 
luse, of which the only species previously known is from Cuba :— 


” 


21. Gundlachia Calfornica, Rowell. Fig. 5 (three views). Fifty specimens on 
water-plants in clear, stagnant ponds, at Marysville, Feather River, 2ovweil. 

On January 8, 1864, Dr. Newcomb described (in Latin) the following, 
with other Pulmonates from the State Survey, already tabulated in p. 609 :— 


115. Helix Hillebrandi, Newe. Tuolumne Co., Cal. One recent and several fossi 
shells, M. Voy. Like H. Thouarsii, but depressed and hirsute. 


The latest contribution to the malacology of California is one of the most 
interesting. It is described (in Latin) by Dr. Newcomb, Feb. 1, 1864 :-— 


121. Pedicularia Californica, Newe. One specimen from coral growing on a mon- 
ster Echidnocerus, very deep water, Farallones Is., D. N. Robinson. “ As 
beautiful as P. elegantissima, Desh., from Is. Bourbon.’’ [ Mr. Pease also ob- 
tained a deep-water Pedicularia from coral in the Pacific Is., which Mr. 
Cuming affiliated to the Mediterranean P. Sicula. Dy. Gould (Otia, p. 215) 
also describes P. decussata, coast of Georgia, 400 fm., U. S. Coast Survey. | 


111. The following descriptions of species, and notes on habitats and 
synonymy, have been collated from various American scientific periodicals, 
chiefly by the assistance of Mr. Binney’s ‘ Bibliography.’ 

In the ‘American Journal of Science and Art,’ O.S., vol. xxxviii. p. 396, 
Apmil 1840, Dr. A. A. Gould records the following species, said to be from 
“California.” His 7'rochus vittatus is not known :— 


Murex tricolor et bicolor. Trochus vittatus. 
Cardium Californianum. Bulimus undatus. 


In the ‘Annals of the New York Lyceum of Natural History,’ vol. iv. 
1846, No. 5, p. 165, Mr. John H. Redfield first described Triton Oregonense, 
Straits of San Juan de Fuca: plate 11. fig. 2. 

In the ‘ Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia,’ 
1848, vol. iv. p. 121, Mr. T. A. Conrad described new genera, and gave notes or 
Parapholas Californica, Cryptomya Californica, and Psammobia Californica, 
altering Osteodesma hyalina (nom. preoc.) into Lyonsia Floridana. In the 
same work, March 1854, vol. vii., Mr. Conrad described Cyathodonta undulata, 
He also states that Gnathodon trigonum. Petit, is probably identical with G, 
Lecontei, Conr.[?| (nom. prior), and alters genus T'rigonella to Pachydesma. 


119 




















634 REPORT—1863. 


In the ‘Proc. Boston Ac. Nat. Hist.,’ July 1851, vol. iv. p. 27, Dr. A. A. 
Gould published “ Notes on Californian Shells,” and, in vol. vi. p. 11, described 
Helix ramentosa, California, and Helia damascenus, from the desert east of 
California. 

In the ‘Proceedings Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil.,’? April 1856, vol. viii. pp. 80, 81, 
Dr. Isaac Lea described the following species of new freshwater shells from 
California :— 

Pompholyx effusa. Sacramento River. 
Melania Shastaénsis. Shasta and Scott Rivers. 
Melania nigrina. Clear Creek, Shasta Co. 
Physa triticea, Shasta Co. 

Planorbis Traskit. Wern Lake, Tulan Co. 
Lymnea provima. Axroya, St. Antonio. 
Ancylus patelloides, Sacramento River. 


and offered notes on 


Margaritana margaritifera, Lea,= Alasmodonta falcata, Gld.,= Alasmodonta 
Vubuaénsis, Trask. IXlamath and Yuba. 

Anodonta Wahlamatensis, Lea, =A. triangulata, Trask,+-A. rotundovata, Trask. 
Sacramento River. 

Anodonta angulata, Lea,+A. feminalis, Gld.,+A. Randall, Trask. Upper 
San Joaquin. 

Helix Oregonensis, Lea. Point Cypress, Monterey Co. 

Heliv Nickliniana, Lea. 'Tomales Bay and Dead Man’s Island. 

Helix Californiensis, Lea. Point Cypress. 

Lymnea exigua, Lea. San Antonio Arroya. 

Lymnea pallida, Ad. San Antonio Arroya. 

Physa heterostropha, Say. Los Angeles. 

Melania occata, Hds. Sacramento River. 

Melania (Paludina) seminalis, Hds. Sacramento River, 

Planorbis trivolvis, Say. Horn Lake. 

Planorbis ammon, Gld. Lagoons, Sacramento Valley. 


In the New Series of the ‘Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia’ occur descriptions 
und notes on species, as under :— 


Page. 

1857. Feb. 18. Helix intercisa, W. G. Bin.,= H. Nickliniana, Bin. sen., var. 
Oregon. 

TSS ioe. 19,  Succinea lineata, W. G. Bin. Nebraska. 

1857. June. 165. Mr. T. A. Conrad described the genus Gonidea for A. angu- 
lata, Lea; and for Gonidea Randalit, Trask, and Gonidea 
Jeminalis, Gld.; regarding the three species as probably 
distinct. [Dr. Lea, however, considers them varietal. | 

1858. March. 41. Dr. I. Lea described Planorbis Newberryi. Klamath Lake 
and Canoe Creek, California. 

1860. March. 23.  Melania Newberryi, Lea. Upper Des Chutes River, Oregon, 
Newberry. 


In the “ Notes on Shells, with Descriptions of New Genera and Species,” by 
TY. A. Conrad, reprinted from the ‘Journ. Ac. Nat. Se. Phil.’ Aug. 1849, are 
given the following synonyms, pp. 213, 214:— 


Petricola Californica, Cony.,= Saxicava C., Conr.,= P. arcuata, Desh. 

Petricola carditoides, Conr.,= Sacicava e., Conr.,=P. cylindracea, Desh. 

Siliqua Nuttall, Cony.,= Solecurtus N., Conr.,=Solecurtus maximus, Gld., non 
Wood, =Solen splendens, Chenu. 

Siliqua lucida, Conr.,=Solecurtus 1. Conr.,=Solecurtus radiatus, Gld., non 
Lina, 120 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 635 


Tn his “Synopsis of the Genera Parapholas and Penitella,”’ from the same 
source, p. 335, are given as synonyms— 


Parapholas Californica, Conr., = Pholas C., Conr., = Pholas Janell, Desh. 
Penitella Conradi, Val., = Pholas penita, Conr., = Pholas concamerata, Desh. 
Penitella melanura, Sby., = Penitella Wilsoni, Cony. (not Parapholus bisulcaia), 


In the elaborate but somewhat intricate ‘‘ Monograph of the Order Phola- 
dacea,” &e., by G..W. Tryon, jun., Philadelphia, 1862, the following species 
are quoted from the West Coast, and form the conclusion of the marine shells 
hitherto described, so far as known to the writer :— 

Page. 

49, Rocellaria { Gastrochena] ovata, Shy. Panama, W. I., and Charleston, Stinp= 
son. “ Not the slightest difference between the Pacific and Atlantic speci- 
mens.” 

74. Pholas ( Cyrtopleura) truncata, Say. Massachusetts ; 8. Carolina; Payta, Peru, 
Ruschenberger ; Chili. 
77. Dactylina (Gitocentrum) Chiloénsis, King, 1832,= Ph. laqueata, Sby., 1849. 
Peru, Chili [Panama, Jewett]. Scarcely differs from D. Campechensis,= 
Ph. oblongata, Say, = Ph. Candeana, D’Orb.; Southern U. S., W. I. 
82. Navea subglobosa, Gray, Aun. N. H. 1851, vol. viii. p. 885. California. [“ In 
a hole ina shell. Cabinet Gray.” Neither shell nor authority stated. | 
85. Pholadidea (Hatasia) melanura, Sby. Lower California, = Penitella Wilsonia, 
Conr., J. A. N. Sc. Ph., fig. 4 (non 5). “This error in figuring led Dr, 
Gray to misunderstand both the species and Conrad’s idea of the genus 
Penitella.” { Vide Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1856, p. 265. ] 
87. Penitella penita. [Mr Tryon erroneously quotes (Netastoma) Darwinii, as 
well as Ph. cornea, as synonyms. | 
88. Jouannetia (Pholadopsis) pectinata, Conr.,= Triomphalia pulcherrima, Sby. 
“ California” [no authority]; W. Columbia. 
127. “ Pholas retifer, Morch, Mal. Blatt. vii. 177, Dec. 1860. One broken right 
valve. Hab. Real Llejos.” = Dactylina (Gitocentrum) Chiloénsis, Kine { teste 
Tryon ]. 


112. The following Table contains a complete list of all the Molluses which 
have been identified, from Vancouver Island to 8. Diego, arranged so as to 
show at the same time their habitat, and the principal collectors who have 
obtained them. The species in the first column were obtained by Prof. 
Nuttall; in the second, by Col. Jewett. The third column (marked B A.) 
contains the species tabulated from other sources in the First Report. Those 
to the right of the double column are the fresh explorations recorded in this 
Supplementary Report. The fourth column contains the shells brought by 
the Pacific Railroad Expeditions, as well as the species sent to the officers of 
the Smithsonian Institution by the Rev. J. Rowell and their various corre- 
spondents. The fifth column (‘ Ken.’) contains the species of the American, 
and the sixth (‘ Lord’) of the British Nort Pacifie Boundary Survey. The 
seventh records the collections of Mr. Swan and his Indian children; the 
last, those of Dr. Cooper in the Californian Geological Survey. As a large 
proportion of the species are as yet unknown, and the diagnoses will be found 
scattered in various periodicals, some of which are rarely accessible in this 
country, it has been judged needful to add a few words of description, with 
references to well-known books. By this means the student will have before 
him a compact handbook of the fauna, and will distinguish at a glance the 
range of localities, and the amount of authority for each. For the full 
synonymy, the previous pages of the two Reports must be consulted. 


121 


636 REPORT—1863. 


Results of the Explorations in the Vancouver and Californian Province. 1864. 
(Omitting the doubtfully located and undetermined species.) 


The letters stand for the localities in which the shells were collected, as 















































follows :— 
V. Vancouver Island, Straits of S.;} M. Neighbourhood of Monterey. 
Juan de Fuca, and adjoining | B. 3 Sta. Barbara. 
shores of Washington Territory, | D. The region between S. Diego and 
formerly known as ‘ Oregon.’ S. Pedro. 
P. Puget’s Sound and the neighbour- I. The islands: in the 4th column, 
hood. generally the Farallones; in the 
O. Oregon ; and the region on each side last, the Sta. Barbara group. i 
of the Columbia River. Hi. Species obtained from the backs of 
C. California; or the district north of Haliotids ; locality unknown; | 
the peninsula, generally. probably Lower California, 
L. Peninsula of Lower California. fr. Fragments only. 
F. Neighbourhood of 8S. Francisco. fos. Only found fossil. 
Nutt.| Jew. | B. A. | Smiths. Ins.} Ken. | Lord. Swan, Cooper. 
Defrancia intricata ...... eat wed tas —|—|— D 
Lo Mangula albida 2: » icivieeis os —|/—|/D| — —|—}|—| BD 
2. Rhynconella psittacea ....) — | —}|— | — —| Vv — 
3. Terebratula unguiculus....) — | —|— |) — —|Vi{Vy MD 
4, Waldheimia pulvinata ....}— | — | P || — P| — — 
5. Californica ........ S| Coal eterna ea 
| 6. GQIBAYI: - Seisies:ssassiere, Shee —/}—|— | — —| —|— i 
| 7. Terebratella Coreanica....)— |—]|— || — —|—|V — 
| 8. GAUTENG) Gans tn austasse oe Seer RPE ANNAN Piles, Wade ey ie, eek 
9. Xylotrya pennatifera ....;—|—|—]| F —|;—|;Vi — 
10. HMDIOtAS os .sos4-< cer: —}/—;}-—-] —- —; Vi— | — 








! 

' 

| Guide to the Diagnosis of the Vancouver and Californian Shells. 

| Class Potyzoa. Family Discoporide. 

| Defrancia intricata, Busk. Maz. Cat. no. 18. From Southern fauna The re- 
| maining species in this class have not yet been determined. 

: 


| Class PaLtioprancuratTa. Family Lingulide. 
1. Lingula albida, Hds. Voy. Sulph.; Rve., Hanl., Davidson et auct. 20 fm. c. Cp. 


| | Family Rhynconellide. 
2. Rhynconella psittacea, Linn. auct. EK. & W. Atlantic : cireumpolar. 


Family Terebratulide. 


| 3. Terebratulaunguculus,n.s. Like Terebratella caput serpentis in size, shape, and 

| sculpture ; but loop incomplete in adult, as in 7. vtrea. 6-20 fm. not x. Cp. 

| 4, Waldheimia pulvinata, Gld. E.E. Smooth, subglobular, ashy. 80 fm., living, 
Gp:, Cl. 

| 5. ? Waldheimia Californica, Koch, non auct. Colour ashy. Intermediate between 

} Coreanica and globosa, Lam., Rve. (which is Californica, auct. non Koch). 


6. Waldhetmia Grayr, Davidson. _ Very transverse, reddish, deeply ribbed. 

7. Terebratella Coreanica, Ad. & Rye. Voy. Samarang. Size of globosa; reddish. 
=mimata, Gld. Jun. ?=frontalis, Midd., Asia. 

8. Terebratella cawina, Gld. E.E. Like dorsata; subtriangular, ashy, with strong 
or faint ribs. 

















Class LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. Family Teredide. 


9. Xylotrya pennatifera, Blainv. Ann. Nat. Hist. 1860, p. 126. 
10. Xylotrya fimbriata, Jetty. in Ann. Nat. Hist. 1860, p. 126 ;=palmulata, Fbs. & 
Hanl., non Lam, Phil. 99 
12 











ele 
1: 
sds 
14. 
les 
16. 
Te 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
Do 
asGorbulaliteolarrmes sacs 
25. 
26. 


Dt, 
12. 


13. 
14. 


15. 
16. 


17. 


18. 


P19: 


20. 
21. 


22. 


23. 


24. 
25. 
26. 


ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 637 





Nutt.| Jew. | B. A. ||Smiths. Ins.| Ken. Tigra iSeer Cooper. 
Zirphea crispata ........ =| = 
Pholadidea penita ...... B| B 
OVOICER 4. ie .--.| — | D 
Netastoma Darwinii —|— 
Martesia intercalata ...... == 
Parapholas Californica....| B 
Saxicava pholadis........ _— 
Glycimeris generosa ...... — 
Mya truncata... 2.0.7. 025. — 
Platyodon cancellatus ....| B 
B 





= 


Cryptomya Californica 
Schizothzerus Nuttalli.... 
Darina declivis .......... 


Fetal eye | Seis es 


Spheenia ovoidea ........ 
Newra pectinata ........ os 


4 
[|| | eeertweol| sya! 
= 
Q | 
ae) 
[Porth eos ae tro ro 





Wh 
| 

td 

= 





Family Pholadide. 


Zirphea crispata, Linn. auct. KE. & W. Atlantic and circumpolar. 

Pholadidea penita, Cony. Hani. auct.=concamerata, Desh. Shape from elongate 
to ovoid ; umbonal reflexion closely adherent. 

Proladidea ovoidea, Gld. Otia. _Umbonal reflexion with anterior opening. 

Netastoma Darwinti, Shy. New subgenus: valves prolonged, like duck’s bill 
instead of cups. Surface with concentric frills. Quoted from “S. A.” 

Martesia intercalata, Cpr. Maz. Cat. no. 19. From Southern fauna. 

Parapholas Californica, Cony. Hanl. auct.=P. Janellii, Desh. Very large; 
with layers of thin, short cups. 


Family Saxicavide. 


Saxicava pholadis, Linn. auct.+var. arctica, Linn. auct. Maz. Cat. no. 23-+-var. 
gastrochenoidea, ovoid and gaping like Maz. Cat. no. 21+-var. legumen, Desh., 
elongate, cylindrical, scarcely gaping. 

Glycimeris generosa, Gld. H.E. Perhaps = Panopea Faujasti, 8. Wood, Crag 
Moll. : pipes ike Saxicava. 


Family Myade. 
Mya truncata, Linn. auct.= M. precisa, Gld. Atlantic: cireumpolar. 
Platyodon cancellatus, Cony. Hanl. Pipe-ends 4-valved. Low water: common. 
Sold in 8. Francisco market, Cp. 
Cryptomya Californica, Conr. Outside like young Mya; mantle-bend nearly 
obsolete. 


Subfamily Zutrarine. 


Schizotherus Nuttalli, Conr.+ Tresus maximus, Midd. Gray= TZ. canar, Gld. 
Shape from ovoid to elongate; very large and tumid ; beaks swollen ; hinge- 
sides channeled ; mantle-bend joined to ventral line. 

Darina declivis, n.s. Outside like Machera. Cartilage-pits produced, gaping. 


Family Corbulide. 


Corbula luteola, n. s. peak of young biradiata ; small, ashy yellow. Com. Cp. 
Sphenia oveidea,n.s. Siphonal area small; front excurved ; mantle-bend large. 
Neera pectinata, n.s. Principal ribs about 12; beak smooth. Like sedcuta, 
40-60 fm. Cp, 
123 


eee 


638 : REPoRT— 1863. 





27 


28, 
29. 
3Q, 
> {Phivacie’ curta ...... 6. «<4 - 
. Lyonsia Californica ...... 


Bie 


38. 
oo. 
40. 
41. 
42. 


bo 
“I 


37. 


. Mytilimeria Nuttalli 
. Plectodon scaber ........ 
37. 


[ | 1 >> ara 
Nutt. | Jew. |B. A. |Smiths. Ins.’ Ken. | Lord. Iwan Cooper. 
| | 

















. Clidiophora punctata B 
Jxennerlia filosa.......... — 
bicarinata ......0% 0's: — 
Periploma argentaria ....| D 
B 

IS 





Vv 
Vv 
V 


elt eisin 


Entodesma saxicola. . 
intlatal. othe 











Wea 


C 
Solen sicariiS ......+.2- — 
b. V. TOSACEUS "Sh... one — 
Solecurtus Californianus ..| B 
swbsteres' | Sa. hek sno. B 
Machera patula ........ OB 
Sanguinolaria Nuttalli..../ D 
Psammobia rubroradiata ..) C 








| foeresiceer teat ta espace bake k-| 
peace alee| 
eee Clare isheka 
Pe bP Fo le Foote fh Foie) fen] 
| 
et (oho it 
a, La 
SUES Pa ke si eaiLe 


oO 














Family Pandoride. 


. Clidiophora punctata,n.g. (Type of genus= Pandora claviculata, P. Z.S. 1855, 


. 228.) Teeth 3, posterior long, with ossicle. Conr.sp.; like CZ. trilineata 
) T one! } ’ 
but teeth more divergent ; inside strongly punctate. 


8. Kennerlia filosa, n.s. New subgenus of Pandora with ossicle: outer layer ra- 


diately grooved. Shell beaked. 


. Kennerlia bicarinata, n.s. Not beaked; 2 post. keels in conyex valve. 40-60 


fm.r. Cp. May prove=P. bilirata, Conv. 


Family Anatinide. 


_ Periploma argentaria, Cony. Hanl. Large, subquadrate. 
. Thrucia earta, Cony. Hanl. Strong, subovate. 
2. Lyonsia Californica, Cony. Hanl.+bracteata+ nitida,Gld. Outline variable : often 


close to Atlantic J. Floridana: striated external layer fugacious. 


3. Entodesma saxicola, Baird. Subgenus of Lyonsia: animal nestling, irregular. 


Close to E. cuneata, Ad. & Rve. Form protean: britcle, thick, lurid, with 
enormous ossicle. Var. cylindracea has the form of Saxicava pholadis. 


. Entodesma inflata, Cony.=diaphana, Cpr. P.Z.S. 1855, p. 228. From Southern 


fauna. Like picta, but pale, without pinch. 


. Mytilimeria Nuttalli, Cony. Hanl. ? Subgenus of Lyonsca: rounded, with spiral 


umbos. 


. Plectodon scaber, n. g.,n.s. Shape of Theora: dorsal margins twisted-in spirally 


inside umbos. Lateral teeth laminated, with internal cartilage hidden, ap- 
pressed. 2 1. valves, 40-60 fm. Cp. 


Family Solenide. 
Solen sicarius, Gld. Otia. Nearly straight, rather short, truncated, 


376. Solen ? var. rosaceus, Straight, narrower, longer, smaller ; glossy, rosy. 


38. 


39, 
49, 


4l. 
42, 


Family Solecurtide. 

Solecurtus Californianus, Cony. Hanl. May be a var. of the Peruvian ? Dombeyz. 
Yellowish ash, with ventral parallel grooves. A ?var. without grooves closely 
resembles gibbus. 

Soleeurtus subteres, Conr. Hanl. Small, compact, with violet rays. 

Machera patula, Dixon= 8S. marimus, Wood = grandis, Gmel. = Siliqua Nuttalli 
? +lucida, Conr. (var. jun.) Asia. 

Family Tellinide. 
Sinquinolaria Nuttalli, Conr. Han).= Psammobia decora, H1s. Flat, rounded. 
Psammobia rubro-radiata, Nutt. Large: shape of vesperdiva: rayed with lilae. 


124 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 659 


t 






























































Nutt. | Jew. | B. A. ||Smiths. Tns.| Ken. | Lord. Swan: Cooper. | 
43, Macoma secta ........4- Di) Dil Seam, Wyss Fale | 
43 6. DeCCUIAS) (she e'e's sie Oo |—|— PO P|}—|— = 
44. WAC OWAEH outs 's a slate'< —/|—|— -- —|—-—|— D 
45. yoldiformis ........ hb | pose P|—|V D 
46. BASU bays «) .-cMabacclessatdtes @D,)--D- OCF VBOR Bs ve) Vi MD 
47. inquinata ........5.. —}—}O0O O P|—|V F 
47d. SOUCHEUIA'..03.,chershicte« —;—-—-|—-—}] — —|—|V — 
48. Us POX PANSA wisie's'e slo als « =| — _— P |—|— — 
49. INEOUSPICUAs. 21s fas Oo };—/!— OF Bl pavea hiv FM 
50. Angulus modestus ...... — | — | — — P}|—|]— — 
506. Obtusus\... 4... —|—|— D P|—|V D 
51. Vale cau semper tetetel —}—|}—] — —|—|V MI 
52. hora hang) eyes ect sysstens —|—|— DL —|—|— D 
53. Mera salmonea ....| — |—|— |} F —|—|V M 
54. Tellina Bodegensis ...... — |—/}|OF O —|—|V D 
55. Arcopagia lamellata..) — | — | — — —/|—|— D 
56, C&dalia subdiaphana...... —|-|— —|—|— — 
57. Cooperella scintilleeformis .. — | — | — — —|—|-- DI 
oe-. Lutricola alba, ...... 0... B;}/B;}Cy; — —|—}— Dis 


43. Macoma secta,Conr. Hanl. Large,flat,rounded, glossy; winged behind ligament. 

436. Macoma var. edulis, Nutt. Northern form, less transverse; texture dull. 

44. Macoma indentata,n.s. Like secta, jun., but beaked, indented, and ventrally 
produced. 

45. Macoma yoldiformis,n.s. Small, white, glossy, very transverse ; ligament-area 
scooped-out. 

46. Macoma nasuta, Conr. auct.+tersa, Gld. Large, beaked, twisted; mantie- 
bend touching opposite scar in one valve. From Kamtschatka to S. Diego. 
Cape Lady Franklin, 76°, Belcher, 1826. 3 ft., mud, between tide-marks, 
Lord. 

47. Macoma inquinata, Desh. P. Z. 8.1854, p. 357. Like degraded nasuta; mantle- 
bend a little separated from scar in both valves. 

47 b. Macoma ?edentula, Brod. & Sby. jun. ; or an abnormal var. of inquinata. 

48. Macoma ?var. expansa. Scars like lata and calcarea in Mus. Cum., but teeth 
not bitid, very thin, glossy. Scarcely differs from data, Desh. in B. M. 
Greenland. 

49. Macoma inconspicua, Br. & Sby.= Sang. Californiana, Conr. Probably =“ Fa- 
bricti= fragilis, Faby.” in Mus. Cum. Like thin, flat solidwa: pink; var. 
large, white. 8-15 fm. Lyall. 

50. Angulus modestus, n.s. (Subg. of Tellina.) Like tener, Say; but with callus 
between mantle-bend and scar. White. 

59b. Angulus ?var. obtusus. Inside like modestus; but beaks obtuse. 

51. Angulus variegatus, n.s. Shape of obtusus: no callus; rayed with pink and 
yellow. 20-60 fm. r. Cp. 

52. AngulusGouldii, Hanl. MS. in Mus. Cum. Small, white; ant. ventr. side swollen. 

53, Mera salmonea, n.s. (Scarcely differs from Angudlus.) Small, subquadrate, 
glossy, salmon-tinted. Beach-20 fm. Cp. 

54. Tellina Bodegensis, Hinds, Voy. Sulph. Large, strong, transverse, with con- 
centric grooves. 

55. Arcopagia lamellata, Maz. Cat. no. 58. One fine pair in shell washings. 

56. Gidalia subdiaphana, n.g.,n.s. Thin, swollen, shape of Kellia, ligament sur- 
apundiaig beaks: hinge with 5 bifid teeth (3-2); no laterals; large mantle- 

end. 

57. Cooperella scintilleformis, n. s. New subgenus of Cidalia, Cartilage semi- 
internal: only 1 tooth bifid. 

58. Lutricola alta, Conr. (Tellina). For this group (= Capsa, “Bose,” Add. non 
Lam.), scarcely agreeing with either Macoma or Scrobicularia, Blainville’s 


125 





640 REPORT—1863. 





Jew. iB. A. Smiths. Ins. Ken. Lord. Swan. Cocper. | 


| Nutt. 





























59. Semele decisa .......... 
TUNPUULIMS tate 0 vo.sci ce ees 
ie ate Rivets levee 
PULCHTA”. or ws o 0:00.06 
: INCONETUA .-...6 store 
64. Cumingia Californica ... 
65. Donax Californicus ...... 
HIOXUOSUS | sey erene jeter 
Maviculay Jo acias sane 
GS. Heterodonax bimaculatus 
69. Standella Californica 
MASUR A iec se ci ates 
planulata. . cscs ss. 
faleatan=.. we Richeretete 
72. Racta undulata. 4 sc.t 
3. Clementia subdiaphana 
4, Amiantis callosa ........ 
5. Pachydesma crassatelloides} BD 
6. Psephis.tantilla 222% cscs: — 














See] HS 








Vileeseie lee eS fe cts 


V fr. 














Bt | eee] aces | | elie 
rll ll lateel Slisltt 


eet lle Wiel leslie este i leslte lal 


Vv 


= 


V fr. 


ae 


Boe! | -|-|- elm kSdtepeics 


raeieme ores Wel hele Wee ledleslael sie 





Joolerlallilalllitel 


On 
Se Sees] SeSeiee | 


synonymic name may be revived in restricted sense. Species=brangulata, 
P. Z.S. 1855, p. 230. 

59. Semele decisa, Cony. auct. Large, rough, like Peruvian corrugata, but truncated. 

GO, Semele rupium, Sby. Smaller, rough, swollen; with smaller mantle-bend. 
Galapagos. Not r. Cp. 

61. Semele rubroiineata, (? Conr.). Flattened, same shape, with faint sculpture each 
way, and pink rays. {Conrad’s lost shell may be young decisa. | 

62. Semele pulchra, Sby. Transverse, crowded concentric sculpture, with radiating 
lines at sides. Southern fauna. 

63. Semele incongrua, n.s. Like pulchra, with concentric sculpture differing in r 
and 1. valves: fine radiating striz all over. 40-60 fm. c. Cp. 

64. Cumingia Californica, Cony. auct. Maz. Cat. no. 44. 

65. Donax Californicus, Cony. (non Desh.) =obesus, Gld. (non Desh.). Smooth, 
stumpy: outline and colour variable. 

66. Donax flecuosus, Gld. Like punctostriata jun. with stronger keel, and no 
punctures. 

67. Donax navicula, Sby. Maz. Cat. no. 77. From Southern fauna. 

68. Hetervdonax bimaculatus. Broad var., generally violet,= Psammobia Pacifica, 
Conr.= Tellina vicina, C. B. Ad. Cape St. Lucas, Acapulco, W. Indies. 


Family Mactride. 
69. Standella Californica, Cony. (non Desh.). Large, shaped like Schiz. Nuttalli, but 
beaks narrow. Mantle-bend separate from ventral line. 
69 b. Standella ? var. nasuta, Gld. (suppressed). Revived for young shells between 
Californica and planulata, till more is known. 
70, Standella planuata,Conr. Nearly as large ; shape approaching Mactrella exoleta, 
71. Standella falcata, Gld. Otia. Shape like planulata, but flatter. 
72. Raéta undulata, Gld. Otia. Like the Atlantic R. canaliculata, but reversed, 
Rare at S. Pedro, Cp. ' 
Family Veneride. 
73. ?Clementia subdiaphana, n.s. Hinge normal, very thin, ashy. 
74, Amiantis callosa, Cony. (not auct.). Subgenus of Callista: hinge-plate rough- 
ened as in Mercenaria: mantle-bend as in Dosinia. L. w. com. Cp. - 
76. Pachydesma crassatelloides, Conr. auct. Subgenus of Trigona, with fewer teeth : 
jun. = stultorum, Gray. 
76. Psephis tantilla, Gld. Otia. Subgenus of Venus: animal ovoviviparous. Teeth 
elongate, approaching Pachydesma. Small,with purple spot. 12-20tm.c. Cp, 


126 










































































| 
| 


ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 641 
Nutt.) Jew. | B. A. | Smiths. Ins Ken. | Lord. Swan.| Cooper. 
77. Psephis Lordi ..........| — | — | — — Faia la Vi I 
ii salmonea ..eeeeee.-| — | — | — — —— |i | DI 
7£ tellimyalis ........]| — | — | — I —|—|— — 
80. Venus Kennerleyi........] — | — | — — P|;—|V — 
MPO HIONS SUCCINCLS. .6o0600-| OD | D |, C — —|}—|— D 
82. —— excavata ......-...| D | — | — — Ste ell aa 
83. ANIA 5 clsre secre aly Leal C L —|—/]— D 
84. fluctifraga.........-| D | D| C D —}—}|— D 
85. Tapes tenerrima ........|— | B | F F —|—|V D 
86. Naeintabay lelete shee ees-| —]|—] M D —|—|— D 
87., SEAMING yh ptesarslevcis's DE|/| Puls k FD —|— FD 
87 6. VOTE UUbA Tee elere) get —}—j|C | VPOM| P| V)|V FM 
87. var. ruderata ......| — | —|— ||. — —j;—|V = 
88. Saxidomus aratus........} — | — | — F —|—|— FD 
89. Nuthin 3e pt. 6 2-si0 Dy) Da C — —|—|— FD 
90 SQUBLGNIS >. sa:-1'e-s:clele's == Et Ol VPOE PR alioWis| avi — 
91 brevisiphonatus ....) — | — | — — —|Vi— — 
92. Rupellaria lamellifera ....] D | M | C D —/|—|— M 
93. Petricola carditoides ....}] BD |MB]| C F P|—|V M 
94, Chama exogyra..... serere<( Dep CO LH | —/]—|]— D 
95 pellrerd ae es <0» late Ba Bal. MD |—/]}—!—J| FMD 
77. Psephis Lordi, Baird, P. Z.S. 1863. Teeth normal: pure white. 20-40 fm. e. Cp. 


81. 
82. 


83. 
St. 
85. 


86. 
. Tapes staminea, Cony. Strong, shape of decussatu; sculpture close ; yellowish. 


88. 
89. 
90. 


91. 


. Psephis salmonea, n.s. Very small, rounded, teeth elongate: salmon-coloured, 


30-40 fm. r. Cp. 


. Psephis tellimyalis, n.s. Shape of Tellimya: central tooth minute; outside 


89. 


teeth long. 

Venus Kennerleyi, Rve. Large, transverse, flattened, ashy: strong cone. ribs. 
Young like astartea, Midd. (not fluctuata, Gld.). 

Chione succincta, Val.= Californiensis, Brod. = Nuttalli, Conr. Cone. ribs smooth. 

Chione excavata, Cpr. P.Z.S, 1856, p. 216. Scarcely differs from cancellaia, 
Possibly exotic. 5 

Chione simillima, Sby. Finely sculptured each way. 

Chione fluctifraga, Sbhy.+-callosa, Sby. Like Stutchburyi: swollen, irregular. 

Tapes tenerrima, Cpr. P. Z. 8. 1856, p. 200, (jun.)= V. rigida, Gld. pars, f. 538, 
Very large, thin, flat; long pointed sinus. 

Tapes lacinata, n.s. Large, swollen, brittle, ashen; sculpture pectinated. 


Var. diversa, Sby.=mundulus, Rve. More swollen, clouded with chocolate. 
Var. Petitii, Desh.=rigida, Gld. pars. Dead white, sculpture strong or faint, 
open or close. 2 ft. deep in mud, between tides, Lord. Var. tumida, Sby. 
Very swollen. Var. orbella, rounded, globose. Var. ruderata, Desh. Con- 
centric sculpture laminated. 

Saridomus aratus, Gld. Otia. Very large, oval, with regular concentric ridges. 

Saxidomus Nuttall, Cony. auct. Transverse, subquadrate, irregularly grooved. 

Sarxidomus squalidus, Desh. Large, variable outline, broader, scarcely sculp- 
tured. 

Saridomus brevisiphonatus, n.s. Smaller, Callista-shaped ; close, faint concen- 
tric lines over distant waves; mantle-bend very small. 


Family Petricolide. 


. Rupellaria lamellifera, Cony.= Cordieri, Desh. With large concentric lamina. 


No radiations. 


. Petricola carditodes, Conr.+ Californica, Conr.+-cylindracea, Desh. --arcuata, 


Desh.+gzbba, Midd. Of various aspects, like Saricava. Normally shaped 
like Cypricardia, with fine sculpture like Naranio. 


Family Chamide. 


‘te Chama exogyra, Conr. Reversed ; texture opaque; rudely frilled. 
05. 


Chama pellucida, Sby. Dextral, texture pozcellanous, rosy ; closely frilled. S.A, 
1863, 127 








642 RePorT—1863. 


















































| LNutt. Jew.| B.A. } ‘Smiths, Ins.| Ken. Lor .|Swan. [seco Cooper | 
or S| | t 
| . 

1 46,(Cbama Spinosa wi... 2.00 —|-—|-— — —|—!|—| Pv | 
| 97, Cardium corbis........ . |OB} — |} OC} VPOF | P| V | V 1 

W8. quadragenarium ....| B | — | — D —|}—/|-— D 

99, var. blandum ...... |—|—|P — PV Ov oe 
100, var. centifilosum ....| —|— |] — ||) — —|—|] — I 
101. Hemicardium biangulatum| — | — | — — —|;—|—]| I 
162. Serripes Greenlandicus....| — | — | — _ Pj—;—! — 
103. Liocardiwn elatum ......) — | — | — — —/—;—! D 
104, —— substriatum ..... Sool ates © —~ —|— |} — D 
105. Astarte compacta........ —}—|— — P|—|— a 
1086, Esquimalti ........| — | — | — _ —|Vji— os 
107. —— fluctuata .......... —= | — | — —_ —}—|/— if | 
18. Miodon prolongatus......| — | — | — — —;—|V Re 
169. Venericardia borealis ..../ — | — | — — —|Vj|— I 

109 b, var. ventricosa ....| — |B fs.) P — P}|—}— I 
110, Lazaria subquadrata...... —|Bi— Hf —{—]| Vj} MDI 
1 -ucinas Ngaio... a. D|—|]— — —|/—|— b 

112. —— Californica ........ D|B}]— D —|}—|— I | 
118. Delle rapis.. ats sie e cite D|—|— _ —|—}|— — 
114. tenuisculpta........ —|—/;— — P}—{|— DI 





96. Chama spinosa, Sby. Ridges broken into close short spines. Maz. Cat. no. 122. 


Family Cardiade. 
97. Cardium corbis, Mart.=Nuttalli+ Californianum, Cony. Large, earthen, rather 
nodulous; posterior margin strongly indented by 2 first ribs. Asia. 8-15 fm. 
Lyall. Jun. in stomach of starfish, 12 fm. Lord. 
98. Cardium quadragenarium, Conr.=luteolabrum (=xanthocheilum), Gld. Very 
large; 40 ribs, with aculeate spines. 
99. Cardium vav. blandum, Gld. Otia. Delicate form of the Asiatic psexdofossile, 
tve.= Californiense, Desh. ‘Transverse; close, flat ribs; margin regular. 
8-15 fm. Lyall. 
100. Cardium var. centifilosum. Probably=modestum, Ad. & Rye. ; but rounder, 
ribs sharper and more distant. Belongs to subg. Fudvia, Gray. 30-40 fm. CG; pe. 
101. Hemicardium biimgulatum, Sby. Southern fauna. 10-20 fin. living. Cp. 
102. Serripes Granlandicus, Chem. auct. Boreal. Rounder than S. Laper ousit. 
103. Liocardium elatum, Sby. Maz. Cat. no. 124. Gulf fauna. Very large, Cp. 
104. Liocardium substriatum, Conr.=cruentatum, Gld. Almost identical with the 
Peruvian Elenense. 
Family Astartide. 
105, Astarte compacta, n.s. Like compressa, but closer; dorsal margins straight, 
at right angles. ; 
106, Astarte E squimalti, Baird, P. Z.S. 1863, p. 70. Subtrigonal; ribs irregular. 
107. ? Astarte fluctuata, n. s. Ver 'y close to Omalii, j jun. of Coralline Crag. 2 right v. 
30-40 fm. Cp. 
108. Miodlon prolongatus, n. g.,n.s. Outside Lucinoid; hinge and scars nearer to 
oe wardia. Congeneriewith A starte orbicularis, J. Sby. Min. Conch. pl. 444. 
2, 3 (non ejusdem, , pl. 520. f. 2). G. Oolite; and with the Crag Cardita corbis. 
109. Ve enericardia bor ealis, Cony. N. Atlantic, from Miocene. 120 fm. Cat. Is. Cp. 
1096. Venericardia vay. ventricosa, Gld. Small, swollen. 30-40 fm. Cp. 
110. Lazaria subquadrata, n.s. Hinge of Lazaria: outside like Cardita variegata, Jun. 
Family Lueinde. 
111. Lucina Nuttall, Conr. Hanl. Like muricata, with more delicate sculpture. 
112. Lueina Californica, Conr. Dosinoid, with waved lunule. Jun. ? = LZ. Artemidis, 
P.Z.S. 1856, p. 201. 
113. Lucina bella, Conv. ee not known; may be =pectinata, Maz. Cat. no. 142, 
Lid. Lucina tennisculpte, n. Like Maxatlanica, Cat. no. 144, more convex, with 
finer sculpture. 4 fin, living, Cp. The island var. is intermediate. 120 fm, 
dead, Cp. 128 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 643 





| Nutt.| Jew. | B. A. |[Smiths. Ins.| Ken. | Lord. Swan. Cooper. 
115. Liveina borealis ........ _ 
116. Cryptodon flexuosus ....] — 
a7. SETTICAGUS, «=» «ie stele _ 
118. Diplodonta orbella ...... B 
119. Kellia Laperousii ...... ae 
1198. var. Chironii | 
120. POUMNOURLA |.) are che ci — 
121. oo 
fe? asea rubra 2... os vets « — 
123. Pythina rugifera........ — 
124. Lepton meroeum ...... — 
125. Tellimya tumida........ _ 

MD 

C 

















— 
— 
~~ e 














| 


126. Pristes oblongus........ 
127. Mytilus Californianus... . 
128, —— edulis ............ 
128 6. —— var. glomeratus .. 
129. Septifer bifurcatus ...... ?C 
130. Modiola capax ........ B 
131. modiolus....s.....| — 
132. 
133. 


PFC 
PC 

FH 
VH 
M 


Fe 
S| 2SS | sheep] Sly] 


(els tel eel leet lee || 


bi<l 1 144i 4ilili<44ii1 | 





PSO} ITOollIil I Il] tort) 


| <| 





lero [= fe [ered |Srot erga: |e sce les) ||| 





CN Or Seale | laine eet ae 























115. Lucina borealis, Linn. auct.+-acutilineata, Conr. Widely diffused, from Coral- 
line Crag. Philippines, teste Cuming. 30-120 fm. Cp. 
116. Cryptodon fleruosus, Mont. auct. Atlantic, circumpolar. Cat. Is. 120 fm. Cp. 
117. Cryptodon serricatus, n.s. Small, circular, flat; epidermis silken. ? Cat. Is, 
Cp. 120 fm. 
Family Diplodontide. 


118. Diplodonta orbella, Gld. Otia.=(Mysia) Spherella tumida, Conr. 


Family Kelhiade. 


119. Kellia Laperousii, Desh. Woodw. Typically large, strong, transverse. 

1196. Kellia var. Chironii. Thinner, less transverse, margins rounded. 

120. Kelhia rotundata, n.s. Larger, flatter, and less pearly than suborbicularis. 
Margin circular. 

121. Kellia suborbicularis, Mont. anct. Maz. Cat. no. 153. N. Atlantic: W. Mexico. 
Kxactly accords with British sp. 30-40 fm. Cp. 

122. Lasea rubra, Mont. auct. Maz. Cat. no. 154. N. Atlantic: W. Mexico. Exactly 
accords with British sp. 

123. Pythin«rugifera, n.s. Large, thin, slightly indented ; teeth minute ; epidermis 
shagey. 

124. Lepton Heroes n.s. Small, shaped like Sunapta. 

125. Tellimya tumida, n.s. Between bidentata and substriata: ossicle minute. 

126. Pristes oblongus, n.g.,n.s. Like Tellimya, with long marginal teeth, serrated 
near hinge. 

Family Mytihde. 
127. Mytilus Californianus, Conr. 9 in. long: stained with sienna : obsoletely ribbed. 
28. Mytilus edulis, Linn. auct.=trossulus, Gid. Abundant on whole coast, with the 

usual Atlantic vars. Between tide-marks, Lord: also brown var. on float- 
ing stick. 

1286, Mytilus ? var. glomeratus, Gld. Otia. Short, stumpy, solid, crowded. 

129. Septifer bifurcatus, Rve. Outside like Mytilus b. Cony. from Sandw. Is, 

150. Modiola capax, Conr. Maz. Cat. no. 170. From Southern fauna. 

131. Modiola modiolus, Linn. auct. Cireumboreal. 8-15 fm. jun. Lyall. 

132. Modiola fornicata, n.s, Short, swollen, like large M. marmorata; but smooth, 
not crenated. 

133. Modiola recta, Conr. 6 in. long, thin, narrow, rhomboidal. Chaff-like hairs 
over glossy epidermis, 

129 





644 








133 6. Modiola var. flabellata. . 
134s 
135. 
136. 
ire 
138. 
139. 
140. 
141. 
142. 
143. 
144. 
145. 
146. 
147. 
148, 


149. 


150. 
151. 


REPORT—1863. 





Wutt| Jew. B, A.'|Smiths. In..] Ken. Tort Swan, Cooper. 


V VP Pi 
Adula falcata ec iec cee: M FM 
SEY MO sls. beers « 
Lithophagus plumula.... 
attenuatus ..0..ee08. 
Modiolaria levigata ... 
MATMOTAL, . 4. cence 
Crenella decussata ...... 
Arca multicostata ...... 
Barbatia gradata ........ 
Axineea intermedia 

var. subobsoleta.... 
Nucula, tenuis (735. ote. 

’ . . 

Acila castrensis ....}| — 
Leda’ ceelatay. strc cee « — 
cuneata ..... age <|) 
——— MINUtA: + .<slese ose — 
LOSSB a noieisvcve efoversyeee —_ 











—| | Selelliol sl 


— 





eat teeth 


Psheb Tseeeheh bates b Pa tee 


feels teetetaledtal ape teat se espeteat 
fhe 


























133 b. Modiola var. flabellata, Gld. Northern form, somewhat broader. 


154. 


135. 


136. 
137. 
138. 


140. 


141. 
142. 
143. 


144. 


145. 
146. 


147. 
148. 
149. 
150. 
151. 


Adula falerta, Gld. Otia. Subgenus enlarged to include species intermediate 
between Modiola and Lithophagus: shape of latter, byssiferous like former, 
nestling in crypts. Sp.=Grunert, Phil. MS. Shape not always falcate: 
chestnut, rugose. 

Adula stylina, n.s. Shorter, broader; epidermis brown, glossy. 

Lithophagus plumula, Hanl. Maz. Cat. no. 175. From Southern fauna. 

Lithophagus attenuatus, Desh. Maz. Cat. no. 173. From Southern fauna. 

Modiolaria levigata, Gray. Exactly accords with Atlantic specimens, Cir 
cumboreal. 


. Modiolaria marmorata, Fbs. & Hanl. Exactly accords with Atlantic speci- 


mens. Circumboreal. 
Crenella decussata, Mont. Exactly accords with Atlantic specimens. Circum- 
boreal. 10-40 fm, not r. Cp. 


Family Arcade. 


Area multicostata, Sby. Maz. Cat. no. 181. 

Barbatia gradata, Sby. Maz. Cat. no. 194. 

Avinea iatermedia, Brod. = Barbarensis, Cony. fossil. Closely accords with 
the Peruvian specimens. 40-60 fm. Cp. 

Axvinea (? septentrionalis, Midd. var.) subobsoleta. Sculpture much fainter than 
in Midd.’s fig. 


From Southern fauna, 


Family Nuculide. 


Nucula tenuis, Mont. auct. Agrees with var. lucida, Gld. Circumboreal. 

Acila castrensis, Hds. Sulph.+Lyalli, Baird. Subg. of Nucula with divari- 
cate sculpture ; only known in Crag and N. Pacitic. 40-60 fm. Cp. 

Leda celata, Hds. Sulph. Swollen, strongly sculptured: teeth very numerous. 
10-60 fm. Cp. 

Leda cuneata, Sby. D’Orb. teste Hanl. (Scarcely differs from commutata, Phil. 
in Mus. Cum.) =?nornata, A. Ad. Chili. O0-60fm. Cp. 

Leda minuta, O. Fabr. teste Hanl. Circumboreal. Agrees with Norwegian 
specimens of ‘‘caudata, Don.” teste M‘Andr. 

Leda fossa, Baird, P. Z.S. 1863, p.71. Between minuta and pernula. Sculp- 
ture nearly obsolete. 

Leda hamata,n.s. Like Steenstrupi and pernuloides, but very hooked, sculp- 
ture strong. 20-60 fm. c. Cp. 30 

if 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 645 


























Nutt.| Jew. | B. A. | Smiths. Ins.| Ken. Lord.|Sw an.| Cooper. 
152. Yoldia lanceolata ......) — | — | — — eas oe 
153. amygdala ........| —}|—|— — Po) — — 
154. Verticordia ornata ...... —|}—|— — —;/;—|— BI 
155. Bryophila setosa........ a re —|-—|—- PC 
156. Lima\orientalis ........ —|—|}— — —/|—|— MDI 
157. Limatula subauriculata ..)| — | — | — — —|}—|— DI 
158. Pecten hastatus ........ —/B|{P — Pe EVV: M 
159. Pvar. Hindsii ...... —;|}—|P — Pa OAVA aA: — 
160, —— var. equisulcatus ..| — | B | — D —|—|— BD 
161. aucicostatus ...... —|{|B{|— — a I 
162. var. latiauritus....| BD} D | C D sf D 
1626. monotimeris ......|BD/} D | C DL aS |) || D 
163. Amusium caurinum ....| — |Cjn.| O vO P|—|V — 
164. Janira dentata.......... —|—|— —- f—}—] — MD 
165, Hinnites giganteus.,....| C | C }| C PM Eye eaves D 
Go: Ostrea lurida 2.45.00... —|{|—|— VPO eV anv F 





152. Yoldia lanceolata, J. Sby. Hanl.= arctica, Brod. & Sby. (Not Adrana 1., Lam. 
G.Sby.) With ant. diagonal lines. 
153. Yoldia amygdala, vay. teste Hanl. Like lanceolata, without posterior wing, 
and anterior sculpture. 
Family ? Trigoniade. 
154. Verticordia ornata, D’Orb.=novemcostata, Ad. & Rve. Samarang. Exactly 
accords with Chinese types. S.A. 20-40 fm. Cp. 


Family Aviculide. 
155. Bryophila setosa, n. g.,n. s., Ann. N. H. 1864, p.10. Like minute, broad Pinna, 
Animal ovoviviparous. Sta Barbara, 20 fm. Cp. 


e 
Family Pectinide. 

156. Lima orientalis, Ad. & Rve., Samarang, in Mus. Cum.= dehiscens, Conr. fossil, 
teste Cp. Very close to young of L. hians, var. tenera. Beach to 20 fm. c. Cp. 

157. Limatula subauriculata, Mont. Fbs. & Hanl. Circumboreal. Fossil in Crag. 
Islands, 40-120 fm. not r.; 8. Diego, 1 valve, 4 fm. Cp. 

158. Pecten hastatus, Sby.=hericeus,Gld. Elongated ; afew principal ribs serrated ; 
ears unequal. In var. rubidus, Hds. (non Mart.), the ribs are equal, not 
serrated. 

159. Pecten (? var.) Hindsit. Broader; ribs close, small, smooth, bifurcating. 
Passes from hastatus towards Islandicus. 

160. Pecten equisulcatus,?n.s. Thinner and flatter than ventricosus, with narrower 
ribs. 

161. Pecten paucicostatus, ?n.s. Somewhat resembling very young caurinus; but 
ribs fewer, stronger. 

162. Pecten latiauritus, Cony. (pars). Ribs sharply defined, with sharp concentric 
lamine. Possibly an extreme form of 

1626. Pecten monotimeris, Conr. = tunica, Phil.+Jatiauritus, Conr. pars. Passes into 
Amusium. Very slanting, thin, with faint ribs. 

163. Amusium caurinum, Gld. E.E. Large, flat, thin, very inequivalve. Var.= 
Yessoensis, Jay. Japan. 

164. Janira dentata, Shy.=excavata, Val. Ven. Like media. From the Gulf fauna. 
Beach-20 fm. Cp. 

Family Spondylide. . 

65, Hinnites giganteus, Gray, Analyst.= Pow/soni, Conr. Very large, Spondyloid: 

ligament as in Pedum, strongly adherent along the ears. 


Family Ostreide. 
66. Ostrea lurida, n.s. Shape of edulis: texture dull, lurid, olivaceous, with purple 
stains, 2-3 fm. on mud flats, Lord. 


131 



































| 646 rEPoRT—] 863. 
| | Nutt.! Jew. | B. A.| Smiths. ins.) hen, | Lora.|/Swan.| Cooper. 
Ct 1665. Ostrea var. laticaudata ..| — | — | — — —|—|— F 
| 166e. var. rufoides ...... —;/—|— D —|—|— D 
| L6G6d. var. expansa ...... | =A, =.) — — —|}— D 
| 167. conchaphila ..{ma D | —| C L —|/—/— D 
| 168. Placunanomia macroschis- — | — | OC VF Pavol F 
| 169. Anomia lampe..........| — | — | © L —a en D 
| 170. Cavolina telemus ...... | —/—)|/— _— Vi-— I 
| 171. Bulla nebulosa ........ Be Dl ec DL —|}—|— DI | 
| 172. QUOYIis ec aiseleun meee eee ies L —}|—|— D 
} 173. Haminea hydatis........ Le eee aw & P;Vj—| — 
174. V.ESICU As fe ,apatyeterarete aol ans — a D 
175, virescens .......... }—|—|C D hee 
= Philinid 0... eee | ej ee eect pee a aed ee 
rs 86 =| Pye ai auaaloaers ewan —|—|— _— P|—|— — 
176, Reine punctocwelata. . — I —};—|— D 
177. Tornatina culcitella A a pe _ —|—|]— MI 











1666. Ostrea var. laticaudata, Nutt. MS. Purple, winged, waved: denticles near 
hinge. Passes towards palmula, Maz. Cat. no, 214, 5. 

166¢. Ostrea ? var. rufoides=rufa, Gd. (non Lam.). Passing towards Virginica, jun. 
Thin, with umbos hollowed ; reddish in scar-region. Also fossil. 

166d. Osfrea’ ? var. expansa. Flat, affixed to whole surface, like Columbiensis. 
Round, or winged to left, or right, or both, like Malleus. Also passes into 

167. Ostrea conchaphila, Cpr. Maz. Cat. no. 214, From Southern fauna. 


Family Anomiade. 

168. Placunanomia macroschisma, Desh. Kamtschatka. Vars.=alope+cepio, Gray. 
Shape most variable, according to station. Sculpture often obsolete. On 
rock, between tides, Zord. 

169. Anomia lampe, Gray, Maz. Cat. no. 219. From Southern fauna. 


Class PTEROPODA. Family Hyaleide. 
170. Cavolina telemus, Linn. = Hyalea tridentata, Forsk. non Lam. Pelagie. 30-60 
fm. dead, Cp. 
[Other Piesopods were brought by the Brit. N. P. Boundary Survey, but may 
have been collected on the voyage: v. p. 607. | 


Class GASTEROPODA. 
Subclass OpISTHOBRANCHIATA. Order TECTIBRANCHIATA. 


Family Bullide. 
171. Bulla nebulosa, Gld. Otia. Large, globular, thin. Maz. Cat. no. 225+var. 
fulminosa, Cp. 
172. Bulla Quoy yt, Gray. Small: angular at umbilicus. Maz. Cat. no. 226. Pacific. 
173. Haminea hydatis, Linn. auct. ‘Exactly accords with European specimens. 
174. Haminea vesicula, Gld. Otia. Smaller, paler, and thinner. 
175. Haminea virescens, Sby. Gen. Var. =cymbiformis, Maz. Cat. no. 229. 


Family ? Philinde. 
Two species not yet dissected: one with internal shell like Phanerophthalmus. 


Family Tornatellide. 
176. Tornatella punctocelata,n.s. Small: grooved with rows of dots: pillar twisted 
as in Bullina, Add. non Gray. 


Family Cylichnide. 
177. Tornatina culcitella, Gld. Otia. Large, brownish, with faint strie. Fold close 
to paries. 
132 






























































ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 647 

| Rate ieee sea oeetaitna ltcen: j Hora, Sean Cooper. 
177). Tornatina cerealis ...... —!|} B}] — — = iP ==] 
178. XAG A eS avapory —}—}]— -- Tea Ay | ai 

| 179. CANINDER bisects —|—|]— _ _— | —- | ~—- ] 
180. Cylichna ?cylindracea ..| — | B | — — —)—)— | MDI 
1800. var. attonsa.......- —{—]|— == Palast ifs — 
181. planata .....0..--| — | — | — D —|—|/—}; — 

1 182. INCU tay elec ~--| —|—!| D D en | ee 
183. Volvula cylindrica ...... —|B}— — eee tec 
184, Neaplysia Californica....| — | — | — — -—-|—|{—! D 
185. Nayarchus inermis ...... —}|—}|— — — | — | — | DI 
186, PleurophyllideaCalifornic.) — | — | — — —|—|— D 
187. Doris sanguinea ........ Sait tase —)/—|— DI 

| 188. alabastvina ........| — | — | — — —|—|— D 

; 189. albopunctata ...... SS _ —|—]— BI 
190. Sandiegensis ...... Sed ees _— —|—|— DI 
191. Montereyensis...... 9 SS _— —|—j|—] FMI 
192. Triopa Cataline ........ — |=} — == =| =| I 
193. Tritonia Palmeri........| — | — | — — | D 
194. Dendronotus iris ..... eee} — PE — ft — — —|—|}— B 
195. AXolis Barbarensis ...... —}|—} — — —|—|]— B 
196. Phidiana iodinea..... sea) == | Ses — —|—)}— BD 
197, Flabellina opalescens ....) — | — | — Sat atl ame 
198. Chiorzera leonina........ ce | ea — Se B 
199. Melampus olivaceus ....} — | — | C DL |—|—|— DI 
200. Pedipes liratus.......... — | — | — L —|—|— D 
201. Siphonaria Thersites ....) — | — | — — —= |=.) V a 











177. Tornatina cerealis, Gld. Otia. Small, white, smooth: but probably = worn 
young culcitella. 

178. Tornatina eximia, Baird, P. Z.S. 1863, p. 67. Size moderate: fold appressed : 
subrectangular. 

179. Tornatina carinata, Maz. Cat. no. 223. 

130. Cylichna ?cylindracea, Linn. auct. Intermediate specimens, passing into 

1800. Cylichna var. attonsa, rounded off at apex. 

181. Cylichna planata, n.s. Like mamillata, with apex flattened-off, and foid distinct, 

182. Cylichna inculta, Gld. Otia. 

133. Volvula cylindrica, n.s. Like grain of rice, pointed at one end. 


Family Aplysiade. 
184, Neaplysia Ca ‘alifornica, Cp. Proc. Cal. Ac. 15 inches long. 
185. Navarchus inermis, Cp. Proc. Cal. Ac. Grasses, on shore, Cp. 


Family Pleurophyllidiade. 
186. Pleurophyllidea Californica, Cp. Proc. Cal. Ac. Sandy flats, Cp. 


Order NUDIBRANCHIATA. 
187-198. All the new Nudibranchs are described in the Proce. Cal. Ac. Vide asta, 
p. 609. Vide also Gld.’s Otia, and Esch. Zool. Atlas. 


Subclass PULMONATA. 
For land and freshwater species, both of Pulmonates, Rostrifers, and bivalves, 
vide posted, paragraphs 115-119. 
Family Auriculide. 
199, Melampus olivaceus, Cpr. Maz. Cat. no. 235. 
200. Pedipes liratus, Binn. Proc, Ac. N.S. Phil. 186i, p. 338, 
Familiy Siphonariade. 
201. Siphonaria Thersites, nu. 3, Like /ateralis: with styong lung-rib and obsolete 
scupture, 
133 


206. 
207, 


208. 
209. 
210. 
















































































REPORT— 1863. 
Nutt.) Jew. | B. A. \Smiths, Ins. Ken. | Lord. Swan.| Cooper. 
A aa AR ea te Se I bee a ete el 2 a 

. Dentalium v. Indianorum | — | — | P — Te ea MI 
MECUIUSY ec sib wee —}|—]} — — |e — 
semipolitum ...... —/—|— — —/—|]— D 

: hexagonum........ —/{/—|]— — —;{/—|]— D 
. Cryptochiton Stelleri....) — | C ]oc |] FMI | P| vy V I 
. Katherina tunicata...... —!i—!0 OF Oe Woy! I 
» Lonicia Jimeata......0... —/—!C PFM | P| V!| Vv — 
submarmorea ...... —|—}]— O —|{—/vVvV — 

. Mopalia muscosa........ Mir PP) ORME Sia: I 
Wosnessenskii .,..| —}| — | © _ —}|Vi— — 
Kennerleyi ...... of —f}—f|— — P|—!/V _ 

Car. Wabi... ess —}—/}]— — —/|!—!|V — 

. ——Hindsii ..,....... —|—|— F PA — 
| ———— SIMPSON) .. 4 6. 2 —/|—!|C — —|}—|— ~~ 
vespertina: ........ —/{|—/|P F P|—|V _ 

- ——— ONO Sas tars a nee. —!|—/PM O P|}—!V _— 
BOULBT Si. aevere io cus 2G M }—}— _— —|/—|;— — 
SNUG ei gcc bee. —;—}]— _ eee —= 

Seats earn —};—/}]— — Paani — 








Subclass PRosoBRANCHIATA. Order LATERIBRANCHIATA. 


Family Dentaliade. 


- Dentalium (? pretiosum, Nutt. Sby. var.) Indianorum. Like entalis, with very 


fine posterior striz. 20 fm. e. Cp. 


3. Dentalium rectius,n.s. Long, thin, slightly curved : like eburneum, Singapore, 
- Dentalium semipolitum, Br. & Sby. P=Ayalinum, Phil. not Maz. Cat. no, 245, 


From Southern fauna. 


- Dentalium hexagonum, Sby. From Southern fauna. 


Order ScuTIBRANCHIATA. Family Chitonide. 


Cryptochiton Stelleri, Midd. Very large : valveshidden. Reaches Sta Cruz 769. 
Katherina tunicata, Shy. = Douglasie, Gray. Mantle smooth, black: valves 
partly concealed. Between tide-marks, Lord. Reaches Farallone Is. Cp. 
Tonicia lineata, Wood. Closely resembling lineolata, Peru. Painting variable. 

Tonicia submarmorea, Midd. Perhaps= lineata, var. without lines. 

Mopalia muscosa, Gd. E. E. = C. ornatus, Nutt. (=armatus, J ay) +consimilis, 
Nutt. Highly sculptured: mantle crowded with strong hairs. Between 
tide-marks, Lord. 


- Mopalia Wosnessenskii, Midd. Mantle slit behind, with few hairs. Sculp- 


ture like muscosa. 


- Mopalia Kennerleyi, n. s.= Grayi, antea, p. 603, nom. preoc. Sculpture fainter: 


olive with red: ridge angular ; post. valve waved. 


212b.Mopalia Kennerleyi, var. Swanii: red, ridge arched ; less sculptured. 


213. 
214, 
2165. 
216, 
217. 


218. 


Mopalia Hindsii, Gray. Olive : distinctly shagreened : flat : post. valve waved. 

Mopalia Simpsonii, Gray, in B.M. Col. “Like Hindsii, with valves beaked. 

Mopalia vespertina, Gld. E. FE. Shape of Hindsii, with very faint sculpture and 
sight wave. Olive clouded with brown. 

Mopatia lignosa, Gd. E. E. = Merchii, Midd. = Montereyensis, Cpr. P. Z. 8. 1855, 
p. 231. Like vespertina, without wave: brown in streaks. 

Mopatia acuta, Cpr. P. Z.8. 1855, p. 232. Subgeneric, aberrant form; with 
small blunt plate, instead of post. sinus, between the two principal lobes. 

? Mopalia sinuata, n. s. Small, raised sharp back, red and blue, engine-turned ; 
post. valve deeply notched. 


.  Mopalia imporcata, n.s. Pale: central areas ribbed: post. valve slightly 


notched. Indications of sutural pores in these two species, if contirmed, will 
require a new genus, : 
134 








we 







































































ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. G49 
Nutt.) Jew. | B. A. ‘Smiths. Ins.| Ken. Lord.|Swan. Cooper. 
920, Acanthopleura scabra....| M | — C FI P|—|— I 
Doilh HEARERS Sete ote suede —|—|— — —}|—|— I 
929. Ischnochiton Magdalensis | — | — | L Mie iS A DI 
223, veredentiens ....,- —|—|— — —|—|— I 
924, Lepidopleurus regularis . .| — | — C — —|—|— _ 
225. scabricostatus......| — | — | — _ —|—|— it 
226. AHIR eyoods00| Sa | =a || Se — — | — | — I 
DOT. Miertensiil...cie > sce — Ci M Pa ala = 
998. Trachydermon retiporosus| — | — | — _ Pe Pa _ 
229: interstinctus ......|— | -- | P — —|—|— —_— 
230. —— trifidus eee a peo — P|—|— —_ 
231. Wentiensy eta sick ese a no ie — —|—|— — 
231 6. pseudodentiens ..) — | — | — od P| Vji= D 
932. Gothicus.....- ceeel — |S | — _ —|}—|— it 
238. Hartweoit <.. 66%) a} =r C F —|—|— — 
234. Nuttallituesce. ceest Miah—=| © M a nea I 
235. Hecteusi tte antic |—|—|— M P|Vi|j— D 














2 


22 


20. 


— 


224. 


2205. 


226. 
227. 
228. 


229. 
23 
231. 

2516 


232. 
233. 
204. 


255. 


. Acanthopleura fluca, n. 8. 


. Isehnochiton veredentiens, 0. 8. 


. Trachydermon trifidus, n. 8. 


Insertion-plates resemble 
Valves with coarse V-shaped ribs, and projecting beaks. 

Green, mottled with orange-red ; not beaked ; with 
only marginal and diagonal ribs. 


Acanthopleura scabra, ve. = Californicus, Nutt. 
Katherina. 


. Ischnochiton Magdalensis. ds. Large, strong-valved, typical. Sculpture much 


fainter than in southern shells. Mantle-margin with striated scales like 

flattened bristles. Side plates 2- or 3-lobed. Beach-20 fm. Cp. 

Margin similar. Small, arched, sculptured 
like Mertensii, but with 2 rows of bosses, one of which dentates the sutures. 
10-20 fm. Cp. ‘ 

Lepidopleurus regularis, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 232. Subgenus of Ischnochiton : 
mantle-scales Lophyroid, generally striated. Sp. arched, green, shagreened, 
Side lobes 2-4: eaves spongy, not projecting. 

Lepidopleurus scabricostatus, 0. 8. Small, arched, orange : 
granules over shagreened surface. 
eaves. 8-20 fm. Cp. 

Lepidopleurus pectinatus, n. 8. Olive: strong sculpture over shagreened surface: 
side areas ribbed: outer margin and inner sutures pectinated. Beh. Cp. 

Lepidopleurus Mertensii, Madd. Red: highly sculptured over smooth surface : 
side areas with rows of bosses. Mantle-scales smooth, rounded. 

Trachydermon retiporosus, 1. 8. Subgenus of Ischnochiton : mantle-scales very 
small, close, smooth. Sp. like serobiewlatus, central pattern in network, 3-6 
side ribs. 

Trachydermon interstinctus, Gld. E.E. Centre minutely punctured : 6-8 blunt 
side ribs. 


rows of prominent 
Lobes blunt, slightly rugulose, close to 


Centre-punctures few, deep: 2-4 blunt ribs: side 
plates with 2 slits. 

[ Trachydermon dentiens, Gld. E.E. No shell known answering to diagnosis and 
figure.] The 4 following species have incisors blunt, eaves not projecting. 

. Trachydermon pseudodenticns=type specimen of dentiens. False appearance of 
teeth due to colour or ridges of growth. Closely granular : areas indistinct. 
Sinus broad, squared : eaves spongy. 

Trachydermon Gothicus, n.s. Blunt parallel riblets along very arched back. 
Situral lobes united at sinus: eaves not spongy. 8-20 fm. Cp. 

Trachydermon Hartwegit, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 231. Large, arched. Inside 
callous, without rows of punctures to slits: eaves spongy. 

Trachydermon Nuttallii, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1855, p.231. Large, plain, flat. Incisors 
slightly rugulose : eaves spongy. 

Trachydermon flectens, 0. 8. Mantle-margin scarcely granular. Rosy, very 
small, scarcely sculptured: valves beaked and waved as in MM. Simpson: 
eaves and incisors normal. 135 


G50 REPORT—18C3. ‘ 















































Nutt. Jew. | B. A. |Smiths. Ins, Ken. | LordiSwant 

236. Leptochiton nexus ...... —}—}]— — —}—}]— I 
237. Acanthochites avicula —|—|— —_ —)}—]}— I 
238. Nacella instabilis........| — | — | P — —|/ViV — 
239. INGOSSA A oi. o'sis-0.@ foe —/!B}D D ll MD 
240. subspiralis ........| — | — | — — Saal | Gaal isos I 
241, depicta. ......eeen+| — 7 | D — —}—|— D 
‘249, Paleaces >... cits oe eee —_ =e |e pon 
242 b. var. triangularis ..| — | — | — |} — —|—-—|— M 
243. Acmea patina ..... weveep CUleGeC | VEM | Pave even 
244, peltar scl oan, wae Ca CORE. 42 VM P| Vain ENS 
244 6. var. Asmi.....e3:| — |-B | — | I =a |e ge M 
245, persona ...... sernt One eC. aa -V I P| Vij2¥o\ EBDI 
?46. RCabTasesyctateic oot 1D) Ope (Oi 0 ON Glo Re ss || a DIT 
247. Spectrum js 6.54. «21s D|C}C i} FDH |—}|—j}—} MBD 
248, POSACEN jer eieic ook = ees ee oe —— MD 
249. Lottia gigantea ........ | espa am VT | |e een RS) 
200; ‘Scurriasmitray ..e50. ces MC a seCrit VE, Pi Veale MI 
250 6. Pvar. funiculata 3) — | — | — — —}—|/— M 





236. Leptochiton nevus, n.s. Like asellus: scarcely sculptured : mantle-margin with 
striated chaffy scales, like J/agdalensis, interspersed with transparent needles, 
20-80 fm. Cp. 

237. Acanthochites avicula,n.s. Like arragonites, but valves sculptured in large 
snake-skin pattern. 8-20 fm. r. Cp. 


Family Patellide. 

238. Nacella instabilis, Gid. EE. Large: shape of compressa. 

239, Nacella incessa, Hds. Sulphur. Small: Ancyloid. 

240. PNacella subspiralis, n.s. Shaped like Emarginula rosea, and may be a Scutele 
hina. 10-20 fm. Cp. 

241. Nacella depicta, Hds. Sulphur. Small, long, flat, smooth: colour in rays. 

242. Nacella paleacea, Gld. Otia. Narrower, brown, striated at each end. 

242 b, Nacella ? var. triangularis. Shorter: apex raised: scarcely striated : whitish, 
with brown spots. 


Family Acmeide. (For synonyms, v. Reports in locis.) 

243. Acmea patina, Esch. Large, blackish or tessellated: with very fine distant 
strie. Between tides, Lord. 

244, Acmea pelta, Esch, Move conical; border narrow; smooth, with blunt ribs 
often obsolete. Between tides, Lord. 

244b. Acmea Pyar. Asm, Midd. Stout, small, black, conical. Probably an ab- 
normal growth of pelta, jun. (1 sp. beginning on pelta) Cp. 

245. Acmea persona, Esch. Smaller: apex posterior: colour blotched or treckled : 
sculpture in irregular ribs. Maz. Cat. no. 266. Var. umbonata, arched, with 
narrow distant ribs. Var. digitalis, apex near margin. Var. textilis, apex far 
from margin, approaching pelta. 

246, Acmea scabra, Nutt. Rve. Outside with close rows of fine granules : orange- 
red tint, glossy. Var. limatwa, sculpture stronger, border black: perhaps= 
Maz. Cat. no. 265. 

247. Acmea spectrum, Nutt. Rve. Flattened, with very strong ribs, irregular. 

248, Acmea (? pileolus, Midd. var.) rosacea. Pink, small: like Herm specimens of 
virgined. 

249. Lottia gigantea, Gray. Genus reconstituted: mantle with papille interrupted 
in front. Shell large, flat, dark, lustrous (= Tecturella grandis, Smiths. Inst. 
Check List). 

250. Scurria mitra, Esch. Papillz all round the mantle. White, conical: young 
sometimes faintly sculptured. In dead clam, 12 fm. Lord. 

250 6. Scwrria ? var. funiculuta, With rounded riblets, some waat aodulous, 


156 





24 




































































ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. Gal 
EEE ee eee 
Natt. Jew. |B. A. ||Smiths. Ins.| Ken. | Lord.'Swan.| Cooper. 
251. Lepeta ceecoides.. ..... —|—|— _ Py | — 
po eGadinia (Axvowellia)) |. 22% |)— | —" || — I Slims tem I 
253. Fissurella voleano ...... NS Barca I Sean | aes PV DI 
254, Glyphis aspera.......... — |} OC P —|V{V Wicae 
255. densiclathrata ....|?B | B |} C — nicl MF 
256. Lucapina crenulata...... 1 ee C — |—}| — D 
257. Puncturella cucullata....| — | — | P a sles M 
258 eAIOHCAL fhs.4 to, oe euane —|—|P — P|—|V -— 
259 @ooperi + S5oh teen —)| —| — — —|—|—- 3 
260. Haliotis Cracherodii ....)| D | C | C || FDIL | — |] —)|]— MI 
261 Splendens.");.05.a-. 1D) GF Ne Di Ne 
Q2. COMUCALAS «6 ons ss « —|—|C D —|—|— [ 
263. THUS oacadonoor —5'| (|) © D tn | M 
| 264. Kamtschatkana ..../ — | — | C FI == | == || WY DI 
265. Phasianella compta...... ee Dee D —|—j|—! MDI 
266. Pomaulax undosus......| M | C |] C L — | — | — DI 
267. Pachypoma gibberosum. .}| — | — | — M —|—/V MB 
251. Lepeta cecoides, ?n.s. Like c@ca, but apex turned back. Farallone I+, 


+ 253. 


254. 
O50: 
256. 
257. 
258. 


259, 


teste R. D. Darbishire. 
Family Gadiniade. 


2. Rowellia, sp. Genus proposed by Cooper: tentacles flattened, pectinated. Cat, 


Is. Cp. Far. Is. Row. 


Family Fissurelliide. 


Fissurella volcano, Rve.=ornata, Nutt. Approaches Peruviana: hole variable. 

Glyphis aspera, Esch.=Lincolni, Gray=cratitia, Gld. Large, coarsely sculp- 
tured, with colour-rays. 

Glyphis densiclathrata, Rye. Smaller: with closer, finer sculpture. 

Lucapina crenulata, Sby. Tank., Very large : internal. 

Puncturella cucullata, Gld. E.E. Large, with strong, variable ribs, 15-40. 
Hole simple. 

Puncturella galeata, Gid. E.E. Scarcely differs from noachina, but tripartite 
process more strongly marked. 

Puncturella Coopert, n.s. Outside like galeata, but without props to the 
lamina, 30-120 fm, not r. Cp. 


Family Halhotide. 


. Haliotis Cracherodii, Leach, auct. The trade species, smooth, dark olive: holes 


5-9. Var. Californiensis, holes 9, 10, 11. 


. Haliotis splendens, Rve. Flatter, grooved, lustrous. Holes 4-7. Below tide: 


on rocks, Cp. 


. Haliotis corrugata, Gray. Large, arched, very rough. Holes 3-5. Below 


tide: on rocks, Cp. 


263. Hualiotis rufescens, Swains. Large, flatter, waved, rich orange-red. Holes 


265. 


266. 
267. 


3-5. Below tide: on rocks, Cp. 


. Haliotis Kamtschatkana, Jonas. Small, thin, arched, waved. Holes 4, 6, 


Below tide: on rocks, Far. ls. Cp. 


Family Trochide. 


Phasianella compta, Gld. Otia. Maz. Cat. no. 284. Like pudlus, a little longer 
and flatter; but operc. bevelled and striated. F Var. prilowv:, exactly like 
Herm shells: ? var. e/atior, dwarfed, longer and fiatter : var. punetuata, with 
close rows of dots; pillar chinked. 8-20 fm. Cp. 

Pomauiax undosus, Wood. Very large: operculum with 2 ridges. 

Pachypoma gibberosum, Chem. P=inequale, Mart. Large, rough: opere. 
swollen, simple. (Dead.) 

137 


—_—— ee SS  * 


652 REPORT—1863. 


















































| Nutt.! Jew. | B. A.) Smiths. Ins.) Ken. | Lord./Swan.| Cooper. 

268. ? Imperator serratus ....| — | — | — — —}—}]— MI 
269, Leptonyx sanguineus ....| — | M | — || OFMI | —|—|V MI 
270 baeuwla. i... o< eoeee| — J] —l|— — —|—|— I 

(1. Liotia fenestrata........| — |: — | — — —|—|]— I 

Dif acuticostata ...... —|—|}— — —|—/ — MI 
273. Ethalia supravallata ....) — | — | — — —|—)|]}— D 

273 6. var. invallata ....| — — — —}—)|] — D 

274.’ Livona picoides ........ —|B}]— _ —;—}|— — 
975. Trochiscus Norrisii......| M | B | C — —|—|/|— DI 
276. GONVEXUS!:..).sae eecreke — | M | — — —|—}]— — 
277. Chlorostoma funebrale ..| M | C | C FI —|—|V MD 
2776. var. subapertum....} — | — | — — —/|/—|VvV oa 
278. callimay 2 eretee set ..-| —}|—] D L —|—|— DI 
279. brumneum .......:> — |—]|C' | FMDI | —/| —|— M 
280; ——.Pieitert tae)... Ser alo ee, — —|—|]— D 

281. aureotinctum ...... CAs ee L —|—}|— I 

282. Omphalius fuseescens....| B | M | C D —}|—}|— DI 
283. Calllostoma canaliculatum| M | C | C M —|—!V M 
284. costatum ..... ee eleven VPM P|) Vsievi os 
285. annulatum\ ...% 0. «| Mi i —«}' 1C M —|VivVv — 
286. variegatum ......-..| — | — | — — P|} —|]— ae 


268. ? Imperator serratus, n.s. Small, finely sculptured, base stellate, nucleus Plan- 

orboid : opere. flat, with more whirls. 10-20 fm.=266 or 267 jun. teste Cp. 

269. Leptonyx sanguineus, Linn. n.g. Like Collonza, not umbilicate. Opere. with 

horny and shelly layers, many whirls, outside flattish, not ribbed, margin 
broad. Species red or purple, lirate. Beh.-20 fm. Cp. 

270. Leptonyx bacula, n.s. Small, ashy, Helicina-shaped, nearly smooth. Bch. 

d. Cp. Genus= Homalopoma, p. 537: nom. preoe. 
271. Liotia fenestrata, n.s. Small. Strongly ribbed each way. Bceh.—40 fm. d. Cp. 
272. Liotia acuticostata, n.s. Small. Sharply keeled, without radiating sculpture. 
10-20 fm. Cp. 

273. Ethalia supravallata. n.s. Minute: with keel and furrow near suture. 

2736. Ethalia ? var. invallata. Without keel. 

274. Livona picoides, Gld. Otia. Probably the remnant of an ancient colony of pica. 

275. Trochiscus Norrisu, Sby. Tank. Nucleus as in Solarium: perhaps a Probosci- 

difer, though pearly. 
276. Trochiscus converus, n.s. Small, subturrited, whirls swollen: umbilicus with 
2 ribs, the outer crenated. 

277. Chlorostoma funebrale, A. Ad. P.Z. 8. 1854, p. 316=marginatum, Nutt. non 
Rve. Blackish, often puckered near suture. 

277 b. Chlorostoma funebrale, var. subapertum, with umbilical pit. 

278. Chlorostoma gallina, Fbs. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 271. Olive, dashed with purple. 
Var. pyriformis, Gld., umbilicus partly or wholly open. 

279. Chlorostoma brunneum, Phil. Auburn: finely striate: Gibbuloid aspect. The 

young (teste Cp.) has a basal rib. 

280. Chlorostoma Pfeiffer, Phil. Like brunneum: outside Ziziphinoid: umbilicus 

keeled. 

281. Chlorostoma aureotinctum, Fbs. P. Z. 8. 1850, p. 271=nigerrimum, Gmel. ? Mus. 
Cum. Gibbuloid: with distant grooves and fine sculpture ; mouth orange- 
spotted. 

82. GPs nieshiscaiens, Phil. Almost identical with hgulatus, Maz. Cat. no. 293, 

83. Calliostoma canaliculatum, Mart.=doharium. Large, with strong grooves. 

4. Calliostoma costatum, Mart.=filosum, &e. Smaller, swollen, reddish; finely 
yibbed. 8-15 fm. Lyall. 

285. Calliostoma annulatum, Mart.=virgineum. Large, granular, stained with violet. 

286. Calliostoma variegatum, n. 8. Sreall, more conical, nodules more distant, white 

on rosy ground, 
138 















































Tae Jew. (B. A. |/Smiths. Ins.| Ken. | Lord.| Swan. Cooper. 

287. Calliostoma supragranosum| — | — | — —_ nt oe D 

238. gemmulatum ...... —|-—|— — al ees D 

289. splendens; . soi... See eae _— —|{—|—] MI 
290. Phorcus pulligo ........| -— | — | M — —|Viv M 
291. Gibbula parcipicta ...... —!|—|— FI —|—|V I 

292. Optabilis |... akiee —|—|— — —|—|— D 

293. —— funiculata ..... eee | — | — J] — — —|—|V — 
294. SUCCINCEA Pe aor —|/—|—| FIA |—|—| V i 

295. PACU TA 2, se rcveuas oe —/|}—|— _ —|;—|V — 
206. Solariella peramabilis....| — | — | — — —|— I 

297. Margarita cidaris ...... —!|—|— _— —|/—|V — 
298. PUD asa ks scare se —|—|P VOI Pole Viple Ve — 
298 b. vr. salmonea ....| — | — | — — —|—|— MI 
299. —— acuticostata ...... — |Bfs.| — — —|j-—-j|]— MI 
300. —— inflata ............ —j|--|— o Paavaahes — 
301. ——lirulata ...... woe f — | HJ] — —_ Poh loV; — 
302. ——PVahlii .......... —|—|;— — P|—|]— — 
303. tenuisculpta ......) — | — | — _— P|}—,V — 
304. elweinatyy vatekeey « —|—|— — —;—|V — 








287. Calliostoma supragranosum, u.8. Swollen, with sharp ribs; posterior 1-4 
eranular. 

288. Cailiostoma gemmadatum, n.s. Very swollen: painted like exrimium: with 2 
principal and 2 smaller rows of granules. 

289. Calliostoma splendens, n.s. Orange-chestnut, with fleshy nacre ; small, rather 
flattened, base glossy. 6-40 fm. Cp. 

290. Phorcus pulligo, Mart.4+-maculosus, A. Ad. =euryomphalus, Jonas+marcidus, 
Gld. Subgenus of Grbbulz, with expanded, rounded umbilicus, and flat 
whirls ; sometimes obsoletely ribbed. 

291. Gibbula parcipicta, n.s. Like strong growth of Marg. lirulata, vay. 

292. Gibbula optabilis, n.s, Wider: decussated between ribs: 2 spiral lines inside 
umbilicus. 

293. Gibbula funiculata, n.s. Shaped like Montagu: with rounded spiral riblets. 

294. Grbbulw succincta, n.s. Small, scarcely sculptured, with spiral brown pen- 
eillings. 

295. Gibbula lacunata, n.s. Very small, nearly smooth ; umbilicus hemmed-in by 
swelling of columella. 

296. Solariella peramabilis,n.s. Subgenus of Margarita, with open, crenated um- 
bilicus. Species most ornate, with delicate sculpture. Umbilicus with 3 
internal spiral lines, crossed by lirul: operculum sculptured. Like Minolia 
aspecta, A. Ad. 40-120 fm. living, Cp. 

297. Margarita cidaris, A. Ad. n.s, Large, knobby, like thin Turcica, with simpie 
pillar and small umbilicus. 

298. Margarita pupilla, Gid. K.E.=calostoma, A. Ad. Strong, with sharp ribs, de- 
cussated between, and feshy nacre. 8-15 fm. Lyall. 

298 6. Margarita ? vay. salmonea. Between pupilla and undulata: salmon-tin:ed, 
sculpture fine, not decussated : sutures not waved. 6-40 fm. Cp. 

299, Margarita acuticostata, n.8. Small, painting clouded: 3 sharp ribs on spire. 
8-20 fm. Cp. 

800. Margarita inflata, n.s. Thin, whirls very swollen; sculpture very fine; spiral 
hollow inside keeled umbilicus. 

801. Margarita lirulata, n.s. Small: opere. smooth: 2 sharp principal riblets on 
spire: outline variable. Var. subelevata, raised, livid: var. obsoleta, sculp- 
ture evanescent : P var. conica, very tall, with intercalary ribs, like G. parce 


prcta. 
302. Margarita Vahli, Moll. Raised, smooth: opere. with spiral rib, 
303. Margarita tenuisculpta, ?n. s. Like obsoleta, but opere. ribbed. 
304. Margarita heliciva, Mont. Like the Finmark shells, Circumborcal, 


139 
























































6h4 report—1863. 

Nutt.) Jew. | B. A. Smiths. Tage Ken. | Lor¢c.|Swan.| Cooper. 
305. Crucibulum spimosum....| M | B {| C |} DIL | —}— | — PI 
306. Crepidula aculeata ...... B;—|— — eee — 
307 dorsatal ochre. ates CoB 4B _— Pm) Ve MD 
308. —— excayata, var.......) — | — | — _ —|;—|— | 
3809. —— adunca.........<.. —; B/OC iP. PENG |iVe.) Seva 

; $10; —— rugosa ........000. Br} iB | C —|—|— DL 
311. —— navicelloides ...... Me AC. OL —|Viv 1 
3116 var. nummaria....| — | — | P — —|—I!1V — 
3lle var. explanata . C}—|M oo —|ViV _ 
312. Galerus fastigiatus ...... —|—|P} — ys ene: — 
313 contortus.......... —j—;—|)} — —;—j|—]| MDI 
314. Hipponyx cranioides . —|—|—- -- —|—/|V — 
315 antiquatus ........ —/|PB/—|} — —{|—|]—| PMI 
316. SCMTALUS anise wae elses —/|—|— — —|—}|— 1 
olds CUMENSY | aries se: —|B{|— — — | —|—| MODI 
318. Serpulorbis squamigerus..| B | B | C || D —|—|— D 
319. Bivonia compacta ..[gma) — | — | — — —;—|V a 

| 320, Petalocouchus macrophra-| D | — | — — —|}—|— — 

| 321, Spiroglyphus lituella ....| B | — | — C —}—|— _ 

aa ea ay a rl ARN lS os hE ee 


314. 
315. 
316. 
317. 


318. 


319. 
320. 
21. 





Order PECTINIBRANCHIATA. Suborder Rosrrirera. 


Family Calyptreide. 


. Crucibulum spinosum, Sby. Maz. Cat. no. 344. From Southern fauna. 
. Crepidula aculeata, Gmel. Maz. Cat. no. 334. From Southern fauna. Round 


the world. 


i Cage ?dorsata, Brod., var. lingulata, Gld. E.E.=var. bilobuta, Maz. Cat. 


336= C. bilobata, Rve. Appears identical with the S. American shells. 

SOar ne excavata, Brod. Maz. Cat. no. 837. S. American. 

. Crepidula adunca, Sby. Tank.=solida, Hds.=rostriformis, Gld. E.E. Dark 
liver, rough epidermis, solid deck with produced sides. [Not uncata, Mke.= 
rostrata, CG. B. Ad. , Rve.=adunca, Maz, Cat. no. 835.| between tides, Lord ; 
10 fm. Cp. 


. Crepidula rugosa, Nutt. P. Z. 8. 1856, p. 224. Probably northern var. of oye, 


Sby. Maz. Cat. 340, with epidermis less shagey. 


. Crepidula nav ncelloides, Nutt. Shape of sgwama, with nucleus of wguiformis 


(Maz. Cat. no. 342). Rounded yar. in hollow bivalves=nummaria, Gld. 
Var. drawn out in layers like Zessonti=fimbriata, Rve. Var. elongated in 
crypts, scooped by crab or bivalve=explanata, Gld.=exuviata, Nutt. =per- 
forans, Val. 


. Galerus ’ fastigiatus, Gld. E.E. Like mamillaris, nucleus large, immersed. 


Large, in 8-15.fm. Lyall. 


3. Galerus contortus, n.s. Whirls twisted: nucleus minute, prominent. 20-40 


fm. Cp. 


Family Capulide. 
Tipponyx cranioides, n. s. Large, rough, flat, intermediate between planatus and 
Hipponyx antiquatus, Linn. Maz. Cat. no. 847. From Southern fauna. 
Hipponyx serratus, Cpr. Maz. Cat. no. 346. From Southern fauna. 
Hipponyx tumens, n.s. Growth like Helcton: sculpture more open than 
barbatus. ; 


Family Vermetide. 
Serpulorbis squamigerus, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 226 (not Aletes). Large, scaly. 
Verm. anellum, Morch, P. Z. 8S. 1861, p. 359, is perhaps the young. 
Bivonia compacta, n. 8. ’ Entirely open within: but colour and growth like 
LPetaloconchus macrophragma, Cpr. Maz. Cat. no. 359, Froin Southern fauna, 
Spivoylyphus lituella, Morch, P. Z.S. 1861, p. 164, 
140 








a Ee 


SS 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 6bb 






























































| Nutt.) Jew. | B. A. )|Smiths. Tae Ken. | Lord./Swan.| Cooper. 
| ———— > EE te eee sae It 
322. Ceecum crebricinctum. ee | — —|—!—] MDI 
323. -—— Cooperi ...... eee f — | — Joe — —|—|— DI 
324, Turritella Cooperi ...... —/|—|— — —}—}|— DI 
325. Jewett J: ..).6 voor) — |Bfs.) — Pfos. | — | — | — - 
326. Mesalia lacteola ........ —|}—|— —— 2a ea — 
326 b. var. subplanata ..) — | — | — — 2 es ve — 
She tenuisculpta ...... —|—}|— — —|—}] — D 
328. Cerithidea sacrata ...... MB; C | C CF ae FD 
o29, Bittium filosum ........ |) 1e Ee even Vi — 
329 6. Pram. esuriens aa en |e = =) || = |) 1 MD 
ao: AbvenuabuMN see —|—|— M — | = | = — 
3591. —— quadrifilatum ...... —}|—|— D —|—|— D 
| 352. PS PERUTAGM Sel oittsiers sie — |B fs.) — — —|—)|— DI 
| Boo anmiilll tums asec — Bfs.|) — — a en D 
| 304, fastiovatumyeyeets cree c et eee -= —|—/— — 
| 335. Litorina planaxis . Pte dc Oa MOM nC TONE | es ee ADIL 
| 336. MONI, Gagcagude c —;1—/|O0O PO Fo ean | eV —- 














Family Cecide. 


$22. Caecum crebricinctum, n.s. Large, with aspect of Elephantulum, but very fine 
close annular sculpture; plug subungulate. 8-20 fm. Cp. 
323. Cecum Cooperi, n.s. Small, with 30-40 sharp narrow ring. 


Family Turritelhde. 
024, Turritella Cooperi, n.s. Extremely slender, with many narrow whirls. e. >, 
825. Turritella Jewett, n.s. Like sanguinea, with very faint scuiptare. 
826. DMesalia lacteola, ?n.s. May be a local var. of the circumpolar dacteuz, with 
altered sculpture : distinct, teste Cuming. 
5266. Mesalia ?var. subplanata. Sculpture fainter : whirls flattened. 
827, Mesaha tenwsculpta, n.s, Very small, slender, whirls rounded, iip waved. 
Shoal-water, Cp. 
Family Cerithiade. 
528. Cerithidea sacrata, Gld. E.E.= Californica, Nutt.+-pullata, Gld. Variable in 
shape and sculpture: passes into Mazatlanica, Maz. Cat. no. 395. 
829, *Bittium filosum, Gld. H.B.= Eschrichtti, Midd. Strong, broad, grooved. 
3290. Bittium ? var. esuriens. Like starved filosum, very narrow, adult scarcely 
sculptured. 
830. Bitton attenuatum, n. 8s. Like plicatum, A. Ad., or drawn-out eswriens, with 
threads instead of grooves. 
val. *Bittium quadr ifilatum, n. s. Broad: 4 threads, equal from beginning, coiling 
over strong radiating ribs. 
332. *Bittium asperum, n.s. Same aspect : upper whirls with 2 strong and 2 faint 
keels over less prominent ribs. Beh.—40 fm. Cp. 
333, * Rittium armillatum, n. s. Same aspect: 3 nearly equal rows of knobs. 
334. Bittium fastigiatum, n.s. Small, slender: apex normal: sutures indented, 
anterior rib strong. 
Family Litorinide. 
335. Litorina planaris, Nutt. Phil.=patula, Gid. E.E. Outside plain; columella 
scooped. 
336. Litor oho Sitchana, Phil.=sulcata, Gld.=rudis, Coop. Rounded, flat, with spiv ia 
ribs. Var. modesta, Phil. (pars) has sculpture faint: subtenebr osa, Midd., 
perhaps a degraded var. Rocks between tides, Lord; 8-10 fm. Ly yall eT 


oe 








* These species have so peculiar a nucleus that they can scarcely rank near Cer?- 
theme or Kussoa: perhaps they are related to A/abu. Te nucleus of esuriens and 
attenuatwm has not been seen. 


141 





656 REPoRT—1865. 


















































H Smiths. Ins.| Ken. | Lord. Swan Coover. 4 
337. Litorina scutulata ...... —|B|PF||POFMI| P| V | Vj} MDI 
338. ? Assiminea subrotundata |} — | — | — - —j;—|V — 
339. ? Paludinella .:..... eee} — | ole —_ te — 
340. Lacuna vincta..........| — | — | — — P= V — 
341. POLTCCUS Tlevsts wie aie ese oe ee _ —|—|V _ 
342. solidula ......06..| —|—| P IO Avie eV — 
542 6 var, compacta ....| =} — | — _ —!—|V —_ 
343 Variegatee se... es —j—|— —_ —j|—|V — 
344 unifasciata ........|— | B| B I — | | DI 
345. Isapis fenestrata ........) = | — | — — —|—|V DI 
346 ObtuUsa: £ Pe. oe tee —|—j— — ee 
347. Rissoina interfossa ......| — | — | — — — | — | — MI 
348. Rissoa compacta........ —|—|— — Pye — 
349. —— acutehirata-.....+.. — | — | — — eet | ee D 
350. Alvania reticulata ......) — | — | — — ——) | 1 V — 
S51: filosas ie eee aes —|—);— — —— Vi — 
352. Fenella pupoidea ...... —|;—|— — —|—|— M 
353. Barleeia subtenuis ...... — | — | DI =| =} — DI 
353 6. Pvar. rimata...... —|—j— D — | —] = D 
B04. haliotiphila ...... —|—|—- H —{|—|— — 
355. Amphithalamus inclusus | — |} B | — — —|— | — D 











837. Litorina seutulata, Gld. E.E.+lepida, Gld. Var.=plena, Gld. Small, solid, 
pointed, flattened, smoothish. Rocks between tides, Lord. 

838. ? Assiminea subrotundata, n.s. Like a very thin Litorina: ashen, plain. 

339. ? Paludinella, sp. May be an aberrant Assiminea. 

340. Lacuna vincta, Mont. auct. Circumboreal. 

341. Lacuna porrecta, u.s. Upper whirls flattened, effuse anteriorly ; chink large. 

2416. Lacuna Pyar. effusa. Larger, taller, more swollen. 

341 ¢. Lacuna Pvar. ecequata, same shape but flattened. 

842. Lacuna solidula, Lov.=carinata, Gld., not A. Ad.= Vodelia striata, Gabb. 
Solid, variable, chink small; sometimes keeled or angular. 

342 b. Lacuna var. compacta. Very small, narrow, orange, scarcely chinked. 

343. Lacuna variegata, n.s. Very tall, effuse, irregular with wide chink: clouded 
or with zigzag stripes: like decorata, A. Ad. 

e44. Lacuna unifasevata, Cnn P.Z. 8. 1856, p. 205. Small, glossy, generally with 
a coloured keel, sometimes broken into dots. Var. awrantiaca, keel obsolete, 
resembling the chinked Phasianelle. 8-10 fm. Cp. 

345, Isapis fenestrata, n.s. Like oroidea, with sharp distant ribs. 

346. Isapis obtusa, n.s. Whirls flattened behind: ribs swollen, uneven. 10-20 
fm. Cp. 

Family Rissoide. 

347. Rissoina interfossa, n. 8. With 5 sharp keels crossing 14 strong ribs. 8-10 fm. 

348. Rissoa compacta, n.s. Sculptured like Beanz, with short broad whirls. 

349, Rissoa acutelirata, 1.8. Alvanoid: 15 sharp, distant, spiral riblets, travelling 
over 18 sharp distant ribs, obsolete in front. 

350. Alvania reticulata, n.s. Open network: radiating threads travelling over 12, 
stronger distant spiral threads. 

351. Alvania filosa, n.s. Turrited: pillar purple-stained: 18 close spiral strie, 
passing over very faint waved riblets. 

352, Fenella pupoidea, n.s. Variegated, truncatelloid shape. 20 fm. rare, Cp. 

353. Barleeia subtenuts, n. s.= Hydrobia Pulve, Maz. Cat. no. 417; but with normal 
Barleeoid operculum. On grass, Cp. 

353 b. Barleeia Pvar. rimata. Whirls more swollen: base chinked. 

354, Barleeia haliotiphila, n.s. Longer, narrower, much smaller. On H. splendens. 

35d. Amphithalamus inclusus, n. g.,n.s. Habit of minute Nematura; labrum not 
contracted, but labium in adult travels forward to meet it, leaving a chamer 
behind, Nucleus cancellated; base bluntly ribbed. 


142 





























Nutt. Jew. | B. A. || Smiths. Ins. Ken. | Lord. | 

356. ?Amphithalamus lacunatus| — | — | — _— —|—|— D 
257. Truncatella Californica ..| — | — | — — — a — D 
309. Jeffreysia Alderi,...:...| —— | — | — D —|—|— _ 
309. translucens........| — | — | — — — jh —— | D 
360. Cithna albida ..........| — | — | — — —|—}— D 
361. Diala marmorea .......-| — | — | — H ap MD 
362. acuta ......cceee--) — | — | — — — || = | o> MI 
363. Styliferina turrita ......) — | — | — — —|—|— D 
364. Radius variabilis........| — |? B| — — a Eee — 
365. Luponia spadicea ...... —|}C;C — —|—|— DI 
366. Trivia Californica ......|— | B | C L ae | DI 
Bic Solandri .........| — | —|— L =e I 
368. Erato vitellina.......... ==] 18 Oy SS = en ee DI 
369. columbella ........| — | B| C L =| ee [eee VIE 
370. Myurella simplex ...... —| Bi} — — —|—|— D 
371. Drillia inermis..... preteens | a Bae, — =e | ee 
372. INGISA? Sart eis) s 0'o//ess —|—| — — es lve — 
Eig 10 OP SLO icielciereieteree —!Bi]— = =) | — D 
374. LOTOSB: o ikix ciel one PSR. « ee ee aT ooh oe eee M 
374 5. Pvar. aurantia ....| — | — | — D |e D 








356. ? Amphithalamus lacunatus, n.s. Same nucleus; base chinked, not keeled. 
(Adult not found.) 
Family Truncatelide. 
857. Truncatella Californica, Pir. Pneum. Viv. Suppl. vol. ii. p. 7. 


Family Jeffreysiade. 

358. Jeffreysia Aldert, Cpr. Maz. Cat. no. 420. 

359. Jeffreysia translucens, n.s. Possibly a Barleeia: pillar thickened, base rounded. 
869. Cithna albida, n.s. Very close to C. tumens, Maz. Cat. no, 421, but umbilicus 

angled, not keeled. 
Family Planaxide. 

361. Diala marmorea, n.s. Solid, glossy, clouded with red: base faintly angled. 
862. Diala acuta, n.s. Base flattened, sharply angled: turrited. Bch.—10 fm. Cp. 
363. Styliferina turrita, n.s. Minute, slender, base rounded. 


Family Ovulde. 
354. Radius variabilis, C. B. Ad. Maz. Cat. no. 435. Probably exotic. 
Family Cypreide. 
265. Luponia spadicea, Gray. Like onyx, but light-coloured. 
866. Trivia Californica, Gray. Small: ribs sharp, distant. — 
337. Trivia Solandri, Gray. Maz. Cat. no. 441. From Southern fauna. Sta. Barb. 
and St. Nich. Is. common, Cp. 
368. Erato vitellina, Hds. Sulph. Large, wide-mouthed : paries callous. 
369. Erato columbella, Mke.=leucophea, Gld. Maz. Cat. p. 537, Perhaps a var. of 
Maugere, from the tropics. 20-40 fm. c. Cp. 


Suborder ToxrFera. Family Terebride. 
370. Myurella simplex, n.s. Sculpture very faint and variable: shape of albocincta. 
c. Cp. 





Family Pleurotomide. 

871. Drillia inermis, Hds. Sulph. arly whirls close sculptured. Beach-16 fm. 
living. Cp. : 

372. Drillia incisa, n.s. Like inermis: spiral sculpture grooved, not raised. 

373. Drillia mesta, n.s. Like large luctuosa: middle whirls with long transverse 
ribs and posterior knobs; adult obsolete. 

374. Drillia torosa, n. s. Whirls rounder, olivaceous: with one row of strong bosses 
throughout : no posterior knobs. 

8746. Drillia Pyar. aurantia, Orange, with sutural riblet and faint spiral sculpture. 


1863. 143 








658 REPoRT—1863. 





}-—- 


' Nutt.) Jew. | B. A. || Smiths. Ins.) Ken. Tord swan: Cooper. 
























































375. Drillia penicillata ...... me heal eel hee) meme ee el 
376. cancellata .....0.-| = |= }— —_ P}—|— —_— 
377. Mangelia levidensis ....| — | — | — — Pale eve 2 
378. tabulate 22. se eee} — | —]— — Se Sale VV — 
379. IMterfoOssa.... eoeee| — | —]— — eee ES HPN, a 
380. crebricostata ......| — | — | — — ovale alin Vs can 
581. VATICRAtA...0-0 20660 4) —— ale Boi|-— — Bey || he == 
381 6. Pvar. nitens ......| — | B | — = pale eae (me ais 
382. angwlata, onc: in6.0ieer s(n] Dat —— — P| —j|— M 
383. Bela fidicula. ......0.+. —|—|P — P| Vi— — 
384. OXCUTVAtA: 2656 ce |) | | oe P| —/}— 
385. P Daphnella aspera ...... = |= | — M ee | en 
386.0? ———= fill Os ay} «sricic ore orere'e —|B|— — eee eee | ets 
387. ? eftusay, Wee atau —|}—|— -- =n eV —= 
388. Conus Californicus ...... —|B/C D —|—|—j, DI 
389. Obeliscus Pvariegatus....| — | — | — L —|—|;—' D 
390. Odostomia nuciformis....| — | — | — — =| ania ue 
390 6. Pvar. avellana ....| — | — | — = ooo ale ae 
391. BATUTA ef cwotsieve erstetees —|—|—=> — ——) |e _ 
391 b. ?var. Gouldii —|—}|— a= | es 
392. OVAVAGB cccshn, .0r0i0in. 92 —| B|— — Salim D 
398. TNA base, cisteusye sche leus —|—|— = ee |e VE ans 




















375. Drillia penicillata, n.s. Like inermis, with delicate brownish pencillings. 

376. Driilia® cancellata, ?n.s. Like the young of metsa, but nodosely cancellated. 

377. Mangelia levidensis, n.s. Stumpy, purplish brown, with rough sculpture. 

878. Mangelia tabulata, n. s. Stout, strongly shouldered, coarsely cancellated. Pillar 
abnormally twisted. 

379. Mangelia interfossa, n.s. Like attenuata, delicately cancellated. 

880. Mangelia crebricostata, n.s. Like septangularis, with closely set ribs. 

381. Mangelia variegata, n.s. Small, slender, thin, zoned with brown: 9 narrow 
ribs, and strong spiral striz. 

3816. Mangelia Pvar. nitens. Glossy: spiral lines almost obsolete. 

882. Mangelia angulata, n.s. Shape of variegata, but brown, whirls broad, angular, 

383. Bela fidicula, Gld. E.E. Very close to turricula, var. 8-10 fm. Lyall. 

384. Bela excurvata, n.s. Like Trevelliana: stumpy, Chrysalloid. 

385. ? Daphnellat aspera, n.s. Elongated, with coarse fenestration. 

386. ?Daphnellat filosa, n.s. Small, diamond-shaped, but rounded periphery 3 
spirally threaded. 

387. ?Daphnellat effusa, nom. prov. Thin, extremely drawn-out, sculpture faint. 


Family Conide. 
888. Conus Californicus, Hds. Sulph.=rarus, Gld. Chestnut, plain. 


Suborder PRoposcrpIFERA. Family Pyramidellide. 


889. Obveliscus ?variegatus, n.s. From Gulf fauna. Periphery with spiral groove. 
Colour-pattern clouded. 

390. Odostomia nuciformis, n.s. Very large, solid, Tornatelloid. 

390 b. Odostomia ?var. avellana. Shape of conordalis. 

291. Odostomia satura, n.s. Large, with swollen whirls like Bithinia similis. 

391 b. Odostomia ?var. Gouldi. ‘Taller, base gently rounded. 

392. Odostomia gravida, Gld. Otia. Like conotdalis, but nucleus minute. 

393. Odostomia inflata, n.s. Like large dolioliformis: with most minute spiral 
striulation. Farallone Is. On Hal. rufescens, teste Darbishire. 





* A peculiar group of species, resembling Chonella (marine, teste Stimpson.) 
+ Generic position of all these doubtful: perhaps they belong to genera not yet 
eliminated : jilosa resembling the Eocene forms between Conus and Diewretoma, 


144 








‘ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 659 
























































| Nutt. Jew. |B. A. |/Smiths. Ins.| Ken. | Lord.|Swan.| Cooper. 
394. Odostomia straminea ....| — | — | — H — | — C 
295. tenuisculpta ...... —!|—|— — —|;—|V _ 
396. Chrysallida cincta ...... —|-—|!-— _ = heli I 
eee PUMA... e. areyere —j—|— — —|—)}]— DI 
398. Dunkeria laminata ...... —;| Bi; — — — | — | — D 
399. Chemnitzia tridentata ..| —| B | — == ea MD 
400. chocolata........-. —}—};— — — | = | D 
p= Care aurantia © soe. —| B| — — si — 
401. —— tenuicula.......... —i!B6 iB a ee eed D 
401 b.— Pvar. subcuspidata..| — | — | — — — | — | — D 
402, crebrittlatayece nese —} B | — ——s —|—]— — 
403. LOTMA, «0 54-+ oie ests —|Bi|— — P| V|— _ 
4036. Pvar. stylina ...... —|Bi|— — —|—|— M 
404. WANS Oper cersiajs ties. 0 60% —|Bj|— _ —|/—|— — 
495. Eulima micans ........ —}—|— — =a DI 
406. compacta..........| — | — | — -_ —|—|— D 
47. mink ys oe See oe | oa — — | — | — M 
408. ——thersites’.......... a eee —_ i — 

















394. Odostomia straminea, n.s. Like tall var. of inflata, with straw-coloured epi- 
dermis, not striulate. 

395. Odostomia tenusculpta,n.s. Like sublirulata, Maz. Cat. no. 487, with obsolete 
sculpture throughout. 

596. Chrysallida cincta, n.s. Passing towards Mumiola. Radiating sculpture very 
faint. 

897. Chrysallida pumila, n.s. Like ovulum, Maz. Cat. no. 512, but slender; spiral 
lines delicate. 

898. Dunkeria laminata, n. s. Subgenus of Chemnitzia, with rounded whirls: typical 
species. Aspect of Fenella, finely cancellated. 

099. Chemnitzia tridentata, n.s. Large, chestnut: 19-24 ribs, evanescent at peri- 
phery: waved interspaces with 8-10 spiral grooves: labrum with 3 teeth, 
hidden as in Obeliscus: base round. 

400. Chemunitzia chocolata, n.s. Same size and colour: not toothed: base prolonged : 
crowded ribs minutely striulate between. 

490b.Chemnitzia ?var. aurantia. Intermediate between the above: orange, base 
round; 26 ribs, striulate between. 

401. Chemnitzia tenwicula, Gld. Otia. Shape of tridentata dwarfed : whirls flatter, 
base prolonged, spiral grooving strong. 

41 b. Chemnitzia ?var. subcuspidata. Ribs more distant, muricated at sutures. 

42. Chemnitzia crebrifilata, n.s. Slender, whitish: with 8 spiral threads passing 
over 24 ribs, evanescent round base. 

405. Chemnitzia torquata, Gld. Otia= Vancouverensis, Gld. Ribs truncated before 
periphery, leaving plain band above sutures. 

4036. Chemnitzia Pvar. stylina. Like torquata, tapering, less swollen in front, with 
more ribs, band less marked. 

404. Chemnitzia virgo, n.s. Very slender, with short, smooth base: 18 ribs, evanes- 
cent at periphery, and 8 spiral grooves. 


Family Eulimide. 


405. Enlima micans,?n.s. Perhaps asmall var. of the European polita. 80-40 fm. 
living. Cp. 

406. Eulima compacta, ?n.s. Small, with blunt spire and elongated base. 

407. Eulima rutila, ?n.s.  Leiostracoid, rosy, base lengthened. Like producta, 
Maz. Cat. no. 551. 

408. Eulima thersites, n.s. Very broad, short, twisted. 


10 145 


BHO REPORT— 1865. 


\ 






























































A . ||Smiths. Ins.| Ken. | Lord. Sean Cooper. 

soon ee wetaes: 
409, Scalaria Indianorum .. —}|—}]— | a= = VA a 
4096. Puar. tincta.....e.-| — | — | — | L a el D 
410, —— ?Cumingii ..... ors elle [eae (eee —/|—}|— D 
4100. Povacilis .........., —|— |— |} OD —|—|— — 
411. —— subcoronata ......} — | — | — — — | — |} — M 
412, —— crebricostata ....../ —}| — | — —_ — | — | — MD 

rAslicds bellastriata ..... eee] — | —]— — — | — M 
414, Opalia borealis ..... .-f|—|—| Py] — —j|;—|V — | 
415. Pvar, Isculpta — |Bfs.| — oe a a 
416. —— spongiosa ........| —}| — | — _ —|—}|— M 
417. —— retiporosa ........ —|—|— — —}—|— I 
418. bullata weet. kak eee ele = |e = 

| 419. Cerithiopsis tuberculata..}— | B|—] — —;—|V MD 
420. COMMA keeles e —}—|— — aN M 
421. ——munita ..........|— | — | — — ——3\e—s | VA oe 
429; ——=—"PULpUTER si 6.266 -| —— | |, —— -= —|—|—| MD 
AD 3s ——-TOLGLOIN ae tereiietereione —!| Bi/—| — — | — | — — 
494, assimilata ........ Sheol — S| I 
425. Triforis Padversa........ — | — | — a ee eG HM 
426. Cancellaria modesta ....) — | — | — — a — 








Family Sealariade. 

409, Scalaria Indianorum, ?n.s. Between Turtonis and communis: like “ Geor- 
gettina, Kien. Mus. Cum. no. 34, Brazil.” 

409). Scalauria ?vay. tincta. Purple-brown behind: like regularis, without spiral 
sculpture. ; 

410. Scalaria ? Cumingti, Cpr. P. Z. 8. 1856, p. 165. 

410). Scalaria ?gracilis, Sby. in Mus. Cum. 

411. Scalaria subcoronata, n.s. Like young communis, with more and sharper ribs, 
faintly coronated when adolescent. 

412. Sealaria crebricostata, n.s.= Mus. Cum. no. 32: 15 sharp reflexed ribs, coro- 
nated against the sutures. 

413. Scalaria bellastriata, n.s. Shape like pretiosa, jun. : ribs very close, spinous 
at shoulder, crossed by spiral riblets. 

414, Opalia borealis, Gld. E. EK. Very close to australis: obsolete forms hke Ocho- 
tensis, Midd. 

415. Opalia (2erenatotdes, var.) insculpta. Like the C.S. L. form and crenata, but 
ribs closer, without spiral sculpture, sutural holes behind the basal rib, 

416. Opalia spongiosa, n.s. Like small, very slender granulata: surface riddled 
with deep punctures in spiral rows. 

417. Opalia retiporosa, u.s. Sculpture in network, with deep holes. 40 fm. d.r. Cp, 

418. Opalia bullata, n.s. Shape of Rissoina: with sutural baakee no basal rib. 


Family Certthiopside. 

419. Cerithiopsis tuberculata, Mont. Fbs. & Hanl. Agrees with the British rather 
than with the Mazatlan form, Cat. no. 557. 

420. Cerithiopsis columna, n.s. Very tall: nodules close, like strung figs. 

421. Cerithiopsis munita, n.s. Stout: strongly sculptured: base evenly ribbed. 

422. Cerithiopsis purpure, n.s. Stained with purple: nodules fine: base finely 
lirate. 

423. Cerithiopsis fortior, n.s. Sculpture open: strong basal rib. 

424. Cerithiopsis assimilata, C. B. Ad. Maz. Cat. no. 563.' With spiral keels. Prom 
Southern fauna. 

425. Triforis Padversa, Mont. Fbs. & Hanl. Agrees with British specimens. iG- 
40 fm. v.r. Cp. 
Family Cancellariade. 

426. Cancellaria modesta, n.s. Like Trichotropis borealis, with two slanting yp its 
and spiral ribs travelling up the paries. See also p. 615, nos. 463, 817. 


146 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. GOL 




































































| Nutt, Jew. |B. A. | Smiths. Ins. Ken. | Lord. Swan.| Cooper. 
427. Trichotropis cancellata ..; — | — | P _— P|—|V — 
428, PHOTIUS! s| 26.82 5 ciche's ;}—}|—|—]— aaa ev — 
429, Velutina levigata ...... —|{/—|/— — Pas ey _ 
430, prolongata ........ Saal ae alan — 
431, Natica clausa .......... —|;—|P = Ete ey — 
432. Lunatia Lewisii ........ —|C;P P P|—|V D 
4333, BUT A oisicrcrsccis «steers —j;—|P — Piel = 
454. Neverita Recluziana ....) — | — | — D —}|—|— D 
435. Priene Oregonensis...... —;—|P VE Pa Vahey, M 
436. Ranella Californica...... —|—/— L —|—/—]| BD 
437. Mitra maura ....... .--| C | — | — i —|—|— DI 
438. Marginella Jewettnh ....) —| B | — —* |}—}—}] — MI 
439. subtrigona ........ —| B|— — —|—)|}— oo 
440. TEPUIAFIS: c.< 2 ies see —|Bi/|— == —;}—/]—| MDI 
441. Volutella pyriformis ....) — | — | — iF —}—|— D 
442. Volvarina varia ........ —|B}— aa —|—|— DI 
443. Olivella biplicata....... ol ale ue D —/}—}|V! MDI 
444. DOGG Ara ars ovale 5-0/a)27s .| — | B | OC M P|—!/V D 

427. Tvichotropis cancellata, Hds. Sulph. Sculpture strong, open. Epidermis bristly. 


428. 


451. 
452. 


453. 
454. 


or 


tf 


o~ 
de 


453. 


459, 
440, 


441. 
412. 


443. 
444. 


Trichotropis inermis, Hds. Sulpn. Sculpture faint: not bristly. 


Family Velutinide. 


. Velutina levigata, Linn. Fbs. & Hanl. Exactly accords with British speci- 


mens. ?= Kamtschatkana, Desh. 


. Velutina prolongata, n.s. Spire very small. Labrum produced in front. 


Family Naticide. 
Natica clausa, Brod. & Shy. Umbilicus closed. Opere. shelly. Circumboreal. 
LInunatia Lewisti, Gd. E. E.=herculea, Midd. Whizrls flattened behind. Abun- 


dant on beach, Cp. 
LIunatia pailida, Br. & Sby.=caurina+soluta, Gld. Globular, compact, whitish, 


Boreal. 
Neverita Recluziana, Petit, Rve. Large, solid, raised, with brown grooved 
lump on pillar. Also Guaymas. 


Family Tritonide. 


. Priene Oregonensis, Redf. Like canceliata, but coarser sculpture. 6 fm. Lyall. 
6. Ranella Californica, Hds. Sulph. Scarcely differs from fine specimens of 2, 


ventricosa, in Mus. Cum, 
Family Fasciolaride. 


Mitra maura, Swains. Nutt. = orientalis, Gray =‘ Chilensis, Gray,’ Kien. Very 
dark and plain. Peru. Sand between rocks, l.w. Cum. Peru. 


Family Marginellide. 
Marginella Jewettii, Cpr. P. Z. 8. 1856, p. 207. Like the Mogador species, 
somewhat shorter and broader. 10-20 fm. Cp. = : 
Marginella subtrigona, n.s. Shape of Erato columbella. 
Marginella regularis, n.s. Between Jewettii and minor, C. B, Ad. Maz. Cat. 
no. 587. Beach-20 fm. Cp. : 
Volutella pyriformis, n.s. Genus of Swainson (not D’Orb.) = Closia, Gray, 
Like V. margaritula, Maz. Cat. no. 589, but produced in front. 
Volvarina varia, Shy. O.S. Lucas, W. Indies. 
Family Olivide. 
Olivella biplicata, Shy. Tank. = glandinaria, Nutt. Nut-shaped. 
Olivella betica, n.s. Narrow, dull, thin: has been erroneously called anazora, 
teryina, petiolta, and rujfifasciata. 


147 


669 REPORT—1863. 
















































































Nut! Jew. | B. A. \|smiths. Ins.; Ken. | Lord.|Swan.| Cooper. 
445, Nassa fossata .......... a (nla a P|—/|V D 
446, PORPINOWNS «occ ea0% —/ B/C} @P)L | —}]— BDI 
447 Inseul pta... .s. a%,eu: —|—/|/— = —}j—-|— I 
442, = mMendica..-..%%+. —|CI|P POF PA OV | Vi MD 
449, —— Cooperi .......... —j|—|? — —|;—|— DI 
450 POPUL: . sae «010, see —j|}—/|LC L —);—|— D 
451. Amycla gausapata ...... —/B|P VD Pe Wai Ne M 
452. —— ?Californiana...... Sl OE lh 0 — a = 
453. —— tuberosa .......... — |Bfs.| — a —{}—]} Vj] MDI 
454, P chrysalloidea —}|—|}— =~ —}—}— D 
455. P undata x: 3.05.6 « —|—}— — —|—/|]— I 
456, ? Truncaria corrugata....| — | — | O || VPFMI| P | —/ V DI 
457. Columbella carinata — | B | iC — | S|) a ODL 
| 4575. Pyar. ELindsil. .s... —;B|D — — | —.| V MD 
; 458. Purpura crispata........ Cp | Ct NEP OM Sibel y alae F 
| 459. canaliculata ...... —}|—|]— VF Sl Werle WP — 
| 460. Sax COLA ars cnucieteks, cue —|C;C VPF ee ag, FI 
| 4606. var. fuseata ...... ——=|,—— }|\ — — | — | V = 
460. var. emarginata B| B/C ~D = D 
460d. var. ostrina ...... —|F|{C POC Boa Vie Ns FD 





Family Buccinide. 

445, Nassa fossata, Gld. E. KE. = elegans, Rve. non Desh. Large, broad, flattened spire. 

446, Nassa perpinguis, Hds. Sulph. Same type, smaller, rounder, narrower. 

447. Nassa insculpta, n.s. Zeuxis, with varix and non-reflexed callus. Spirally 
grooved. 40 fm. living, r. Cp. 

448. Nassa mendica, Gld. E. K.+ Grbbesa, Coop.= Woedwardit, Fhs. Very variable : 
some forms approach trivittata. 

449, Nassa Cooperi, Fbs. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 273. Like mendica, with 7 distant ribs, 
and fine spiral sculpture. 

450. Nassa tegula, Rve. Maz. Cat. no. 624. From Southern fauna. 

451. Amycla gausapata, Gld. E. E. (Genus rearranged for Columbellids with Nas- 
soid opercula, probably including Ala and Astyris.) Strong, solid, varie- 
oated, smooth. 

452. Amycla ? Californiana, Gask. P.Z.S. 1851, p. 12. Whirls more swollen. 

453, Amycla tuberosa, n.s. Very close to minor, Scacchi, but with different nu- 
cleus. 8-10fm. c. Cp. 

454. P Amycla chrysalloidea, n.s. Shape of Truncaria eurytoides, but mouth not 
effuse: spirally furrowed. Shoal-water, Cp. 

455. P Amycla unda‘a,n.s. Like stumpy, small corrugata, with waved sculpture. 
40 fm. not r. Cp. 

456. ? Truncaria corrugata, Rve. Conch. Ie. (“ Buceinum :” “ Pisania,” Add. May 
be an Amycla.) Large, with waved ribs and spiral striz. Dwarfed at 40 
fm. Cp. : 

457. “Columbella” carinata, Hds. Sulph. Small, twrrited, smooth, with stout pos- 
terior keel. (Perhaps Amycla.) Beach, Cp. 

457 b. Columbella ?var. Hinds, Rve. Keel shorter, till it ceases, as in gausapata. 


Family Purpwride. 
. 458. Purpura crispata, Chem.=plicata, Mart.=lactuca, Esch. = septentrionalis, Rye. 

+e. Large, strong, canal distinct, smooth or foliated. 

459. Purpura canaliculata, Ducl.=decemcos'ata, Midd.+-attenuata, Rve.+analoga, 
Fbs. With elegant spiral grooves. Chrysodomoid. 

460. Purpura savicola, Val.=lapillus, Coop. Like the Atlantic species, rough, pillar 
scooped, with brown spiral lines, 

4606. Purpura var. fuscata, Fbs, Raised thin form, dull, with faint sculpture. 

460c. Purpura var. emarginata, Desh. Short, swollen, with scaly sculpture. 

460d. Purpura var. ostrina, Gld. I.E. Short, swollen, nearly smooth. 


148 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THF WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 663 







































































Nutt.) Jew. | B. A. | Smiths. Ins./ Ken. ian Swan.| Cooper. 
461. Monoceros engonatum ..|/ B | — | C | D —|—}— DI 
4616. Pyar. spiratum ....| — | — | — — — | — | — I 
462. —— lapilloides ........ B/—/C D — | — | — I 
463. Ocinebra lurida and vars. | — |B fs.) — || FI —|/V | V | Mjun.} 
464. INTOELOSSA'..-,. 6 « aye: —|{—|—| MI Bee Vie 7 |--M- jun: 
465. ? Roulsonives.). see CB L — _ == 
466. Cerostoma foliatum ....; — | —} O ||/PODI fs; P| V | V a 
467. Niceticallihigerssstrenee teres B;B;C] — a DI 
468. monoceros .......- —;}—|C) L — | — ?D 
469. Chorus Belcheri ........ = | —— |p| I ae D 
470. Nitidella Gouldii........ —|}Bi— M P | —| V MD 
471. Pedicularia Californica ..} — | — | — (1) —|— — 
472. Pteronotus festivus...... —| CC} LI D —_ | | — D 
473. Muricidea Californica....} — | — | LC — — | — |— | MBDI 
474. Trophon multicostatus ..) — | — | — _ Peles Navsltee -- 
475. Orpheus’. os eie say's —;—|Py} — P| Vj— = 
476. triangulatus ...... eae —|}—|— I 
477. Siphonalia Kellettii ....| — P D —|—j|;—] BD 
478. fuscotinctas. «= «6's —|B{]— — —|—|— — 
479. Chrysodomus tabulatus ..} — |Bfs; — | —  |PPjn}) V | V PI 
480. IFEGHANE) ee aie Oe ote ec —/|—|A V —|—|— 





461. Monoceros engonatum, Conr.=uncarinatum, Sby. Brown-dotted, with sharp 
posterior keel, smoothish. Beach, Cp. 

461). Monoceros ?var. spiratum (Blainy.). Light colour; scaly; horn not developed. 

462. Monoceros lapilloides, Conr.= punctatum, Gray +brevidens, Cony. Not should- 
ered: shape of lapillus. 

463. Ocinebra lurida, Midd. (Genus reconstituted for Muricoid Purpurids with 
irregular varices.) Like canaliculata, brown, with swelling ribs. Beach on 
Cat. Is. living. Cp. 

463. Ocinebva var. aspera, Baird. Sculpture rough. 

463 ¢.Ocinebra var. munda. Tall, with faint sculpture. 

464, Ocineb a interfossa, n.s. Purple-brown, with latticed sculpture. 

465. ? Octnebra Poulsont, Nutt. Shape like JZ, monoceros, with brown spiral lines, 

466. Cerostoma foliatum, Gmel.=monodon, Esch. Large, with winged varices. 

467. Cerostoma Nuttallii, Conr. Smaller, pear-shaped: interstices scarcely sculptured. 

468. Cerostoma monoceros, Sby. Spire raised : whirls rough, rounded. 

469. Chorus Belcheri, Hds. Sulph. Very large, with irregular varices like Trophon. 
L. w. com. Cp. 

470. Mitidella Gonldit, Cpr. P. Z. 8. 1856, p. 208. Slender: like thin A. gausapata, 
with Purpuroid opere. 

471. Pedicularia Californica, Newe. Small, purple, highly sculptured. 


Family Muricide. 


472. Pteronotus festivus, Hds. Sulph. Form irregular; frills reflexed. 

473. Muricidea Californica, Hds. Sulph. Varices faintly developed. L.w.-20 fm. Cp. 

474. Trophon multicostatus, Esch.= Guaneri, Lov. Rve. Frills spiny behind : not 
sculptured spirally. Circumpolar. 

475. Trophon Orpheus, Gld. KE. E. Like the last, with distant spiral riblets. 

476. Trophon triangulatus,n. s. Typhoid shape: frills triangular, white. 60 fm. Cp. 

477. Siphonalia Kellettii, Fos. P.Z.S. 1850, p. 274. Very large, turrited, with 
swollen whirls. Also Japan. 1 living 63 in. long. 

478. Siphonalia fuscotincta, n.s. Like the same in extreme miniature. 

479. Chrysodomus tabuiatus, Baird, P. Z.S. 1863, p. 66. Large, with posterior keel, 
and delicate sculpture. 120 fm. dead, Cat. Is. Cp. 

480. Chrysodomus liratus, Mart.= decemcostatus, Midd, (? Say) = Middendorffii, Coop. 
Swollen, with distant keeis. Whidby’s Is. 

149 




















C64 REPORT—1863. 

Nutt.| Jew. | B. A. ||Smiths. Tel Ken. | Lord. Swan leCoonent 

es SE a EG itesc a [ela 
481. Chrysodomus dirus...... — | — | iP VI Villa = 
482. rectirostris ........ —|—|— — ee se oss 
483. Fusus ambustus ........ — Bfs.| C 2 ONT GE fl ey BDI 
484, Macron Kellettii........ —— | — I} Tas L a |e ?I 
485. ATVAGUS © 6 eee eeeee}] — | — fl — L ee ee D 
486. Anachis subturrita ...... —|—|— — | D 
487. P penicillata........ —| B|— — —|—}— DI 
488. Argonauta Argo........ —}—|— ae —|—}]— iE 
489. Octopus punctatus ...... — lee |e (FL) |? P| —|?V I 
490. Ommastrephes giganteus .| — | — | — — —}|—|— I 
491. AAVECSUE fee ste - atte, —|—|— — —|—|— I 
492. Onychoteuthis fusiformis .| — | — | — PM eee A i 








481. Chrysodomus dirus, Rye. =incisus, Gld.= Sitchensis, Midd. Dark liver, with 
spiral grooves. 

482. Chrysodomus rectirostris, n. 8. Small, white, smooth, with straight canal. 

483. Fusus ambustus, Gld. Otia. Close to clavata, Brocchi, from Mediterranean. 
Farallone Is. teste Darbishire; 16 fm. c. Cp. 

484. Macron Kellettti, A. Ad. P. Z.S, 1853, p. 185. Large, with blunt keels. Dead, 
GO fm. Cat. Is. Cp. 

485. Macron lividus, A. Ad. Small, smooth. 

486. Anachis subturvita, n.s. Aspect of small Rissotna. 20 faint ribs: no spiral 
sculpture. 


487. PAnachis penicillata, n.s. Small, with Metuloid sculpture. Beach-10 fm. Cp. 


Class CEPHALOPODA. Family Argonautide. 
488. Argonauta Argo, Linn. auct. Like the Mediterranean form. Hundreds on Sta 
Cruz Is. Cp. 
Family Octopide. 
489. Octopus punctatus, Gabb, Proc. Cal. Ac. 1862, p. 170. S. Clemente Is. Cp, 


Family Loligide. 
490. Ommastrephes giganteus, D’Orb. Peru. Common at S. Clemente Is. Cp. 
491. Ommastrephes Ayresii, Gabb, Proc.Cal.Ac. Hundreds on S. Clemente Is. Cp. 
492. Onychoteuthis fusiformis, Gabb, Proc. Cal. Ac. 1862, p. 171. “Cape Horn, 
Mus. Ac.” §, Clemente Is. Cp. 


113. It remains to tabulate the shells which have been received from 
special localities, south of the State of California, either by the writer or by 
the Smithsonian Institution; vide Br. Assoc. Rep., par. 77. 

The promontory of Lower California has been so little explored, that the » 
existence of a large inland fiord, in lat. 28°, was not known to the autho- 
rities. It appears that the whales have long delighted in its quiet waters; 
and those whalers who were in the secret carefully preserved the exclusive 
knowledge of so profitable a hunting-ground. All that we know at present 
of the molluscs of that region is from collections made at Cerros Island, by 
Dr. Ayres and Dr. Veitsch. They are mostly shore shells, and are sadly 
intermixed with an abundance of cowries, cones, strombs, and other clearly 
Pacific species, which throw great doubt upon those which may be truly 
from the coast. As it is manifestly a ‘hotbed of spurious species,” nothing 
can safely be built upon the data, which present a singular intermixture of 
northern and southern forms. Excluding the Central Pacific importations, 
the lists stand as follows, the temperate species being distinguished (as in the 
first Report) by a *, the tropical by a t:— 

150 











ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 665 


*Sancuinolaria Nuttalli. *Trochiscus Norrisii. 


*Macoma secta. *Omphalius /fuscescens. 
Angulus Gouldii. *Omphalius aureotinctus. 
*+THeterodonax bimaculatus, +Crucibulum imbricatum, 
*Donax Californicus. *+Crucibulum spinosum. 
+ Donax punctatostriatus, +Crepidula arenata and var. 
*Standella ?Californica. +Cerithinm uncinatum. 
*Pachydesma crassatelloides, *Cerithidea pullata. 
*t+Amiantis callosa. +Cerithidea Montagnei. 
*Chione similiima. *Litorina planaxis. 
+Chione neglecta. Luponia sp. ind., jun. 
*Tapes staminea, Conr, +Trivia Solandri. 
{Tapes grata and vars. *Trivia Californica, 
*Lucina Ca‘ifornica. Drillia penicillata. 
Lucina bella. Myurella, sp. 
*Mytilus edulis. (One voung specimen, | *tNeverita Recluziana. 
perhaps from San Francisco. ) +Natica Maroceana. 
*Septifer bifurcatus. *Scalaria (Ind. var.) tincta. 
+Pecten subnodosus, ventricosus, +Bezoardica abbreviata. 
*Pecten monotimeris and vars, - +Leucozonia cingulata. 
*Hinnites giganteus, tStrigatella tristis. 
*+Ostrea conchaphila. *Olivella biplicata. 
*+Anomia Plampe. *Purpura ostrina, vars. 
Siphonaria eequilirata, + Purpura biserialis. 
*+Melampus olivaceus. Monoceros lugubre. 
Helix arrosa. | +Vitularia salebrosa. 
*+ Bulla nebulosa. Cerostoma monoceros, 
*+Ischnochiton Magdalensis, Ocinebra Poulsoni. 
*Acmza persona, var. textilis, Chorus Belcheri. 
*Acmea scabra, var. limatula. +Columbella fuseata. 
*Acmea Pspectrum, jun. *Columbella carinata. 
*Lottia gigantea. +Strombina gibberula. 
*Lucapina crenulata. +Anachis coronata. 
*Fissurella volcano. *+Nassa tegula. 
*Haliotis splendens. +Nassa complanata, 
*Haliotis Cracherodii. Macron Kellettii. 
*Pomaulax vndosus. *Macron lividus. 


Callopoma tessellatum = Fokkesii, 


The shells of Margarita Bay, on the Pacific coast of Lower California, in 
lat. 24°, have become known through W. Harper Pease, Esq., of Honolulu, 
Sandwich Islands. Through his labours we are likely soon to be favoured 
with accurate accounts of the distribution of species in the various parts of 
the Pacific Ocean. Already his researches have greatly enriched our know- 
ledge of the quaint fauna of the Sandwich Islands, from which he has elimi- 
nated the spurious species, and added those erroneously ascribed to California 
by previous naturalists. The principal trade from these islands is with San 
Francisco; and “the coast,” in Mr. Pease’s writings, signifies the coast of — 
California or (generally) of Western America. Many of our best specimens 
of rare West-coast shells have been received from him, and in remarkably 
fresh preservation. The Margarita Bay species were obtained by one of his 
trained collectors, and are as follows :— 


Martesia intercalata. Donax punctatostriatus. 
peers pholadis oe paereroe> 
olecurtus violascens, allista chionea. 
Hiatula compacta. Callista vulnerata (?=tricolor, Pse.), 
*Tellina secta. Chione succincta 
Strigilla carnaria (pink), Chione gnidia, 
Semele Californica, Tapes grata, 


151 


CBG 


*'Tapes staminea, 
Chama trondosa. 
Cardium procerum. 
Liocardium elatum. 
Modiola capax. 
Modiola Brasiliensis. 
Lithophagus attenuatus. 
Barbatia gradata. 
Pecten ventricosus. 
Ostrea Virginica (Maz. Cat.). 
*Ostrea lurida, var. 
Ostrea conchaphila. 
Ostrea amara. 
Siphonaria equilirata (=leviuscula, 
Sby., teste Cuming). 
Siphonaria gigas. 
*{Tolix areolata, Fbs. (The only land- 
shell received from the Bay.) 
Dentalium tetragonum, Sby. 
Dentalium semipolitum. 
Dentalium lacteum, Zhi. 
Acmeea strigatella. 
Acmiea atrata. 
Gadinia reticulata. 
Calliostoma versicolor. 
*Chlorostoma gallina. 
*Chlorostoma aureotinctum. 
Nerita scabricosta. 
Nerita Bernhardi. 
Crucibulum spinosum. 
Crucibulum imbricatum, 


ReEPORT—1363. 


Crepidula onyx. 

Crepidula excavata. 

Galerus conicus. 

Cerithium stercus muscarum. 

Pyrazus incisus and var. 

Rhinoclavis gemmata. 

Cerithidea Mazatlanica. 

Litorina fasciata. 

Litorina aspera, var. 

Conus “reticulatus ” (Pease). Dead. 

Conus “ emarginatus’ (Pease), Dead. 

Conus interruptus. 

Neverita Reciuziana. 

Polinices bifasciata. 

Cancellaria urceolata. 

Cancellaria goniostoma. 

“ Cypreecassis  testiculus ” 

tenuis |. 

Malea ringens. 

Priene nodosa. 

Oliva subangulata, 

Oliva porphyria. 

Purpura patula. 

Purpura biserialis. 
*Purpura ostrina. [ Normal, living. ] 

Vitularia salebrosa. 

Monoceros lugubre, var. 

Cerostoma monoceros. 

Nassa tegula. 

Siphonaha anomala. 

Phyllonotus nigritus. 


[perhaps 


In the above list, the only strictly Californian species are those marked 


with a *. 


The following species have been received from La Paz, besides those tabu- 
lated in Major Rich’s list, p. 541, in the C.S. L. list, p. 619, and the B. A. 


Rep. p. 352. 


It is clear that the fauna of the district is essentially tropical, 


and remarkably free from Californian species. 


Dentalium semipolitum. 
Turritella punctata. 
Modulus cerodes. 


Olivella fulgida, Lieut. Trowbridge [teste W. Cooper; but probably added by 
him accidentally from his W. African collections. It has not been received 
from any other West-coast source ]. 

Siphonalia modificata. Dead. 


A very interesting series of shells were collected at Guaymas and Pinacati 
Bay, by Capt. Stone and Mr. Sloat. The latter gentleman affixed MS. names 
to those which he regarded as new. They were in remarkably beautiful 
condition, the bivalves having an unusually porcellanous aspect, and many 
uf the species presenting local peculiarities. 


Mulinia carinulata, Desh.,= Mactra modesta, Sloat MS. 

Dosinia ponderosa, Very large. 

Chione fluctifraga, Sby.,= V. Cortezi, Sloat MS. [=gzbbosula (Desh.), Rve.,= 
callosa, Sby., non Conr. }. 

Chione succincta, Val.,= Californiensis, Brod.,= V. crassa, Sloat MS. [Very 
variable in sculpture ; also, with the last, varies greatly in shape, some of the 
specimens being much produced, others rounded. | 

Chione gnidia, Brod. Passing into amathusia, 


152 





ON MOLLUSCA OF TITE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 667 


Chione pulicaria, Sby., var.,= V. Pinacatensis, Sloat MS. Sculpture pressed 
smooth in the middle. 

Cardium elatum. Fine. 

Cardium procerum. Fine. 

Modijla capax. “ Choros.” Also Sta. Inez Bay. 

Modiola Brasiliensis. (Typical.) 

Byssoarca Pacifica. 

Ostrea conchaphila et amara, Maz. Cat. 215. 

Chiton (Lophyrus) Stokestt. Also San Salvador, Capt. Dow. 

Callopoma fluctuatum. 

Bivonia contorta. 

Turritella goniostoma. 

Turritella tigrina (light var.),= leucostoma, Val. 

Cerithidea albonodosa. Common. [Probably a var. of Mazatlanica.] 

Strombus gracilior. Also Mulege Bay. 

Neverita Recluziana. {Operc. strong, horny. | 

Ranella triquetra. Loe sub-Buccinoid, oval; nucleus internal, near middle 
of labrum ; scar with few ridges, as in Purpura. | 

Oliva angulata. Not rare. 

Oliva Cumingii, very callous var. 

Agaronia testacea. 

Monoceros lugubre. Very tall var. 

Phyllonotus nigritus. Very large, of form described by Philippi, with Pholads 
im situ. Agiobampo Bay. 

Phyllonotus bicolor. {Operc. thin, without frills or raised layers ; of uniform 
colour.] Also Angeles Bay. 


To these may be added, from a second voyage by Capt. Stone to the 
northern part of the Gulf of California, and in equally good condition— 


Arca grandis. Agiobampo Bay. 

Callista semilamellosa. Agiobampo Bay. 

Lazaria pectunculus (teste Cuming). St. Luis Bay. 
Cardium consors. St. Luis Bay. 

Avicula Peruviana. Mulege Bay. 

Lvucina tigerrina. Very tine. San Marcos Island. 
Margaritiphora fimbriata. ‘“ Topo.” 

Janira dentata {| =exrcavata, Val.|. ‘ Caballito del mar,” St. Luis Bay. 
Bulla nebulosa. “ Huevitos.” 

Glyphis inequalis. St. Luis Bay. 

Crucibulum imbricatum. St. Luis Bay. 

Cyprea evanthema. (Large.) Cape de Haro. 

Myurella variegata. Mulege Bay. 

Solarium granulatum et var. quadriceps. Agiobampo Bay. 
Polinices bifasciata. Angeles Bay. 

Cyprecassis tenuis [= Marsene, Kien.|. Carmen Island. 
Harpa crenata. Very fine. Mulege Bay. 

Bexoardica abbreviata. Mulege Bay. 

Ficula decussata. Angeles Bay. 

Pyrula patula. Agiobampo Bay. 

Malea ringens. — Lobos Island. 

Argonauta hans. 1 fine sp. Upper part of Gulf of California. 


To the Guaymas fauna must be added, from Dr. Gould’s portion of the 
same collection, ‘‘ Pecten pyaidatus” [?=subcrenatus, jun.). Also from the 
collection of the Calif. Ac. Nat. Se., Nassa nodocincta, A. Ad. { Galapagos, 
Cuming}. On comparing these lists with the shells given in Bb. A. Rep. 
p- 352 (in which the Venus quoted is not “ staminea, Conr.,” but a southern 
species), it will be seen that the fauna of the upper part of the Gulf, as far 
north as it has been explored, is essentially tropical, The Chione fluctifray 


158 





Co3 REPORT—1863. 

and C. succincta, however, and the Polinices Recluziana indieate a connexien 
with California which may have been, at a previous age, more direct than at 
present. 

114. (See first Report, pars. 79-83.) Acapulco being notorious for the 
exotic species quoted in its fauna, it is desirable to examine all authentic 
collections from that prolific locality. The Smithsonian series were ob- 
tained by Dr. Newberry * (1V.), after his Pacific R. R. Explorations (vide 
p- 993); by Mr. Belcher (B.); and by the Rev. J. Rowell (2#.), who obtained 
them principally from the valves of the large oysters. The private collec- 
tions of Judge Cooper, Col. Jewett (J.), and ‘other American naturalists have 
also afforded valuable information. The species from these various sources, 
which were also found by Mr. Xantus, are tabulated with his Cape St. Lucas 


series, anted, pp. 619-626, 
northern localities :— 


Corbula nuciformis, J. 

Corbula ovulata, and smooth var., B., J. 

Macheera patula, var., 1. [Surely i im- 
ported. | 

Sanguinolaria saa lene aelD 

Tellina princeps, B.; punicea, W., B.; 
opercularis, 1. 

Strigilla carnaria, pale and crimson vars., 
N, 

Semele ‘proxima, J.; pulehra, J, N.; 
venusta, J. 

Donax cafinatus, J., N.; rostratus, ars 
transversus, JV. 

Trigona Hindsii, J. 

Mactrellacarinata, Lam.,=alata, Spengl., 
WV. {Perhaps imported. | 

Dosinia Annee, NV. 

Callista circinata, J.; semilamellosa, N., 
B.; spinosissima, B. 

Chione amathusia, J. 

Rupellaria foliacea, R. 

Petricola ventricosa, ?. 

Chama corrugata, PR. 

Cardium Paculeatum, jun., NM. [proba- 
bly from ballast]; graniferum, 1. 
Lucina ?pectinata, var., J. { More like 

imbricatula, W. 1.; perhapsJamaican. | 
Diplodonta semiaspera, J. 
Felania tellinoides, var., J. {More like 
subglobosa, W. 1. ; perhaps Jamaican. | 
Corbicula ?convexa, 1 worn valve, . 
Scapharca bifrons, NV. ; labiata, B. 
Noétia reversa, J., B. 
Argina brev ifrons, N. 
Axinwa parcipicta [=multicostata], 
FENG: bee J.; inzequalis, J. 
Lima angulata, J. 
Ostrea megodon (P. Z.S.1845,p. 106], N. 
Anomia lampe, J. 


The following have not been obtained from the 


Tornatina infrequens, B. 

Dentalium ?hexagonum, var., B. 

Fissurella nigropunctata, Je ; Pmacro- 
trema, J.; alba, jun., B. (1 worn sp.) 

Calliostoma lima, var. zequisculpta, N. ; 
Leanum, J. 

Senectus squamigerus, J. 

Galerus conicus, N.; mamillaris, NV. 

Crepidula nivea, £. ; - incurva, N. 

Turritella Banksii, N.; leucostoma, RB, 

Ampullaria Columbiensis, R. | West 
“Mexico ; locality uncertain. | 

Truncatella Bair diana, B, 
tadius avena, J. 

Cypreea exanthema, N. 

Luponia fimbriolata, Beck, N. [Pro- 
bably imported, and perhaps an im- 
perfectly developed form of semipo- 
lita, Migh. } 

Terebra tuberculosa, iN: 

Dnillia incrassata, B.; eburnea, n. s., 
R. [W.Mexico; locality uncertain. 7 

Mangelia subdiaphana, J. 

Conus interruptus, Br. § Sby., B.; ma- 
hogani, NV.; puncticulatus, N. 

Eulima hastata, te 

Eulima, like yod, ts 

Kulimella, sp. (worn), B 

Chemnitzia tenuilirata, B. 

Fasciolaria, sp. [size of talipa, but with 
row of Enobe and serrated lip], A 

Latirus castaneus, NV. 

Volvarina Pfusca, J. [More regularly 
cylindrical than the W. I. specimens, 
broader in proportion near suture 
and at base, spire much shorter; but 
locality uncertain. ‘| 

Oliva Julietta, B. worn sp. [prohas 
bly imported]; Pkaleontina, dead, N. 


* The collections of Dr. Newberry passed principally into the hands of Dr. E. Fores 
man, late of Washington, who kindly presented a series to the Mus. Smiths. 


154 








ON MOLULUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 669 


Agaronia testacea, JV. | Nassa collaria, NV. ; ambigua, Mont., teste 
Rhizocheilus madreporarum. 2 living Hanl., N. [Probably imported. from 
sp. on coral, J. A/a] 


Columbella uncinata,/. ; humerosa,n.s., { Anachis coronata, N.; Californica, J. 
R.; varians, var., V. [?Importedfrom | Muricidea alveata, J. 
Sandw. Is. } Phyllonotus brassica, NV. 


The following species are part of a collection received at the Smithsonian 
Inst. from Real Llejos, an1 fill up gaps which existed in the Central Ameii- 
can fauna at the time of the first Report :— 


Discina Cumingii. Ceecum liratocinctum. 
Trigona Hindsii. Crecum lieve. 
Hé4micardium obovale. Cerithium interruptum, var. 
Crassatella gibbosa. Barleeia subtenuis. 
Kellia suborbicularis. Aricia punctulata, 
Barbatia mutabilis. Terebra strigata. 

Noétia reversa. Cerithiopsis assimilata. 
Axinzea ?multicostata. Tritoris alternata. 
Fissurella rugosa. Olivella gracilis. 
Phasianella perforata. Nitidella millepunctata. 
Omphalius viridulus. Noithia pristis. 
Hipponyx barbatus. Pisania sanguinolenta. 


The collections received at the Smithsonian Inst. from Panama consist, in the 
main, of species already tabulated from that region. The following, however, 
are new to that well-searched portion of the fauna :— 


Tellina striata (teste Cuming), . Howell, Pease. 

Tellina (Angulus) amplectans, n. , Rowell, Pease. 

Adula stylina. | Califor nian species : either ballast or error in num- 

Pecten equisuleatus, jun. { bering: Rowell. 

Litorina, Small spotted species, n. s., teste Cuming, but appears identical 
with the W. Indian: probably imported: Rowell. 

Fluminicola, sp., Row oe 

Drillia albolagueata, n.s., Rowell. 

Natica catenata, Reale 

Cuma costata, Rowell. 


115. The Pulmonates of the Pacific slope hive not formed a special study 
with the writer of this Report, as they were already in the abler hands of 
-Messrs. Binney, Bland, and other eminent Transatlantic naturalists. The 
opinions of Mr. Binney as to synonymy, &c., with descriptions of new 
species and details of those previously known, were given in papers pub- 
lished in the ‘ Proce. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil.’ as follows:—* Descriptions of American 
Land Shells,’’ Feb. 1857; ‘‘ Notes on American Land Shells,” Oct. 1857, 
May 1858, Nov. 1858, July 1859: and also in the ‘ Proc. Bost. N. H.5.,’ 
* Description of two supposed new species of American Land Shells,” Apr. 
1857. These are embodied in ‘ The Terrestrial Air-Breathing Molluscs of the 
United States and the adjacent Territories of North America,’ vol. iv., by 
W. G. Binney, Boston, 1859. It was first printed in the ‘ Boston Journal 
of Natural History,’ yall vil., and is intended as a Supplement to the great 
treatise by his father, vols. 1.-11., on the same subject. It is impossible to 
speak in too high terms of commendation of the manner in which this work 
has been prepared and executed, and of the beautiful figures drawn by Otto 
| Kohler. The more matured views of the author were embodied in the 
‘ Check-List of the Terrestrial Gasteropoda of North America,’ published by 
the Smithsonian Inst., June 1860, of which a second edition was soon issuea, 
The species were divided into three series,—(1) those of the Pacific coast, 

159 


670 RrPoRT—18653. 


trom the extreme north to Mazatlan ; (2) those of eastern N. A.. from the 
boreal regions to the Rio Grande ; (3) those found in Mexico, to which sixteen 
from the first series are added. The freshwater Pulmonates are catalogued 
by the same most industrious author, in the ‘ Check-List of the Fluviatile 
Gasteropoda of N. America,’ which contains the Melaniade, Paludinidy, 
Ampullariade, Valvutide, and Limneide ; the West Coast species being dis- 
tinguished by the letter W, and the Mexican by M. Mr. Binney next under- 
took a monograph of the Paludinide, &c., the proofs of which were widely 
distributed in 1862. Afterwards, assisted by the extensive series of speci- 
mens received from the Smithsonian Museum, and with access to those of 
the principal public and private collections in the U.8., and with the benefit 
of Say’s types preserved in the Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil., he prepared a preliminary 
synopsis of the Limneide, with full synonymy, proofs of which were issued by 
the Smithsonian Inst., May 4th, 1863. Last of all, under date Dec. 9, 1868, 
the Smithsonian Inst. has distributed proof copies of a complete ‘Synopsis 
of the Species of Air-Breathing Molluscs of N. A., as eliminated from their 
synonyms by Mr. Binney’*. Of all these works the author not only sent the 
earliest slip-proofs to assist in the preparation of this Report, but in several 
instances took the pains to write separately what related to the W. coast, 
and even sent the manifold-duplicate of part of the printer’s copy. It is not 
considered necessary to tabulate each of these publications separately, as 
they can easily be obtained by post, on application to Professor Henry, 
Washington, D.C. The following list embodies—(1) the classification and 
nomenclature of Dec. 9th, 1863; (2) the synonymy as given in previous 
synopses ; and (3) the localities and authorities supplied by Mr. Binney in 
MS. The following reservation requires attention :—‘‘ As a mere proof, 
which will undoubiedly receive many corrections, this list should not be 
quoted as authority, or referred-to as a published work.” 


Mr. Binney’s Arrangement of the West Coast Pulmonates, 
y g 


t The species thus marked have not been seen by Mr. Binney. 


PHANEROPNEUMONA. 
EctropHTHatMa. (None known in the region.) 
OPISTHOPHTEALMA. Fam. 7runcatellide. 


1, Truncatella Californica, Pfr.,+T. gracilenta, Gld. 8S. Diego, Cooper. [Comp, 
Maz. Cat. no. 423. ] 


PULMONATA. 
Gropuma. § 1. Vermivora. Fam. Oleacinide, 


2, Glandina (Glandina) turris, Pfr. (= Achatina= Oleacina, Pfr.) W. Mexico. 
Maz. Cat. no. 231. : : 
Glandina ‘ Glandina) Albersi, Pfr. (= Achatina, Pfr.).,+ G. Albersi, var. turrita, 

Cpr. W. Mexico. Maz. Cat. no. 280. 


* The first Transatlantic attempt to revise the genera of N. A. Helicid@ was made by 
Mr. Bland, in his “ Remarks on Classifications of N. A. Helices by European authors, 
and especially H. and A. Adams and Albers,” printed in the ‘ Annals of the Lyceum ot 
Nat. Hist. N. York,’ Oct. 1863. In an addendum, he gives a list of the Pacific species, 
with an account of two “genera” not represented in the eastern division. Mr. Binney, 
continuing Mr. Bland’s labours, issues the species for the most part in the trmomial 
nomenclature, which now appears to be taking the place of the Linnean binomial system. 
No attempt is here made to review the work, as the writer felt justified in doing with 
reference to marine shells; the only alterations made consisting of corrections in some of 
the citations with which he happened to be aa familiar. 

li 


— 
9 


0° 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 071 


§ 2. Phyllovora. Fam. Helicide. 


Subfam. Vetrinine. 
+4. Vitrina Pfeifferi, Newe. Carson Valley, Cal., Newcomb, 

5. Binneya notabilis, Cp. Catalina Island, Cal., Cooper. 

6. Macrocyclis Newberryana, Bin. 8. Diego, common, Newberry. 

7. Macrocyclis Vancouverensis, Lea, Helix V., Lea, Trosch., Pfr., Gld., Rve.,= 
H. vellicata, Fbs., Rve., Pfr., + H. concava, Binn. VANCOUVER TO CALI- 
FORNIA :—Columbia R., Nuttall, U.S. E. E.; Puget Sound, U.S. EF. EF. ; 
Vancouver, B. N. P. B. S.; Oregon City, Newberry ; California, Trowbridge ; 
St. Joseph’s R., 2nd Camp. 

7b. Macrocyclis {Pvar.| sportella*, Gld. Puert Sp. to S. Dreco :—Puget Sd., 
U.S. E. E.; Fort Umpqua, Oregon ; 8. Diego, Ives, Newberry ; S. Francisco, 
Mus. Cal. Ac. ; Contra Costa Co., Thomson. “ Animal solitary.” 


Subfam. Helicine. 
&, Helix (Patula) strigosa, Gid. InrTER1oR Bastin; N. Mexico To Brit. AM.3 
—Int. of Oregon, U. S. E. E.; Canon Largo, Rio Pedro, N. M., Newberry, 
9. Helix (Patula) Cooperi, Bin. California. 

10. He'tx (Patula) Mazatlanica, Pfr. Mazatlan. 

ll. Helix (Polygyra) acutedentata, Bin.,+ H. Loisa, Bin. Guaymas. Mazatlan, 
Gumbel. 

12. Helix (Polygyra) ventrosula, Pfr. [No locality given: not “ Ww.” in Check- 
Lists. | 

13. Helix (Polygyra) polygyrella, Bland. “Ww.” [teste Check-List, not in MS.] 

14. Helix (Stenotrema) germana, Gld. Oregon, U.S. 1. E. 

15. Helix ( Triodopsis) Mullani, Bland. WAsHINGTON TERRITORY AND OREGON: 
—St. Joseph’s River, Ist Camp. 

16. Helix ( Triodopsis) luricata, Gld., Pfr.,= H. Lecontei, Lea. Sacramento River, 
U.S. E. E. 

17. Helix (Mesodon) Columbiana, Lea, Trosch., Rve., Pfr.,+ H. labiosa, Gld., Ptr. 
VANCOUVER TO OREGON :—Ft. Vancouver, Nuttall; Ft. George, U.S. LL. 3; 
Nootka Sound, Hinds; Astoria, Drayton; Oregon City, Newberry. 

18. Helix (Mesodon) devia, Gld., Pir., =H. Baskervillei, Pfr., Rve. Puget Sound, 
U. S. E. E.; Oregon. 

19. Helix (Aglaia) fidelis, Gray, Miill., Rve., Pfr.,= H. Nuttalliana, Rve., Trosch., 
Gld. VANCOUVER TO OREGON :—Puget Sound,Columbia River, U.S. £. E.; 
Esquimault Harb., Zord; Umpqua Valley, Or., and San Francisco, New- 
berry; De Fuca, Gibbs; Oregon City, Shumard; It. Steilacoom, Suckley. 

20. Helix (Aglaia) infumata, Gld. San Francisco, Bigelow. 

21. Helix (Arianta) arrosa, Gld., =H. e@ruginosa, Gld. (nom. preoc.). OREGON, 
CALIFORNIA :—San Francisco, Bigelow, Samucls; Petaluma and Columbia 
River, Newberry. 

22. Helix (Arianta) Townsendiana, Lea, Trosch., Rve., Pfr., Gld.,+ H. pedestris 
+ruda, Gid. OrrGon AND CatLirorntA:—Wahlamat River, Nuttall, 
Townsend, U. S. E. E.; Nisqually, Dyes.; Puget Sound, Kennerley. 

23. Helix (Arianta) tudiculata, Binn. WaAsHINGTON TERRITORY TO CALIFORNIA: 
—San Diego, Newberry. 

24. Helix (Arianta) Nickliniana, Lea,= H. Californiensis, Rve., Pfr. (non Lea), 
=H. arboretorum+nemorivaga, Val.—Var. = H. anachoreta, Binn. “ Widely 
distributed, but solitary,” Thompson. CALIFORNIA :—Sacramento River, 
U. S. E. E.; San Francisco, Bigelow ; Tomales, Newberry. 

25. Helix (Arianta) redimita, Binn. (jun.),=H. Nickliniana, var. Binn. (sen.). 
California. 


: 


* In the Check-List of Dec. 9th, sportella does not appear. It is generally treated by 
Mr. Binney as a small variety of Vancouverensis, with stronger radiating and spiral lines ; 
but in the MSS. sent for publication in this Report it takes rank asa species. Mr. Bland 
considers the two identical; yet in Add. Gen. the form is thus divided :—‘‘ Iberus (Cam- 
pylea) sportella, in fam. Helicide,”’ and “ Discus Vancouverensis, in fam. Stenopide.” 
In Albers it is divided as “ Macrocyclis vellicata,’ “ M. Vancouverensis,” aud “ Helix 
(Patula) sportella.” 

157 


REPORT—1863. 


. Helix (Arianta) intercisa, Binn. (jun.),=H. Nicklinana, var. Binn. (sen), 


Oregon. 


. Helix (Arianta) exarata, Pfr. California. 

. Helix (Arianta) reticulata, Pfr. California. 

. Helix (Arianta) ramentosa, Gld. California, Nevwcomb. 

. Helix (Arianta) Ayrestana, Newe. Northern Oregon. 

. Helix (Arianta) Bridgesti, Newe. San Pablo, California, Newcomb. 

12. Helix (Arianta) Carpentert, Newe. Tulare Valley, California. | Not Carpen- 


tertana, Bland ; Florida. ] 


} udelix (2 Arianta) Califor niensis, Lea, Trosch., Dekay (non auct.),=H. vincta, 


Val., Rve., Pfr. CALIFORNIA :—Interior ay Cal, U.S. FE. E.; Monterey, Ives. 


. Helix (Arianta) Mormonum, Pir. Mormon Is., California. 
. Helix (Arianta) Dupetithouarsi, Desh., Rve., Pfr., + H. Oregonensis, Trosch., 


Dekay, Pfr. Wasnineton TE RRITORY To CaLiFornta. Interior of Cal., 
U.S. E. E.; Puget Sound, Dyes.; Klamath Lake and Benicia, Newberry ; 
Tulan Lake, Cal. ; Monterey, Trowbridge ; San Diego, Ives. 


. Helix (Arianta) Pr askit, Newce. Los Angelos, California, Newcomb. 
. He hx (Arianta) Kellettii, Fbs., Rve., Pir. Sta. B arbara, Kellett and Wood ; 


San Diego, teste Gould. 


38. Helix (Arvanta) Pandore, Fbs., Rve., Pfr..=H. damascenus, Gld. Sta. Bar- 


bara, Kellett and Wood; Desert East of California, Mus. Newcomb. 


. Helix (Arianta) levis, Pfr.,+var. 8. Columbia River. 
. Helix (Euparypha) areolata, Sby., Pfr., Phil., Rve. y+vars. B.y. PENINSULA 


oF LOWER CALIFORNIA. [Margarita Bay, ‘Pease: * 


. Columna (Rhodea) Californica, Ptr. [ Achatina, Pfr., Rve. | 


Subfam. Orthalicine. 


. Bulimulus (Liostracus [not Letostraca, Add.})'Zieglert, Pfr. Mazatlan, Reigen. 
. Bulimulus Mexicanus ¢, Lam., Deless., Pfr, Rve. (non Val.),= C ochloyena 


vittata, Fér. Mazatlan, Reivzen. | 


. Bulimulus (Mesembrinus) pallidior, Sby.,=B. vegetus, Gld., teste Cum., Binn. 


San DieGo To Cape St. Lucas :—C. 8. Lucas, Xantus. 


. Bulimulus (Mesembrinus) excelsus, Gd. (text),= B. elatus, Gld. (fig.). San 


1,8. Lucas, Xantus. 





Dira@o To Cape St. Lucas 


. Bulimulus (Mesembrinus) inscendens, Binn, LOWER CALIFORNIA :—Margarita 


Bay, and C. 8. Lucas, Xartus. 


t47. Bulbinudus ( Thaumastus) Culifornicus, Rye. 
+48. Bulimulus (? Mormus) sufflatus,Gld., =p vesicalis, Gld. (nom. preoc.). Lower 
CALIFORNIA. 
49, Bulimulus (? Mormus) pilula, Binn. Lowrr Catirornra:—Todos Santos 
Mission, Marearita Is., Xantes. 
50. Bulimulus (Scutalus) proteus, Brod. Cape St. Lucas, Xantus. 
51. Bulimulus (Seutalus) Xantust, Binn. Cape St. Lucas, Xantus. 
52. Bulinudus (Peroneus {non Per onea, Poli|) artemisia, Binn, Cape St. Lucas, 
Xantus. 
53. Orthalicus (Orthalicus) zebra, Mill., Pfr. Mazatlan, Reigen. pee Eastern 
60d. Orthalicus (Orthalicus) undatus, Fer, . Pfr. § “ Mazatlan.” slope. 


+54. 


755. 
56. 


3 


Nine! 


‘ 


Subfam. Pupine. 


Pupa (Pupilla) Rowellit, Newe. San Francisco, Rowell. 
Pupa (Pupilla) Californica, Row. San Francisco, Rowell. 
Pupa (Leucochila) chordata, Pfr. Cinaloa, Mexico. 


See also Dr. Newcomb’s new species, tabulated in pp. 609, 633, 
t Included among the doubtful species by Mr. Binney ; but the shells so named in the 
Cat., no. 234 (perhaps erroneously), was certainly found on opening the Mazatlan 


boxes by "Mr. Archer. 


§ 


Mr. Binney follows Pfr., in his later works, in separating these P varieties. The shells 


in the Reigen Collection were clearly conspecific. Vide Maz. Cat., no. 232. 


158 











ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 673 


Subfam. Succinne. 


$57. Sucen.cu* (Succinea) Hawkinsi, Baird. British Columbia, Lord. 
$58. Succinea (Succinea) cingulata, Fbs. Mazatlan, Kellett and Wood. 

59. Succinea (Succinea) rusticana, Gld. OrrGon and CaLirornia :—Oregon, 
U.S. E. E.; Ocogo Creek, California, Williamson. 

&C. Suecinea (Succinea) Nuttalliana, Lea. “Scarcely differs from S. ovalis, Hudson 
River,” Gld. ORrEGoN AND CALIFoRNIA:—Lewis’s River, Or., Nuétall ; In- 
terior of Oreg., U. S. EZ. £.; Wright’s Lake, Rhell’s Lake, Cal., Newberry. 

GJ, Succinea (Succinea) Oregonensis, Lea. “ Resembles S. aurea,” Gld. OREGON 
AND CaLiIForniA :—Oregon, Nuttall. San Francisco, Rowell. 


Subfam. Limacine. 


62. Limax t (Amalia) Columbianus,Gld. Puarr Sounp To San FRANCISCO :— 
Puget Sound, U. 8S. E. E., Dyes; Oregon City and Cape Flattery, Wil- 
liamson ; San Francisco and Port Oxford, Trowbridge ; Nisqually, Case. 


Fam. Arionide. 


Subfam. Arionine. 
63. Arion (Lochea) foliolatus,Gld. Puget Sound, U. S. E. E., Pickering. 


Subfam. Zonttire. 


64. Zonites § (gopis) cultellata, Thoms. “ Closely resembles the Dalmatian H, 
albamica and acies.” Contra Costa Co., Cal., common, Z’homson. 


Fam. Onchidiade. 
65. Onchidium Carpenteri, Binn. Cape St. Lucas, Xantus. 


Limnopuita. Fam. Auriculide. 
& 


Subfam. Melampine. 


66. Melampus olivaceus, Cpr. San DreGo To MazaTian :—Mazatlan, Rergen ; 
San Diego, Blake, Cooper. 
67. Pedipes lirata, Bin. Lower Catirornta:—C.S. Lucas, Xantus ; San Diego, 
Cooper. 
Fam. Limneide. 
Subfam. Limneine. 


68. Limnea (Limnea) stagnalis, Linn.,+ L. jugularis, Say, Hald., De Kay, Nist., 
Binn. (1st list),+ Z. appressa, Say, Hald., De Kay, Kiist., C. B. Ad..+ Z. spe- 
ciosa, Zieg]. Hurops, Asta, AMERICA :—Rhett Lake, California, Newberry ; 
Ruby Valley and S. Utah, Captain Simpson. Fort Simpson and Hudson's 
Bay, common; throughout British America and northern tier of U. 8,, 
from Vermont to Pacific, teste Binn. [Var.=H. fragilis, Linn., ‘teste 
Hanl., Ips. Linn. Conch. p. 385; non Rve., Binn. (1st list). | 

69. Limnea (Limnea) lepida, Gld. Lake Vancouver, U. S. E. E. 

70. Limnea (Limnophysa) reflera, Say, Hald., De Kay, Kiist.,4+ Z. elongata, Say, 
LL. umbrosa, Say, Hald., De Kay, Kiist.,+ Z. exilis+ L. Haydeni, Lea. San 
Francisco, Rowell. Also through British America and northern tier of 
States from New York to Pacific; teste Binn. ‘ 

$71. Limnea (Limnophysa) Sumassit, Baird ||. 


* So great is the difficulty of ascertaining (even approximately) the specific relations of 
Succinee without a comparison at least of single specimens, that Mr. Binney considers it 
safest, until series have been examined, simply to quote the species which have been de- 
scribed by other authors. He has followed the same course with Ancylus, and for the 
same reason. 

~ “Has a pore. Why not Arion? ””— Binney, in MS. list. 

§ This appears among “ doubtful species” in the MS., but is printed in the text of 
the Check- List. 

|| Probably a variety of palustris= Nuttalliana, Lea. British authors have as yet had 
but poor opportunities of studying typically-named American freshwater Pulmonate-, 


159 


O74 REPORT—1 863. 


72. Limnea (Limnophysa) palustris, Mill. et auct.,=Z. fragilis (as ofVinn.), Hald., 
De Kay, Binn. (Ist list), Rve. (hodie). [Non Linn., teste Hanl. in Ips. Linn. 
Conch., p. 3885]. +2. elodes, Say, Gld., C. B. ‘Ad. Kiust.,4+ 2. Nutta!- 
hana, Lea, Kust., ?+ LZ. plebeia, Gila. Sia expansa, Hald., De Kay, Kiist. 
NoRTHERN Europe, ASIA, AND AMERICA: —Columbia River, “Natiall 
Puget Sound, Kennerley; Klamath Lake and Summer Lake, Or.; R hett 
Lake and Wright's Lake, Cal., Newberry: Clear Lake, Cal., Veatch : San 
Francisco, Rowell ; Monterey, Canfield ; Porcupine and Yuckron Rivers, Rus. 
America, Renueett Also from Pennsylvania westward to Pacific, and trom 
this line northwards, wherever searched, even to interior of Russian Ame- 
rica; teste Binn. 

73. Limnea (Limnophysa) proxima, Lea. San Francisco, Cooper. Arroya San 
Antonio, J'rask. 

74. Limnea(Limnophysa) emarginata, Say, Hald., De Kay, Kiist.,=Z. Ontarionsis, 
Muhlf., Kiist.,Z. serrata, Hald. Nrw ENGLAND To Wasuincton Ter- 
RITORY, 

79. Limnea (Limnophysa) catascopium, Say, Hald., Gld., De Kay, Mrs. Gray Pot. 
& Mich., Kiist., + Z. pinguis, Say (non Dohrn), as74 Virginiana, Lam., Desh., 
Deless., = Z. cornea, Val., = L. sericata, Ziegl. New ENGLaxD T9 
Lewis "RIVER, AND THROUGH BRITISH AMERICA; teste Binn. 

76. Limnea (Limnophysa) Adeline, Tryon. San Francisco. 

7. Limnea ( Limnophysa) Trashii, Tryon. Mountain Lake, California. 

8. Limnea (Limnophysa) pallida, C. B. Ad., Hald., De Kay. San Francisco, 

Rowell; San Antonio Arroya, teste Lea, 

79. Limnea (Limnophysa) bulimoides, Lea, Hald., De Kay. Fort Vancouver. 
San Francisco, Rowell. Also Eastern States, (Check-List.) 

80. Limnea (Limnophysa) solida, Lea, Hald., De Kay,+Z. apicina, Lea, Wiist. | 
Oregon. Also Eastern States, (Cheek- List. ) 

81. Limnea (Limnophysa) ferruginea, Hald., De Kay. Oregon. 

82. Pompholyx effusa, Lea, Add. Pitt River, Jewberry; Sacrarhento Miver, 
teste Lea 

83. Physa ( Physa) Lordi, Baird. British Columbia, Lord; east of Fort Colville, 
W.T., Am. N. P. B. As v. 

84. Physa (Physa) gyrina, Say, De Kay, Kiist., C. B. Ad., Hald.,= Ph. ellintica, 
Lea, De Kay,+ Ph. cylindrica, De Kay, 4 Ph Mm drethiana, Lea. Wash- 
ine fon Mersito: ‘y, Cavtain Simpson ; San Francisco, Rovell. 

85. Physa (Physa) ampullacea, Gld.,=Ph. bullata, Gld. (non Pot. & Mich.). 
Oregon, Cooper; Lakes Rhett and Upper Klamath, Newberry. | 

86. Physa ( Physa) Gabbu, Tryon. Sta, Ana Riy., Angelos Co. Also Mountain \ 
Lake, California. 

87. Physa (Physa) heterostropha, Say, Gould, C. B. Ad., Desh., Miist., De Kay, | 
Mrs. Gray, Pot. & Mich., Eaton Ph Fontana, ’ Hald. t+ Ph. cylindrica, | 
Newe. Ph, aurea, Lea, De Kay + Ph. plicata, + Ph. glabra, De Kay, + P2. 
osculans, Hald. (part), + Ph. striata, + Ph. subarata, Mke.,+ Ph. Charpentieri, i 
+Dh. Phillip, Wiist., + Ph. elliptica, + Ph. inflata, Lea,= Bulla crassula, 
Dillw., =B. fontinalis, Chemn., Schroter,= Cochlea neritoides, List. Nort i 
{MERICA A, passim :—Chiloncynck, Kenner ley; Hell Gate River, Newberry ; | 
San Francisco and W ashington Territory, Cooper; Los Angeles, teste Lea. 
Also from Texas to British America and ’Arctic regions, and from Atlantic | 
to Pacific, teste Binn. 

+88. Physa (Physa) costata, Newe. Clear Lake, Cal., Veatch. | 

89. Physa (Physa) virginea, Gld. San Francisco, Rowell. 

90. Physa (Physa) humerosa,Gld. Rio Colorado, Willamson; San Diego, P. R. R. L. | 

91. Physa (Physa) virgata, Gld. San Diego, Webb; Los Angelos; Cal. Ac. N.S. , 

| 
| 





several of which are perhaps but modifications of cireumboreal species which have been 
already traced to Eastern Asia. Even the series in Mus. Cum. are far from being accurate 
or complete. The inflexible rules of the British Museum have not yet allowed a single h 
specimen of Dr, Baird’s species to be transmitted to America, even for comparison. 





| 
; 





ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 675 


92. Physa (Thysa) triticea, Lea, Binn. MSS.* California, Cooper. 

$93. Physa (Physa) concolor, Hald. Oregon. 

94. Bulinus t (Bulinus) aurantius, Cpr. [=Aplewa, auct.: v. Maz. Cat. p. 179),=5 

’ Ph. Peruviana, Mke. [non D’Orb.}. Mazatlan, Reigen. 

95. Bulinus (Bulinus) elatus, Gld. Mazatlan, Retgen. 

96. Bulinus (Bulinus) hypnorum, Linn., Hald., C. B. Ad., Chen. et auct.,=P%. 
elongata, Say, Gld., De Kay,= Ph. elongatina, Lewis. NortHERN Europe, 
AsiA, AMERICA. Puget Sound, Cooper; common at junction of Yukron 
and Porcupine Rivers, Russ. Amer., Kennicott. Through Brit. and Russ 
America, and from Iansas to Washington, D. C.; teste Binn. 


Subfam. Planorbine. 
97. Planorbis (Planorbis) subcrenatus §, Cpr. Oregon, Nuttall. [PPuget Sound, 
Kennerley. | 
98. Planorbis ( Planorbis) twmens, Cpr.,=P. tenagophila, Mke. (non D’Orb.),=P, 
affins, Cpr. {Cat. Prov.,non C. B. Ad.| Mazatlan, Melchers, Reigen. San 
Francisco, Cooper; Petaluma, teste Gld. 
99. Planorbis (Planorbis) vermicularis, Gld. 

100. Planorbis (Helisoma) ammon, Gld., =P. Traskei, Lea. Kiamath Lake, Or. 
and Rhett Lake, Cal., Newberry. Ocogo Creek, Cal., Williamson; Kern 
Lake, Cal., Cooper; Monterey Co., Trask; Lagoons, Sacramento Valley, 
teste Lea. 

101. Planorbis (Helisoma) corpulentus, Say, Hald., De Kay, Gld., Chenu, =P. tr?- 
volwis (pars), C. B. Ad. Columbia River, abundant, U. S. £. E. Also 
Eastern States. 

102. Planorbis (Helisoma) trivolvis, Say, De Kay, Gld., Hald., C. B. Ad., Kiist., Pot. 
& Mich., Eaton= Bulla fluviatilis, Say,+ Pl. regularis, Lea, + Pl. meyastuma 
+ Physa planorbula, De Kay,+ Pl. macrostomus+ Pl. corpulentus, W hiteaves, 
+ Pl. lentus, Gld.,+ Pl. trivolvis, var. fallax, Hald.,= Cochleat rium -orbium, 
Lister, Petiver. Puget Sd., Campbell; Wright’s Lake, Cal., Newberry: Ft. 
Vancouver, Cooper}; San Francisco, Rowell; 8. Diego; Mus. Smiths. ; Horn 
Lake, teste Lea. Probably extends over whole continent, teste Binn. 

103. Planorbis (Menetus) opercularis, G1d.,= P. planulatus, Coop. 8. Francisco, U. 8. 
Expl. Exp.; Whidby’s Is., Cal., Cooper. 

104. Carinifex || Newberryi, Lea. Klamath Lake and Canoe Creek, Cal., Newberry; 
Clear Lake, Cal., Veatch. ; 


Subfam. Ancyline. 


105. Ancylus Newberryi, Lea. Klamath Lake, Newberry. 

$106. Ancylus crassus, Hald. “W.” [{Check-List. ] 

107. Ancylus caurinus, Coop. California, Cooper. 

108. Ancylus patelloides, Lea. S, Francisco, Cooper; Arroya, San Antonio, Cal., 

Mus. Smith. 

$109. Ancylus Kootaniensis, Baird. Brit. Columbia, Lord. 

110. Ancylus fragilis, Tryon. “ W.” [Check- List. | 

lll. Acroloxus Nuttalli, Wald. [ Velletia N., Binn. in list, May 4th.] Oregon, Mit. 
112. Gundlachia Californica, Rowell. 


* So in first printed list and in two MSS.; but in Check-List of Dec. 9, Ph. Troos- 
tiana, Lea, is assigned to the West, instead of this species. The MSS. are probably 
correct. 

{ Non Bulinus, Sby., olim,= Bulimus, auct. However clearly Bulinus, Binn., may be 
right according to the antiquaries, it is far too like Bulimus, which has taken complete 
possession of the entire malacological world, to be allowed a resurrection in the same 
order. Surely burial for a given number of years ought to be allowed as evidence of 
death, especially if the infant-name scarcely even breathed the air of use, and its resur- 
rection would breed malaria among terms thriving in the vigorous manhood of universal 
acceptance. ; 

§ It is quite possible that this may prove avery finely grown specimen of P. lentus. Dr. 
Kennerley’s shells are intermediate. 

|| Thus in Check-List, Dec. 9th. In that of May 4th, it appears as Planorbis N.; in the 
MS. list as Carini/era, 

11 161 


676 REPORT—1863. 


Suborder THALASSOPHILA. 
Fam. Siphonariade. 


+113. Siphonaria lecantum, Phil.: [Var.=S. maura, Sby. Var. palmata,Cpr., is 
ossibly distinct. Mazatlan, 2. B. Philippi, Reigen; Acapulco, Jewett ; 
‘ape St. Lucas, Xantus. | 
7114. Stphonaria equilirata, Cpr.,[= S. equilorata, Rve. Mazatlan, Reigen; C. Se 
Lucas, Xantus; Margarita Bay, very fine, teste Pease. | 
T115. "Stphonaria thersites, Cpr. Neeah Bay, Swan. ] 


Doubtful, spurious, and extralimital species :— 


Helix aspersa, Mill. “Sta. Barbara,” Kellett and Wood. [Imported.] 
Felix arbustorum, Linn. ; 
Helix Sagraiana, D’Orb. [ Certainly Cuban. ] 
Helix “ Sandiegoénsis, Lea.” Gld., P. Rh. R., vol. vy. p. 331. “No such sp. da= 
scribed,” teste Binney. 
Helix pereyrina, Bose. 
Bulimus Humboldti, Rve. ?“ Mazatlan.” 
Bulimus Laurentii, Shy. “ Sitka:” probably Sitcha in San Salvador, teate 
Binney. 
Melania | Bulimus] striata, Perry. [ Vide antea, p. 520. } 
Succinea aperta, Lea,= 8. rotundata, Gld. Sandwich Is., U.S. Expl. Exp. 
tPhysa Maugeriea, Gray, teste Woodward, Manual, p.171; but probably equa- 
torial 8S. America. 
+ Siphonaria amara, { Nutt. Admitted into the list by Mr. Binney, on the autho- 
rity of Rve., as of Nutt.; but it lives on the Sandwich Is. ; teste Pease, New- 
comb, U.S. E. £.]. 


116. The Smithsonian Institution has lately issued a ‘“ Descriptive Cata- 
logue of the species of Amnicola, Vivipara, Bithynia, Valvata, and Ampul- 
laria,” by Mr. W. G. Binney. It is abundantly illustrated with outline- 
woodcuts, and contains the synonymy corrected from all the accessible types. 
Dr. Stimpson is at present engaged in dissecting the molluscs; but none of 
his investigations have yet been published. The following is a résumé of the 
West Coast species, from a proof kindly furnished by the author. 

Page. Fig. 

4. Amunicola lenginqua, Gld., Bost. Proc. v. 130. Colorado Desert, Blake. 
5. 6. Amnicola protea, Gld., Bost. Proc. v. 129. Colorado Desert, Blake, Webb. 

12. 45. Vivipara, Lam.,= Paludina, Lam. {This genus, so fine and plentiful east 
of the Rocky Mountains, does not appear on the west. | 

44. ,, Paludina Nuttalliana, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soe. vi. p. 101, pl. 25. f. 109. 
[In text. In later manuscript list, this name appears as a synonym of | 
Fluminicola (Stimps., MS.) Nattallit, Lea, = Amnicola Nuttalliana, Cp., 
Minn. Rep. p. 374, = Leptoats Nuttall, Hald., = Anculosus Nuttallit, Rve. 
?+ Paludina seminalis, Hds. (p. 46, f. 81). [? +P. Hinds, Baird.| Co- 
lumbia River, Nuttall, Cooper; Upper des Chutes Riy. and Klamath 
Lake, Or., Newberry; Roques R., Or.; Sacramento R., Hinds; Brit. 
Columbia, Lord; Canoe Creek and Pitt River, Cal., Newberry. 

46. 80. Bithinia nuclea, Lea, = Paludina n., Trans. Am. Phil. Soe. vi. p. 91, pl. 23. 
f.103 {in text. In later MS. list, appears as synonym of | F/mnicola 
virens, Lea (Paludina v., Lea; Leptoxis v., Hald.),+ Paludina nuclea, Lea. 
Wahlamat River, Oregon, Nuttall [ Willamette, MS. list}. 


The following are added by Mr. Binney in his later MS. list :— 


Valvata virens, Tryon. Clear Lake, Calif. [The Smithsonian duplicates have 
been unfortunately distributed under the name “ V. sincera, Say,” which had 
been previously given to the specimens, and under which they are quoted in 


the Check-List of 1860, no. 456. According to Mr. B., V. sincera is “ like 
162 











ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 677 


ecarinate forms of V. tricarinata, Say,” to which the Clear Lake specimens 
bear but slight resemblance. | 

fomatiopsis Binneyt, Tryon. 

Fluminicola fusca, Hald. (Leptoxis f.). Shores of Lake Utah, Capt. Burton. 

117. Of the West Coast species of Melaniade we are unable to offer any 
list embracing the synonymy, as the materials are at present in the hands of 
Mr. Tryon for elimination, and his labours are not yet sufficiently advanced 
to furnish a report. His Manual of the North American Melaniade will be 
published by the Smithsonian Institution. The animals of many species have 
already been dissected by Dr. Stimpson*. It 1s unfortunate that in the two 
most important branches of North American freshwater molluscs, the Me- 
laniadee and the Unionide, there exists a radical difference of opinion between 
the leading writers, which has sometimes assumed the appearance of per- 
sonal animosity. Malacologists east of the Atlantic, unwilling to become 
partisans when the leading nomenclators of the rival schools are equally 
honoured, have to a great extent declined to pay attention to the unexhausted 
riches of the American waters, regarding any settlement of the disputed 
points as hopeless. Dr. Isaac Lea, who has spared no expense in illustrating 
his publications of the results of a life-long study, follows the restrictions 
on the priority-rule allowed by the British Association Committee. Other 
writers, however, claim a certainty in identifying the supposed species of 
Rafinesque and other similarly inaccurate authors, which would be considered 
by most English naturalists as not warranted by the few loose words of de- 
scription given. It would be well if the student were permitted to start from 
the first carefully ascertained landmark, rather than from the defaced tracks 
of the first hunter. 

In the Check-List of North-American Fluviatile Gasteropods, published by 
the Smithsonian Institution, June 1860, which contains the names of 405 
(supposed) species of Melania, Lithasia, Gyrotoma, Leptowis, and Jo, Mr.Binney 
assigns the following eleven to the West Coast. None of them are accredited 
to the eastern division. 


45. Melania bulbosa, Gld. | 249. Melania Shastaénsis, Lea. Shasta 
104. Melania exigua, Cony. and Scott Rivers. 
166. Melania Menkeana, Lea. 243. Melania silicula, Gld. [= M. plici- 
174. Melania Newberryt, Lea. era, small var., teste Lea. | 
177. Melania nigrina, Lea. Clear Creek, | 296. Melania Wahlamatensis, Lea. 
Shasta Co. 297. Melania Warderiana, Lea. 
211. Melana plicifera, Lea. 360. Melania fusca, Hald. 


118. Dr. Lea’s Check-List of the Unionide (June 1860), after eliminating 
synonyms, assigns to America, north of Mexico, no fewer than 552 species 
of Unio, Margaritana, and Anodonta. The type-specimens of the species 
described by Dr. Gould from the United States Exploring Expedition were 
submitted to Dr. Lea’s inspection, and confirmed his previous opinion that 
they were varieties of those before known. The U. famelicus, Gld., he pro- 
nounced to be a South-American shell; but it appears, without note, in the 
Check List, no. 133, probably by oversight. The only widely diffused species 
is the long-famed ‘ pearl-mussel” of the Conway and other British streams, 
The following seven are accredited to the Pacific coast :— 


* See his very interesting and important paper “ On the structural Characters of the so- 
ealled Melanians of North America,” in the ‘American Journal of Science,’ vol. xxxviii., 
July 1864, pp. 41-53. It appears that the sexual system is quite distinct’ from that of the 
ordinary Ctenobranchiate Gasteropods, and approaches the Cyclobranchiates. 


163 


678 REPORT—1863. 


281. Unto Oregonensis, Lea [Comp.534.} | 499. Anodonta Californiensis, Lea. 
484. Margaritana margaritifera, Lea. 531, Anodonta Nuttalliana, Lea. 

{ Linn. | 534. Anodonta Oregonensis, Lea. 
494. Anodonta angulata, Lea. 501. Anodonta Wahlamatensis, Lea. 

Besides these, 36 species of Unio and Anodonta are assigned to Mexico 
and Central America in a separate list; but no distinction is indicated be- 
tween the Pacific and the Atlantic slope of the mountain-range. 

119. At the request of the Smithsonian Institution, Mr. Temple Prime, ot 
New York, well known for his special devotion to this department, has con- 
sented to prepare a Manual of the Cyrenide inhabiting American waters. 
All the accessible materials from the West Coast are in his hands for exami- 
nation. The first part of his ‘“‘ Monograph of the Species of Spherium of 
North and South America” is printed in the ‘ Proc. Ac. N. Sc. Phil.’ 1861, 
pp. 402 et seq., and contains quotations of five species, nos. 4, 7, 9, 10, 1i, 
with synonymy, from Washington Ter., Oregon, and California. He has 
kindly (in advance of his intended publications) furnished to Mr. W. G. Bin- 
ney the following MS. ‘Synopsis of the Corbiculidee of the West Coast of 
North America,” with liberty to publish in this Report. It is here condensed, 
with synonyms and references, in the nomenclature of the writer. 


Mr. Prime’s List of West North-American Corbiculidee* [Cyrenidee ]. 


. Corbicula convexa, Desh., P.Z.S. 1854, p. 342,= C.ventricosa, Pr. MS. Mazatlan. 

. Cyrena radiata, Hanl., P. Z. 8. 1844, p. 159. Realejo. 

. Cyrena solida, Phil., Abbild. 1846, p. 78, pl. 15. f.9. Nicaragua; Belize. 

. Cyrena triangula, V. de Busch, P. Z. 8. 1849, p. 78, pl. 2. f.3,= C. altilis, Gld., 
Bost. Pr. 1852, p. 400, pl. 16. f. 5 bis, = C. Mexicana, pars, Maz. Cat., no. 165 
(= C. varians, cat. prov.). Mazatlan. 

. Cyrena insignis, Desh., P. Z.S. 1854, p. 20; Tl. Conch. 1861, p. 39, pl. 2. f. 2. 

California. 

. Cyrena olivacea, Cpr., Maz. Cat., no. 164,= C. Fontainei, Desh., MS. (non D’Orb., 

B. M. Cat. no. 253). Mazatlan. 

Cyrena acuta, Pr., Ul. Conch. 1862, p. 387, pl. 14. £1. Centr. America. 

. Cyrena Mexicana, Sby., Zool. I. 1829, p. 364 [Maz. Cat., no. 165= |C. varians, 
cat. prov. pars, + C. fragilis, Desh. MS. + C. equilateralis, Desh., P: Z. 8. 
1854, p. 20. Mazatlan. 

9. Cyrena Californica, Pr., Proc. A. N.S. Phil. 1860, p. 276,= C. subquadrata, 

Desh., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 21 (nom. preoc.). California. 

10. Cyrena Panamensis, Pr., Proc. A. N.S. Phil. 1860, p. 283, = C. inflata, Desh., 
P. Z.S. 1854, p. 23 (nom. preoc.). Panama. 

ll. Cyrena Recluzii, Pr.,= C. cordiformis, Recl., Il. Conch. 1853, p. 251, pl. 7. f. 9 
(nom. preoc.). Centr. America. 

12. Cyrena Cuming, Desh., P. Z.S. 1854, p. 22. Centr. America. 

13. Cyrena tumida, Pr.,= C. angulata, Desh., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 22 (mom. preoc.). 
Centr. America. 
14. Cyrena pullastra, Morch, Mal. Bl. 1860, p. 194. Realejo. 
15. Cyrena maritima, C. B. Ad., Pan. Sh., no. 451. Panama. 
16. Cyrena sordida, Hanl., P. Z.S. 1844, p. 159. Central America. 
17. Spherium triangulare, Say (Cyclas t.), New Harm. Dissem. 1829, p.356. Mexico. 
18. Spherium striatinum, Lam. ( Cyelas s.), An. s. Vert. vol.v. p. 560, 1818,= C. eden- 
tula, Say, loc. cit. p. 2,= C. cornea (Lam.}, C. B. Ad., Cat., 1847,= C. albula, 
Pr., Bost. Proc. 1851, p. 155, + C. tenassevata, Pr., p. 156, + C. acuminata, 
Pr, p 158,+ C. mornata, Pr.,+ C. simplex, Pr.,+ C. modesta, Pr., p.159. Hab. 
N. York to Alabama, Connecticut to Illinois; Hell-gate River, W. T. 

19. Spherium dentatum, Hald. (Cyclas d.), Proc. A. N.S. Phil. 1841, p. 100. Oregon. 


em COLD eS 


MOI HD 2 


* The name Corhicu’a, having been first given to a species, and being itself a diminu- 
tive, is scarcely fitted to displace long-used generic appellations in marking the family- 


group. 
164 











ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 679 


20. Spherium occidentale, Pr., Proc. A. N.S. Phil. 1860, p. 295, = C. oval’s, Pr., 
Bost. Proc. 1852, p. 276 (nom. preoc.), =‘ Sph. ovale, Stn.,’ Add. Gen. vol. ii. 
fie Hab. New York to Georgia; Vermont to Wisconsin; Heli-gate 

iver, W. T. 

21. Spherium nobile, Gld. (Cyclas n.), Bost. Proc. 1855, p. 229 [Otia, p. 218]. San 
Pedro, Webb. 

22. Spherium patella, Gld. (Cyclas p.), Bost. Proc. 1850, p.292 [Otia, p. 86; E. E. 

Moll. f. 527, type not returned to S. I.] Oregon. 

23. Spherium Spokani, Baird [P. Z.S. 1863, p. 69, f. 12, 13: antea, p. 605]. B. Col. 

24. Spherium tumidum, Baird [P. Z.S. 1865, p. 69, f. 11: anted, p.605}. B. Col. 

25. Spherium meridionale, Pr., Proc. Ac. N.S. Phil. 1861, p.414. Panama; Mus. 

Prime. 

26. Spherium lenticula, Gld. (Lucina * 1.), Bost. Proc. 1850, p. 256. California. 

27. Spherium subtransversum, Pr., P. Z.S. 1860, p. 322. Mexico. 

28. Pisidium abditum, Hald. [Pubi]= Cyclas minor, C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc. 1841, p 48, 
= P. obscurum, Pr., Bost. Proc. 1851, p. 161,+ P. Kurtz, Pr., p. 162, + P. 
zonatum, Pr., p. 162,4 P. regulare, Pr., Bost. Il. vi. 363, pl. 12. f. 11-13, 1852, 
+ P. notatum, Pr., Bost. IL vi. 365, pl. 12. f. 20-22, 1852,4 P. amplum + P. 
resartum, Ingalls, MS.,+ P. rubrum+P. plenum, Lewis, MS., + P. retuswn, 
Pr., P. Z.S. 1859, p. 322. 

29. Pisidiwm occidentale, Newe. [ Proc. Cal. Ac. Nat. Sc. 1861, p. 94]. San Fran- 
cisco, Rowell. 


120. Of the tertiary fossils throwing light on existing species no addi- 
tional information has yet been published. We cannot but hope that the 
researches of Mr. Gabb, on the fossils collected by the Californian Geological 
Survey, will develope relations of great interest between the existing and 
former conditions of the continent. The Astorian fossils described by Mr. 
Conrad from the U. 8. Exploring Expedition (vol. x., Geology, Philadelphia, . 
1849), and tabulated in the first Report, p. 367, belong to the Smithsonian 
Institution, but were not discovered therein 1860. All of them, however (in- 
cluding the indeterminate species), are figured in the atlas of plates. They 
resemble the fossils of the Pacific Railroad Expeditions in being very imper- 
fect, for which reason the following criticisms may prove erroneous. ‘he 
general aspect of the collection betokens the Miocene period. 


Mya abrupta, Conr., may be the young of Glycimeris generosa, Gd. 

Thracia trapexoides, Conr., may be curta, Conr. 

Solemya ventricosa, Conr., has the aspect of a large Lazaria. 

Tellina arctata, Conr., closely resembles Macoma, var. expansa. 

Tellina emacerata, Conr., is perhaps Bodegensis, Hds. 

Lucina acutilineata, Conr., appears to be borealis, Linn. 

Cardita subtenta, Conr.,= Venericardia borealis, Cony. 

Nucula divaricata, Conr.,= Acila castrensis, Hds. 

Pectunculus patulus, Conr., may be septentrionalis, Midd. 

Pectunculus nitens, Conr., resembles Psephis tantilla, Gld. 

Pecten propatulus, Conr. A very fine specimen, enclosed in a large nodule 
from Oregon, was presented to the Brit. Mus. by Mr. C. Pace. If not identical 
with Amusium caurinum, Gld., it is most closely allied, especially to the 
Japanese form. 


* Mr. Prime assigns no reason for changing Dr. Gould’s Lucina into a Cyclas, nor any 
authority for “ California.” He was, perhaps, misled by the artist’s engraved references to 
the figures 528, a, >, where he has drawn a rule, referring to the Cyclades above, instead of 
writing Zucina. It is assigned to ‘‘?Coast of Patagonia” in ‘ Otia,’ p. 63, and to “?R. 
Janeiro” in ‘ E. E. Moll.” p.414. In each place the shell is compared to an As/ar/e or 
Cyprina, with lateral teeth. The type was not returned to the Smithsonian Institution ; 
but the diagnosis states that it is “chalky, thickened within the deep and jagged pallial 
hne, sculpture faint but decussated, and margin finely crenulated,’—characters more con- 
sistent with Lucina, s.g. Myrtea, than with Cyclas. If the type cannot be recovered, per= 
haps the species may be dropped, as it is not the Lucina (Myrtea) lenticula, Rve. 


165 


680 REPORT—1863. 


Tercbratila nitens, Conr., is very probably Waldhetmia pulvinata, Gd. 

Bulla petrosa, Conr., has the shape of Tornatina eximia, Bd. 

Crepidula prorupta, Conr., is certainly princeps, Midd. 

Turritella, sp. ind., resembles Mesalia lacteola. 

?Dolivm petrosum, Conr., resembles the young of Priene nodosa, Chemn. 

Fusus geniculus, Cony. A similar shell has just been taken at the Farallones 
by Dr. Cooper. 


121. To correct the general table of “Mollusca of the West Coast of N. 
America’’ (First Report, pp. 298-845), and the deductions founded upon it 
(pp. 346-367), would involve the necessity of reprinting a considerable por- 
tion. The student, being now in possession of all the known sources of 
fresh information, can with his own peu strike out the spurious species, alter 
the synonyms, insert the newly discovered forms, and make the requisite 
corrections in the elassified results.’ 

122. With regard to the tropical fauna, the researches at Cape St. Lucas 
and in the interior of the Gulf of California, though leaving much to be 
desired, bear-out the general conclusions arrived-at in paragraphs 78-87, 
The evidence for the identity of specific forms on the Atlantic and Pacific sides 
of Central America has been greatly confirmed. Dr. Gould writes, ‘‘The 
doctrine of local limitations meets with so few apparent exceptions that we 
admit it as an axiom in zoology that species strongly resembling each other, 
derived from widely diverse localities, especially if a continent intervenes, 
and if no known or plausible means of communication can be assigned, 
should be assumed as different until their identity can be proved (vide E. KE. 
Moll. Intr. p. xi). Much study of living specimens must be made before 
_ the apparent exceptions can be brought under the rule.” It has, however, 
to be borne in mind that the researches of modern geology clearly point to 
considerable alterations in the existing configuration of continents, and m 
the consequent direction of ocean-currents, during the ascertained period ef 
many species now living. Nor are we warranted in the belef that the 
existing fauna in any locality has been created at any one time, or has 
radiated from any single spot. To study the relations of living shells simply 
in connexion with the existing map of the world must lead but to partial 
results. The facts accumulating with regard to the British species, by 
tracing them threugh the northern drift (now found even on the Snowdonian 
range), to the oldest crag deposits when Europe was contained in far different 
boundaries, show how altered may have been the configuration of the new 
world when the oldest of its molluscs were first created. Coordinately with 
the glacial period, Central America may have been a group of islands; co- 
ordinately with the creation of Saaicava pholadis and Chrysodomus antiquus, 
the gulf-weed may have floated between the Rocky Mountains in the 
archipelago of West America, and Japanese molluscs may have known how 
to migrate to the Mediterranean shores. Dr. Gould’s position may there- 
fore be accepted in theory ; yet, in practice, the ‘‘ imperfection of the geological 
record” *, and even of our knowledge of existing species and their variations, 
demands that the greatest caution be exercised in building results on deduc- 
tions from our ignorance. Already the fossil Malea ringens of the Atlantic 
has proved a “ Rosetta Stone” to interpret the Cyprea exanthema, Purpura 
patula, and other Caribbean shells of the Pacific ; and as the geology of the 
West Coast advances, so may we expect to find traces of previous denizens of 


* No student of geographical distribution should omit to weigh carefully the chapter 
on this subject in Darwin’s ‘ Origin of Species,’ and the information given in Lyell’s 
* Antiquity of Man,’ 

166 











ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 681 


American waters, which have bequeathed some species now flourishing, and 
others dying-out, to the existing seas. ‘The present faunas of West America 
ace perhaps the most isolated on the surface of the globe; yet, if we knew 
the ancestry of each specific form, we might find some first appearing with man 
en this planet, others first living even in historic times, others tracing their 
descent from remote periods, and it may be very distant localities, in the ages 
of the Miocene, possibly even of the Eocene oceans. These suppositions are 
not set forth as theories, but simply to guard against interpretations of facts 
based on conclusions which may be only the results of our necessarily 
imperfect information. 

123. With regard to forms offering local peculiarities sufficient to dis- 
tinguish them from correlative forms offering equal peculiarities in some other 
fauna, we are by no means warranted in assuming that these have sprung 
from different creations. - If a race of men, migrating to a new continent, in 
a very few generations, or even in the next, develope an essentially different 
physique, it is fair to conclude that molluses, borne by a change of currents to 
a distant region, or steadily migrating to the extreme limit of their con- 
ditions of life, will also change their appearance. If the publication of the 
*¢ Darwinian Theory ” has had no other effect, it has at least checked the pro- 
pensity to announce “new species” for differences which may fairly be re- 
garded as varietal. It must also be borne in mind, that if the views of Mr. 
Darwin be only a theory, such also is the name required for the prevalent 
opinion of separate creations for all diverse forms. What indeed can we 
possibly know of the mode of original creation of a single species? We can 
only prove that one or the other supposition best explains a certain class of 
facts. It is not necessary for a working naturalist to commit himself to an 
exclusive belief in either of these theories. He may perhaps best explain 
some facts by the doctrine of separate creation, others by that of natural 
selection. In either case it is his duty to trace-out, as far as possible, the 
limits as well as the powers of variation in every living form, and to guard 
against seeing that only which accords with his pr evailing belief. 

124. The study of Kuropean shells, as they exist in Norway, i in Britain, in 
the Mediterranean, at the Canaries, or as they appear at different depths 
and stations in our own seas, still more as they occur in the widely separated 
periods of the later and middle tertiary ages, is an excellent preparation for 
the examination of either recent or fossil faunas in districts where our know- 
ledge is fragmentary and unconfirmed. It may be safely stated that there are, 
in the American waters, many tropical forms from the West Indies and the 
Pacific shores, some temperate forms from California and the Atlantic, and 
many sub-boreal species in the Vancouver district and the European seas, 
not differing from each other more or even so much as forms universally 
allowed by malacologists to have had a common origin from Britain and the 
Mediterranean, from the Red and the Coralline Crag. 

125. It is interesting to observe that, notwithstanding the probable con- 
nexion of the oceans through the Rocky Mountains during the Miocene age, 
there is extremely little similarity between the special temperate faunas of 
East and West America. Not a single species has yet been proved identical, 
and the allied forms are but few in number. They appear as follows :— 


Califorman species. U. S. Atlantic species. 
Clidiophora punctata, C. trilineata (? =nasuta), 
Lyonsia Californica. L. (hyalina= )Floridana, 
Macoma inconspicua. M. fusca. 

Angulus modestus, A. tener. 
Raeta undulata, R. canaliculata, 


167 


682 © nerort—1] 869, 


Californian species. U.S. Atlantic species 
Liocardium substriatum, L. Mortoni. 
Juunatia Lewisil. L. heros. 
Nassa mendica. N. trivittata. 
Amyela (species), Anyela (species). 


126. When, however, we approach the region in which boreal and sub- 
boreal forms occur, many species are found in common, and between others 
there is but shght difference. Yet even here there are more British than 
New England species in the West-coast fauna, As might be expected, the 
British species are for the most part those which are also found fossil, and 
therefore have had time to diffuse themselves widely over the hemisphere. 
It ts, however, remarkable that many Crag species have reached Eastern 
Asia and West America which are not found in Grand Manan and New 
England, It is also extraordinary that certain special generic forms of the 
Crag, as Aeila, Miodon, Verticordia, and Solariella, reappear in the North 
Pacitie*. When seeking for an explanation of so remarkable a connexion 
between faunas widely removed in space and time, the correlative fact must 
be borne in mind, that the northern drift?, so widely diffused over Europe 
and Eastern America, has not yet been traced in the western region. The 
following Table exhibits, not only the identical but the similar species be- 
longing to the northern faunas of the Atlantic and Pacific. In the Asiatie 
column, K denotes that the species occurs in the Kamtschatka region, J in 
Japan. In the second column, V signifies the Vancouver district, C the Cali- 
fornian, and I the Sta. Barbara group of islands. The species marked F 
are also fossil. In the third column, C denotes the Coralline, R the Red, and 
M the Mammaliferous Crag. The fourth contains the species living in the 
British seas; the fifth, on the American side of the Atlantic, Gv. standing 
for Greenland. 























Kast Asia, West America, Crag. British. | B. America. | 
K | V Rhynconella psittacea ..| (Pleistocene) |psittacea —_psittacea 
_ VC Xylotrya pennatifera,... ao ipennatifera -— 

— V_Xylotrya timbriata...... — jtimbriata — 
_ VC Zirphea crispata ...... CRM ae erispata 
iN VC Saxicava pholadis ...... CRM pholadis — |pholadis 
J VC Glycimeris generosa ....| Faujasii, C R — —_ 

-- V_ Sphewnia ovalis ........|'? Binghami’ {| Binghami — 
JK Vs Mya truncata .......0.. CRM truncata {truncata 
J, lata | Vo Macoma inquinata......} lata, RM [proxima —_|proxima,&e 

Kx V_ Serripes Greenlandicus . . RM —_ Groenland. 

K VI Venericardia borealis. ... — =- borealis 

_ V_ Astarte (compacta) .... compressa, R M compressa jcompressa 

-- V_— Miodon prolongatus ..../  corbis, C R — —_— 

_ IF Lucina borealis ........ CRM _ borealis — 

_ I Cryptodon flexuosns .... C flexuosus a= 
China [I Verticordia 9-costata....} cardiiformis,C) = — = 

— VC Kellia suborbicularis .,. . CR suborbicul. 








* Whether there be any similar correspondence in the Polyzoa is not yet known, Mr, 
Busk not having had time to complete his examination, 

+ See, in this connexion, a very accurate Table of the species which travel round 
Cape Cod, with their distribution in existing seas and over different provinces of the 
ravious drift-formations in the Old and New World, by Sanderson Smith, in Aun. Lye, 
Nat. Hist. N. York, vol. vii. 1860, p. 166. 

¢ From the Coralline Crag. Looks more like ovadis, 


168 








ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTIT AMERTCA, 





\ East Asia. West America. 





J VC Lasea rubra 


Retarge chal cess 
| TS WV'O Mytilus iedilis 0.5...) 
— VC Modiola modiolus ...... 
| — V = Modiolaria marmorata .. 

aw K Vs Modiolaria levigata ... 
i —_ I Crenella decussata...... 
JK Wo SIN icullantemuise cu ants.ctes e 

insignis, &e.| VC IF Acila castrensis ... 
OKs V Yoldia lanceolata ...... 

— Vs hedsimunute sce... 

— I Limiea subauriculata... 

— VC Hinnites giganteus ... 

(Asia) | V  Limnea palustris ..... 
— VC Cylichna attonsa ...... 
}; — V _ Haminea hydatis ...... 

— VC Dentalium Indianorum, 

J K,ceca | V  Lepeta cecoides ..... 
— V_ Margarita helicina...... 

_ V Margarita ?Vahlii..... 

—_— V = Mesalia lacteola....... 
— Vite GnCUNEevINCha eeu cice ee: 

K(turricula))V Bela fidicula ......... 
— V Bela excurvata ........ 

— VC Sealaria Indianorum ... 

K V. Velutina levigata ..... 

K VV. Natica clausa..... Sac ane 


V CI Eulima micans. 
V_ Cerithiopsis tubercularis 
VI Triforis adversus ..... 
CL Erato columbella 
VC Purpura saxicola ..... 
V Chrysodomus lratus... 


Vv 


ee 


a 


Trophon multicostatus . . 


Cobboldix, RM 


‘N . 4,o r \ 
Cortesyi, C 


eylindracea,CR 


turricula, R 
Trevelliana, Ri) 


polita, CR 


Maugerie, C R 


PCRM 
CR 


CRM 


RM 
RM 
C 


M 
entale, M 


M 


M 
R 
C 
C 








British, 
rubra 
edulis 
modiolus 
marmorata 
nigra 
decussata 
tenuis 
caudata 
subauricul. 
palustris 
attonsa 
hydatis 
entale 

(ceca, Nor.) 
helicina 
vineta 
turricula 
Trevelliana 
communis 
levigata 
(Norway) 
micans 

tubercularis 
adversus 


lapillus 


(Norway) 


683 


Wy America.| 
edulis 
modiolus 
marmorata 
lev gata 
elanduia 
tenuis 


lanceolata 
minuta 


palustris 
striolatum 
| creca, Gr. 
helicina 
Vahlii, Gr. 
lactea, Gy. 
vineta 
turricula 
levigata 
clausa 


(W.1I.) 
lapillus 
10-eostatus 
Gunneri | 





127. The following species (besides others dredged by Mr. A. Adams, but not 
yet determined) have been found on both the Asiatic and American shores of 
the N. Pacific, in addition to those recorded by Middendorff, v. Brit. Assoc. 


e)ede 


223. 


Report, p. 
Terebratella Coreanica. 
Waldheimia Californica, 
Waldheimia pulvinata. 
Waldheimia Grayi. 
Glycimeris generosa. 
Schizotherus Nuttallii. 
Solen sicarius. 
Sanguinolaria Nuttallii. 
Tellina Bodegensis. 


Cardium modestum. 
Amusium caurinum, 
Placunanomia macroschisma, 
Crepidula grandis, 
Drillia inermis. 
Lunatia pallida. 
Priene Oregonensis, 
Cerostoma foliatum. 
Siphonalia Kellettii. 


128. The Vancouver and Californian districts have so many characteristic 
species in common (111 out of 492), that they must be regarded as con- 
stituting one fauna, differing as do the British and Mediterranean regions. 
Full particulars as to the range of the different species may be expected in 


Dr. Cooper’s Report to the Californian Geological Survey. 


One fact must, 


however, be here specially noted, viz. the great peculiarity of the island-fauna. 

Although the Sta. Barbara group are so near the mainland, the dredge has 
oD D F : dD 

not only produced many species not known on the continent, but also man 
y ) > 


169 


C84 REPORT—1863. 


before considered as essentially tropical. Along with these are not only some 
species of types hitherto regarded as almost exclusively Asiatic, as Verticordia, 
Solariella, and Fulvia modeséa, but also some which belong to the sub-boreal 
distrizt, as Lucina borealis, Venericardia borealis, and Crenella decussata. The 
latter belongs to the British, and not to the N. England form. 

129. Ofthe blending of the temperate and tropical faunas on the peninsula of 
L. California we are still in ignorance. All we know is, that at Margarita Ray 
the shells are still tropical, and that at Cerros Island they are strangely inter- 
mixed. There is pectliarevidence of connexion between the faunas of the penin- 
sula and of 8. America, not only in the land-shells (v. antea, p. 630), but in 
some of the marine forms. Beside identical species with wide range, as many Ca- 
lyptracids, the following are coordinate between the North and South Pacific: — 


Upper and Lower California. | South America. 
vetastoma Darwinii. N. Darwinii. 
Solecurtus Californianus. S. Dombeyi. 

Semele rupium. - (Ditto, Galapagos.) 
Callista va;. puella. C. pannosa. 
Chama pe laptdn. C: palltieida: 
Tiocardium substriatum. L. Elenense. 
Axinzwa (Barbarensis. ) : A. intermedia. 
Verticordia novemcostata. V. ornata. 

TPecten vequisulcatus. : P. ventricosus. 
Siphonaria thersites. S. lateralis, &e. 
Tonicia lineata. T. lineolata. 
Acmiea patina. A. scutum, D’ Orb. 

9 ay 6 Oran, ” 
See See 
Chlorostoma funebrale. C. meestum. 

Mitra maura. M. maura. 
Ranella Californica. R. ventricosa. 
Priene Oregonensis. P. cancellata. 
Trophon multicostatus. T. Magellanicus. 


Time and space do not avail for pointing out further relations with exotic 
faunas; which indeed will be performed with greater correctness after Dr. 
Cooper shall have published his complete lists. 

130. For the sake of avoiding the inconvenience of trinomial nomenclature, 
the subgeneric and varietal names have often been cited in this Report instead 
of the generic and specific, in order that the exact form of the shell quoted 
might be more quickly determined. The diagnoses of all the new species 
here tabulated are written for the press, and will shortly appear in the dif- 
ferent scientific journals. Additional specimens will probably prove several 
forms to be conspecific which are here treated as distinct. In the present 
state of the science, absolute certainty is not to be attained. The object of 
the writer* has been principally to bring together the works of his prede- 
cessors, and so to arrange and describe the new materials that those who 
continue his labours may be able to draw their own conclusions from existing 
data. In order to facilitate reference, a brief index is here given of the 
subject-matter of the former and of the present Reports. 


* The best thanks of the writer are due to Hugh Cuming, Esq., for the free use of his 
collection ; to Messrs. H. & A. Adams, Hanley, Reeve, and Sowerby, for aid in identifying 
specimens ; to the officers and naturalists connected with the Smithsonian Institution ; 
to Dr. A. A. Gould, for very valuable corrections ; and generally to authors and friends, 
who have kindly rendered him all the assistance in their power. He earnestly invites 
criticisms on the subject-matter of the two Reports ; in order that they may be embodied, 
and errors corrected, in the Manuals of the West-Coast Mollusea which he has undertaken 
to prepare for the Smithsonian Institution. 

Warrington, dug. 22nd, 1864, 

Geon, Aug ? 170 





685 


ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 


TABLE OF CONTENTS. 





Page in 
Paragraph. Fee I een i, 
1-5. Physical Condition of West America... eee S-slog 
6-12. Errors respecting Habitat .. sos ose ese soo LOZ 
13-21. Errors of Nomenclature “66 nes IGE ese 
22. Table of Localities.. ee aa eELOTi eet Ola 
23. Table of collectors. E Darly, Writers: Linneus, Solander, 
Martyn, Chemnitz, Dixon, Dombey, on ee 
Dillwyn, Lamarck, Swainson ... i 168 517 
24. Humboldt and Bonpland (Valenciennes) _ ee Oo 521 
25. Voyage of ‘Coquille:* Lesson... ae Bee Senne lndies 521 
26. Eschscholtz.. e see seen tlie O21 
27. Tankerville Catalogue : Zoological ‘Journal... Seema 522 
28. Voyage of ‘ Blossom ’ Beechey, Belcher oa Soro 522 
29. Wood’s ‘ Index Testaceologicus’ and Supp'ement Boel SW Reh age: ES 
. 30. Voyage of ‘ Astrolabe’ : Quoy and Gaimard Nas Goo liulentes 
31. Voyage of ‘ Adventure’ and ‘Beagle’: King ... 179... 524 
32. Hugh Cuming’s Researches ate aan eae ou TOs 
| Sees)? Orbigny’ 8 S. America see Wes nee 3 189 - 
34. Botta Bae coe eee ae RO eas 
35. Blainville’s Purpure eae ate ees eee Se SOY es 
36. Guérin’s Magasin: Duclos “ee nog IIE ack: Hae 
37. Voyage of ‘ Beagle’: Darwin (see “also p. 359) .. Reno 2, 
38. Lady Katherine Douglas (afterwards Wigram).. seem 525 
89. Nuttall; Conrad ... oe utOLOot +, O20 
t 40. Voyage ‘of ‘ Bonite’: Eydoux and ‘Souleyet aes Ape PAO) Wi 
i Als i ‘Venus’: Deshayes, Valenciennes ... cee OMe (O28 
42. ‘ Sulphur’: iH d sy ets. 500 ae coe) POLE Moen O29 
43. U.S. Exploring Expedition ; Gould... 000 see 2UOW fonsl O20 
44. Middendorff 500 see 214A Fe 532 
45. Voyage of ‘ Samarang’ : dams aad Reave iu Ow ee bo 
hi 46. E. B. Philippi... 224 .... O34 
47. Mexican-War Natura! ist, Rich and Green: also Jewett 225 . dot 
48, 49. Melchers; Menke .. , rs OB i uaee: 
50. Kellett and Wood ; Forbes | ae nee 239) Vis. OAL 
51. Reigen; Br. Mus. Mazatlan Catalogue Ee 241 542 
| §2, 110. Conrad on Wilson’s shells 2 264 .... 634 
f| 53. Jay’s Catalogue... oes cee 265 .,.. 548 
54. C.B B. Adams : Panama Catalogue Bae eee See ZOOM eer tO LO 
55. Br. Mus. Catalogues Veneridie . Eck we eeueol 553 
56. Sailor’s Collection . 30 ace els Re ZO 554 
67, 98. Gould’s Collection ... ees nee Ses Na 233 554 
b 58. Bridges. wae ace 284 554 
i 59. Proceedings of the Zoological Society 285 554 
60. Sowerby ; ‘ Conchological Illustrations’ 288 509 
61. is ‘Thesaurus Conchyliorum’ and ‘ Malacological 
Magazine’ 288 i. 561 
» Sowerby’s ‘ Genera’ : : Reeve’s ‘ Conchologia Systematica’ inte POOL 
62. Reeve’s ‘ Conchologia [conica’ Hae Toe 562 
63. Kiener, ‘ Coquilles Vivantes’ 293 563 
64, 65. German authors; ee Menke, Philippi, ’ Kister, 
4 Dunker BES ao, El 
ty 66. British Museum Collection DOO aces) (Oe 
| 67. Cumingian Collection ieee 
68. Various European sources : Bose, Lesson, Gray, “Wood- 
ward, Hanley, Journ. de Conch., Chenu, Duclos, 
Deshayes aes aa 297 575 
69, 121. General Table of the Western Faunas ... a 297 
10, 71. Isolation from other Provinces ... ese een .. 346 
72, 73. Boreal and Sitcha District Nes oAT 
74-76. Fauna of Oregon and Upper California ... 348 635 
; 97, 78. 3 Lower California; 8. dee 8. Pedro, S. 5. Juan, 
) La Paz, Guaymas 5 350 
79-83. Tropical Fauna; Galapagos eee eas es ODS 
84-87, 122. Gen gecicon with other Faunas ... a Secu ipieeet room 680 


a aptaeeaaia eimaatl 


7A 


636 REPORT—1863. 
Page in 
ae Si 1. Report IT. 
8. Land and Freshwater Shells eee eee eee aes ON) 
0. Polyzoa... ae dee Re 367 
91, 120. Fossil Species; U. Ss. Expl. ‘Exp... eee 367 679 
90, 92. Conclusion of First Report valk BOMi Mess 
93. Smithsonian Institution ; Collections and Public: ApOne!, lee ena 
94. N. Pacific Exploring Expedition ; Se Gould"... OU, 
95. U.S. Japan Expedition; Jay... ee 587 
96. A. Adams; Japan.. 2 fies eee 588 
97. Pacific Railroad Reports; Blake's Fossils Osc is sis 588 
98. 3 os Gould’s Shells 283 592 
Oo: Gs e Newberry’s Fossils... eiots 593 
100. - a Antisell’s Fossils es 594 
101. W. Cooper’s Shells sever: Ys Sy seeey ROO 
102. U. 8. N. Pacific “Boundary Survey ; Kennerley .. saess PROOL 
103. Brit. ; Lord, Lyall, "Forbes sii cee 003 
104. Californian State Geological Survey; J. G. aeecees cP: ) Sete OUT, 
105, Cape St. Lucas Shells; Xantus 2. 016 
106. Neeah Bay, Vancouver, &.; Swan ts ase aes tees, OZ 
107. Farallone Islands ... ae cc aoa taf A Mh osweeee a sOLS 
108. J. G. Cooper’s Land Shells : Bland. sess ae seit eee 1HOZO 
109. Land Shells of Lower California Sosps eon, OOO, 
110. Californian Naturalists: Trask, Newcomb, Rowell, Gabb, 
Remond . senile wee KOOL 
111. Various American publications sey ese, OSD 
112. General Table of the Vancouver and Californian Fauna -- 635 
115. Additional Shells from Lower California and the Gulf; 
Cerros Island, Margarita Bay, La Paz,Guaymas_... ... ... +664 
114. Additional Shells of Tropical Fauna; Acapulco, Real 
Llejos, Panama gee) S22, 000 
115. General List of Land, Freshwater, and "Marine Pulmo- 
nates; Binney . : : , z.-,, 669 
116. Paludinide, &e. ; ; Binney .. ee wes aes aoe see ORG: 
117. Melaniade ; Binney ee Roe aes ae see soo 1007 
118. Unionide; Lea ... nee See ses a oe ees OLE 
119. Cyrenidz; Prime . aes se ee so) 4 eke TOL 
91,120. Tertiary Fossils... ese sae sea SOF ase TO 
69, 121. Corrections of General Table ; Pe ‘ ss tZOnl BeOS) 
84, 122. Comparison with other Faunas ... ees 902 2. 1680 
125. Local peculiarities ... es oc oes sea! soaclegne OSL 
124. Comparative study of European Fauna ... a sonk eaeiies OO 
125. Comparison with Eastern American Fauna... onoil iefesbeaiansuOON 
126. Comparison with the Crag Fossils as Bee dear Uipccke tase OSS 
127. Comparison with Asiatic Shells... aes ect esol islesodicees SADC 
128. Peculiarities of the Island Fauna osc, Wess, | wert HOC 
129. Comparison of the West Coast of N. and §. America |. i. ws. 684 
130. Explanation of Nomenclature... ... was!) leash use! (OG 


172 








REWV.LE W 


OF 


PROF, C. B. ADAMS'S CATALOGUE 


OF THE 


SWELLS OF PANAMA, FROM THE TYPE SPECIMENS. 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B. A., Pu. D. 


From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 339-369, 
June 23, 1863. 


(173 ) 








Review or Pror. C. B. Apams’s ‘CATALOGUE OF THE SHELLS 
+. 
or PanaMA’*, FROM THE Tyre SreciMENS. By Puiuie P, 
Carpenter, B.A., Pu.D. 


A résumé of this important contribution to our knowledge of local 
faunas, and a comparison with the British Museum ‘ Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Reigen Collection of Mazatlan Mollusca,’ is given 
in the ‘Report of the British Association’ for 1856, pp. 265-281. 
Full series of the old species, and the first specimens of the new, 
were deposited by Prof. Adams in the Museum of Amherst College, 
which also contains similar series of the Professor’s Caribbean col- 
lections. The second specimens of new species were sent to Mr. 
Cuming, and through his kindness were freely used in preparing 
the Mazatlan Catalogue, thus avoiding the necessity of many syno- 
nyms. An instructive lesson in candour and forbearance may be 
learnt by comparing together the works of any two naturalists of 
equal celebrity, or by comparing either of them with the types. 
With the best desires for accuracy, and the greatest care, it is hardly 
possible for an author to describe so that his readers shall see shells 
as he sees them. If this be true of such full and precise diagnoses 
as those of Adams and Gould, how much greater must be the diffi- 
culty to foreigners of recognizing shells from the brief descriptions 
of Broderip, Lamarck, and the older writers generally. ‘The careful 


* Catalogue of Shells collected at Panama; with Notes on their Synonymy, 
Station, and Geographical Distribution: by C. B. Adams, Professor of Zoolozy, 
&c., n Amherst College, Mass, Reprinted from the ‘Annas of Lyceum or Nat. 
Hist. N. Y.,’ vol. v. New York, 1832. 

178 


2 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 


preservation of types therefore, and the interchange of specimens 
named from types, is of the first impor tance to save the time and 
ensure the accuracy of succeeding writers. The Smithsonian Insti- 
_ tution has fully recognized this principle by directing that the first 
available duplicate of all type species described from its collections 
shall be deposited in some museum open to students on the other 
side of the Atlantic. 

As the authorities of Amherst College had not taken any steps 
to figure their uniqne specimens, and as Prof. Adams’s determina- 
tions af old species had not been verified, [ made it my business 
(when visiting America to deposit the first duplicate series of the 
Mazatlan Shells in the New York State Museum at Albany) to com- 
pare Prof. Adams’s collection, on the spot, with his published book, 
m my copy of which I made my notes and sketches at the time. 
Every facility was afforded me by the Curator. I was allowed freely 
to handle the specimens in the presence of his assistant, and to draw 
the minute species under my microscope. —_ I took with me for com- 
parison the drawings of the minute Mazatlan shells in the British 
Museum. The species being numbered in both the Panama and the 
Mazatlan lists, it is easy now ‘to institute a comparison between them. 
They are here distinguished by the initials P. and M. 


P. 1. Ovula avena. May be distinct from Radius variabilis, 
M.,435, being much more stumpy, with a thicker lip; but the few 
specimens are in poor condition, and the differences may be accidents 
of station. 


2. Ovula emarginata=Carinea e. Quite distinct from its Carib- 
bean analogue C. gibbosa. 


3. Ovula neglecta, C. B. Ad., is probably a small variety of Ra- 
dius variabilts. 


4. Ovula variabilis, C. B. Ad.= Radius v., M. 435. 
5. Ovula, sp. ind., probably =variabilis, jun. 
6. Cyprea arabicula= Aricia a., M. 438. 


7. Cyprea cervinetta=C. exanthema, M. 436. Taving now 
examined a multitude of specimens from different stations on the 
west coast, which differ from each other quite as much as they do 
from the typical Caribbean forms, I am confirmed in the belief of 
their identity. 


8. Cyprea punctulata=dricia p. Erroneously given, in M. 
p- 374, asa probable synonym of 4. arabicula. It is less thickened 
at the sides, with smaller spots. Although specimens of arabicula 
graduate into it at the back, it may always be known by the mouth, 
which has its teeth much further apart. 


9. Cyprea pustuluta=Trivia p., M. 439. 
176 











DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 3 


10. Cyprea radians=Trivia r., M. 440. 

ll. Cyprea rubescens=dead sp. of Trivia sanguinea, M. 442. 
12. Cyprea sanguinea= Trivia s., M. 442. 

13. Erato scabriuscula. Stet. 

14. Marginalla minor. Stet, M. 587. 


15. Marginella sapotilla. The Panama specimens collected by 
Prof. Adams, and abundantly by others, more closely resemble M. 
prunum than the type M. sapoti/a of Hinds, which is a much smaller 
shell. The Caribbean shells (which are found across the Isthmus 
at Aspinwall) differ omly im having a sharper angle in the labrum at 
the posterior notch. Adanson’s habitat, doubted by Prof. Adams 
(note, p. 41), is confirmed by specimens in the Bristol Institution 
brought from Sierra Leone by Chief Justice Rankine. The Pacific 
shells are probably conspecific, sufficient evidence being now in our 
possession that the two oceans were united at least as late as the 
Miocene epoch*. 


16. Mitra funiculata. Stet. 
17. Mitra lens, M. 585. 


18. Mitra nucleola. Closely resembling young specimens of the 
Caribbean M. granulosa. 


19. Mitra solitaria, C. B. Ad.=Zierliana s. Other specimens 
have since been found of this characteristic species. The “ trans- 
verse ribs’ can scarcely be said to be ‘‘ obsolete anteriorly.” 


20. Mitra tristis=Strigatella t., M. 586. 
21. Terebra elata=Myurella e. 

22. Terebra larveformis=Myurella 1. 

23, 24. Stent. 

25. Terebra tuberculosa= Myurella t. 


26. Terebra varicosa. This may possibly be a very young speci- 
men of Suéu/a v.; but I think it distinct. 


27-31. Sp. ind. A specimen of Luryta fulgurata, M. 455, is in 
the museum, as from Panama, but not of Prof. Adams’s collecting. 


32. Olwa angulata, M. 590. 


* The specimens in the Cumingian Museum, named M. cerulescens at the time 
of the British Association Report, are now labelled ‘‘ sapotilla, Hds., 5-13 fathoms 
sandy mud, Panama, H. C.” Another set of Pacific shells (notch-angle rounded) 
are given as ‘“ Marginella n. s., Panama,” ‘San Domingo” having been erased. 
The large West Indian form (notch-angle sharp) is given as ‘‘ cewrulescens, var., 
Lam., 10 fathoms sandy mud, Panama.” Another set of large shells, with sharp 
angle, and labrum tinted behind, is given as ‘‘ cerulescens, Lam., Panama,” but 
without authority. The small West-Indian form (like the typical sapo/illa) is 
given as “glans, Mke.” Either in this, as in other instances, error has crept into 
the locality-marks, or else even the distinction pointed out by Mr. Redfield (who 
has given peculiar study to this genus) cannot be relied on for separating the spe- 
e1.s geographivally, 


12 177 


4 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 


33. Oliva araneosa=O. meichersi, M. 591. Prof. Adams’s shanty 
specimen can scarcely be distinguished from that which he marked 
“OQ. literata, Alabama.” But the ordinary aspect of the shells O. 
reticularis trom the Caribbean Islands, O. /iterata trom the coast of 
the Southern States, and O. me/chersi trom the Pacific, is sutticieutly 
distinct (for the genus). 

34. Oliva inconspicua, C. B. Ad.= Olivella i., M2599. Some of 
the shells referred to this species from Panama, Mazatlan, and Cape 
St. Lucas graduate into the Caribbean O. oryza ; others’into dwarf 
forms of O. gracilis. The species either needs revision from fresh 
specimens, or should be merged into O. gracilis. 


35. Oliva pellucida, C. B. Ad. Dead specimen; differs from 
Olivella p., Rve. 


36. Oliva porphyria. Stet. 


37. Oliva semistriata=Olivella s. Closely resembles O. colu- 
mellaris. 


38. Oliva testacea= Agaronia t., M. 602. 
39. Oliva undatella= Olivella u., M. 595. 


40. Oliva venulata. This shanty specimen is O. angulata, jun. 
The O. venulata, M. 593, is named by Prof. Adams O julietta, as 
also by Mke. (non Duel.). The true O. ju/ietta (Guacomayo, Mus. 
Smiths.) is the Pacific ‘‘analogue”’ of O. fusiformis. 

41. Oliva volutella= Olivella v. It is surprising that this species, 
so immensely common at Panama and up the coast, should not reach 
the Gulf, and that the equally common O. ¢ergina of Mazatlan and 
O. gracilis of Cape St. Lucas and Acapulco should be rare elsewhere, 
while the larger Olives are found from Guaymas to the equator. 
O. dama (=lineolata, Gray, C. B. Ad.), abundant at Mazatlan, was 
bought, not collected, by the Professor at Panama. 


42 Planaxis planicostata. Stet. Also immensely common at 
Panama, though absent trom Mazatlan. 

43. Nassa canescens, C. B. Ad. Taving compared this unique 
specimen with P. 50, q. v., I can speak to their complete identity. 
The “pale grey”’ of the ‘‘interspaces”’ is due to the shell being 
dead. 

44, 45. Stent. 

46. Nassa gemmulosa=M. 631, exactly. 

47. Stet. 

48. Nassa luteostoma=M. 623. 

49. Nassa nodifera. Also found at Guaymas. 


50. Nassa pagodus, C. B. Ad. (+N. canescens, P. 43) = N. 
(? nagodus, var.) acuta, M. 625. It is certainly the N. decussata 
oi Kien., but probably not of Lam, Whether it is the Triton pago- 
dus cf Rye. I am still unable to say, the type being apparently lost. 
We are bound to suppose that Mr. Reeve could not mistake so de- 


178 





DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 5 


cided a Nassa for a Triton; so that if Lamarck’s is a similar Easte-n 
species, the West American may stand as N. acuta. 


21. Nassa panamensis, C.B. Ad. The Professor rightly marked 
his duplicates “‘ewilis, Pws.’ This abundant shell, having a Pisa- 
noid, not a Nassoid operculum, probably belongs to Phos, Northia, 
| or some genus not yet elimfnated. N. obsoleta, Say, has a similar 
L operculum, and appears nearly related. 


i 02. Nassa provima. The unique specimen appears to be an ex- 
treme form of WN. versicolor, P. 55. 


53. Nassa ? scabriuscula, C. B. Ad. (non Pws.)=N. complanata, 
Pyws.: Vv. b.00. 

| 54. Nassa striata, C. B. Ad. The two type specimens, one young, 
the other adult, both belong to a variety of versicolor. The phrase, 
| “last whorl spirally canaliculate on the left side,’ simply expresses 
the ordinary character of Nassa. The specimens in Mus. Cuming., 
however, from another source, differ somewhat in the nucleus from 
the small form of N. versicolor. These= N. paupera, Glid., teste 
Cuming, and should take that name. 


55. Nassa versicolor, C. B. Ad., M. 632. The revolving striz 
vary so greatly in this species, as well as the size, obesity, and colour, 
that it is hard to assign its limits. The specimens marked versicolor 
by the Professor vary much more among themselves than the ex- 
treme ones do from his proxwma and striata. The apex and early 
whorls of each are exactly the same under the microscope. It is pos- 
sible that the unique crebristriata, M. 633, is also an extreme variety. 





Se 


56. Nassa wilsont appears to be only a dwarf form of P. 53, 
N. complanata. 


57. Buccinum crassum= Phos ec. 
58. Buceinum distortum= Clavella d. 
59. Buccinum insigne= Pisania i., M. 659. 


60. Buccinum lugubre, C. B. Ad. The Professor marked this shell 
on his card “ Murex? ?”; then “ Fusus?”’: then “ Fusus nodu- 
losus, Ad.,n.s.”; then “ Buccinum (?) lugubre, Ad., n.s.’; so that 
the old genera were sometimes as badly defined as the new ones. It 
may rank with Pisania. 


61. Buccinum pagodus = Pisania p. 

62. Buccinum pristis=Northia serrate. 

63. Buccinum ringens= Pisania r.. M. 663. 

64. Buccinum sanguinolentum= Pisania s., M. 662. 
65. Buccinum stimpsonianum=WNassa st. 

66. Dolium ringens= Malea r. 


67. Monoceros brevidentatum. This species, very common at 
Panama, has been transported over (not through) the Pacific, to San 
Francisco and Monterey v. P page 73. 


179 





6 DN. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 


68. Monoceros cingulatum= Leucozonia c., M. 583. 
69. Purpura carolensis=P. triangularis, M. 608. 


70. Purpura foveolata= Cuma costata, M. 610, probably; but the 
markings have been too much obliterated to decide with confidence. 


71. Purpura kiosquiformis=Cuma k., M. 609. There are in 
the collection three shells, labelled by the Professor ‘“P. purpuroides 
(Fusus), Orb., Panama” = Pisania d’orbignyi, Rve. No authority 
is given, and they probably came from Peru. 

72. Purpura, sp. ind. This shell is not to be found. It has 
probably been put with the last, of which it is no doubt a variety : 
v. M: p.,482. 

73. Purpura melo. Stet. 


74. Purpura osculans appears to be the young of Rhizocheilus 
nux, M. 611; of which R. distans, Cpr., and probably LR. calzfor- 
nicus, A. Ad., are only varieties. 


. Purpura tecta=Cuma t. 
. Purpura undata=P. biserialis, M. 606. 


SJ SIS 
NS Or 


. Columbella atramentaria= Anachis a. 


ST 
CO 


. Columbella bicanalifera=Strembina b. 


NS] 
oS 


. Columbella boivinit. This species must rank with (dnachis 
or) Engina*, the operculum being Pisanoid. 


50. Columbella conspicua= Anachis c. 


81. Columbella costellata, C. B. Ad. =Anachis scalarina, Sby., 
M. 645; not A. costellata, Sby., M. 646. 


82. Columbella diminuta=Anachis d. 

83. Columbella dorsata=Strombina d. 

84. Columbella fluctuata= Anachis fi. 

85. Columbella fulva=Anachis f., M. 648. 

86. Columbella fuscata, M. 617. The small var. is C. festiva, 
Kien. 
87. Columbella gibberula=Strombina g. 

88. Columbella gracilis=Anachis g. 

89. Columbella guttata=WNitidella cribraria, M. 613. 
90, 91, 92. Stent. 

93. Columbella lyrata=Anachis | 

94. Columbella major, M. 615. 


95. Columbella modesta=Truncaria m. It might be convenient 
to leave this genus as arranged by Messrs. H. and A. Ad. Mr. 
Henry Adams desires to restrict it to the type species, in which 


* Of the shells called by French authors Semi-Ricinula. those with a Purpuroid 
operculum may be retained as Sistrum, while those with Pisanoid operculum 
should be removed as Engina, with Anachis, to the Muricida. 


180 














DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 7 


cease this and similar species must be moved to Nifedella, if the oper- 
culum be (as is presumed) Purpuroid ; or to dmyela, if Nassoid. 


96. Columbella masta== Anachis m. 
97 Columbella nigricans= Anachis n. 


98. Columbella parva. This appears to be only a dead specimen 
of C. pygmea, P. 100. 


99. Columbella pulchrior is probably a Nitidella. 
100. Columbella pygmea= Anacnis p., M. 051. 


101. Columbella rugosa=Anachis r. ‘Vhis appears to be the 
commonest and most variable species of the genus. The typical 
specimens are somewhat stumpy, with stout knobs. Then the knobs 
pass into long, compressed ridges, and finally change into narrow 
bars. ‘These are wide apart, or close, or nearly evanescent ou the 
back. The shape passes from the stumpy to an acuminate form 
like costellata. Some adults are more than twice the size of others; 
but the same variations are found in both extremes. The colours 
are generally laid on in patches on the knobby specimens; in fine 
flames, on the smoother ones. In all varieties, it is known from 
fiuctuata by the spiral strize over the whole surface ; and from varia 
by the shoulder, more or less developed into a keel, on the whorls of 
the spire. 


102. Columbella strombiformis, M. 616. 
103. Columbella tessellata, C. B. Ad. (non Gask.) = Anachis gua- 


temalensis, Rve. 
104. Columbella turrita=Strombina t. 
105. Columbella varia = Anachis v. 


106. Columbella sp. ind. is the young of a species in Mus. 
Cuming., resembling harpeformis. 


107 Ricinula carbonaria=Engina ec. 


108. Ricinula jugosa may be an Engina, but has more the aspect 
of the Pacific group Peristernia. 


109. Ricinula reeviana=Engina pulchra, Rve. 


110. Cassis abbreviata=Bezoardica a. On comparing a large 
series of specimens from Cape St. Lucas with a similar series of C. 
inflata from Texas, I was unable to discover any specific differences. 
It varies greatly, from each ocean, in painting, sculpture, height of 
spire, &c. 

111. Cassis coarctata=Levenia ¢ 


112, 1135, 114(=M. 480), 1 16, 116.(= Me. 481), 117, 118* Cie 
476), 119* (=M. 477), 120 (=M. 475), 121, 122 (=M. 381, 
galeatus), 123 (=M. 449), 124 (=M. 448), 125. Stent. 

* Having now examined a large number of specimens of these two forms, I 
have no hesitation whatever in regarding Conus regalitatis as simply a variety of 


C. purpurascens. Similar differences may be observed in comparing large series 
of almost all Cones, 181 


g DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 


126. Triton chemnitzii= Arygcbhucecnum nodosum, M. 580. These 
shells are small and turreted. ‘Those Prof. Adams marked “ 7’. cin- 
gulatum, Lam., EK. Indies,’? are much more like the Mazatlan shells, 


127. Triton constrictus=Distortio c. The specimens of this 
group from the Pacific Coast, trom the Gulf of Mexico, and from 
the China Seas are very difficult to discriminate. 


128. Triton fusoides. This unique and very elegant shell can 
scarcely be called a Triton, even of the Epidromus ‘type. It may 
perhaps rank with Huthria, but is peculiar in possessing a distinct 
anterior sinus, near the Eanal like Rostellaria. 


129) ¥30, UT1324) 133, 1345, 135.’ Stents 
136. Murex dubius=Muricidea dubia, M. 673. 
137. Murex erosus= Muricidea e. 


138. Murex radix=Phyllonotus r. The Professor’s specimens 
of this species are remarkably fine, more nearly resembling the Gulf 
nigritus than the heavy stumpy shells usually seen. lis yous 
specimens are heavier, but more turreted, than the young nigritus. 
The opercula appear to have fewer frills; but such differences may 
be due only to station. The specimens he marked ambiguus (with- 
out locality) belong to the typical nigritus. Phyllonotus radix and 
nigritus graduate ito each other almost as freely as the latter does 
luto ambiguus: v. M. 666. 


13°. Murex rectirostris. This and kindred species run into each 
other too closely, when adult, to speak with any confidence on so 
young a specimen in bad condition. 


140. Murex recurvirostris. This specimen is also far too imper- 
fect to affiliate: v. M. 665. 


141. Murex regius=Phyllonotus r., M. 670. 


142. Murex salebrosus=Vitularia s., M.612. The curious group 
of Muricoid Purpurids culminates on the West American shores. It 
is represented in the north temperate regions by Cerastoma, on the 
warmer shores by Chorus, and in the tropical regions by Vitularia. 
The Lower Californian Murer belcheri, Hds., belongs to the group. 
Dr. Alcock (who has succeeded the late Capt. Brown as Curator of 
the Manchester Natural History Museum) has pointed out very well- 
marked physiological distinctions between the two families, which 
are coordinate with the differences in the opercula. 


* Dr. Gray (Guide to Mollusca, pp. 39, 42) leaves the round-variced Ranellids, 
as Apollon, in the T’ritonide, “ operc. annular, nucleus subapical, within the 
apex ;” but removes the sharp-variced species, as Ranella, to the Cassidide, and 
figures the operculum like Bezoardica, ‘“ half- ovate, nucleus central, lateral, in- 
ternal.” The operculum of &. ceglata, No. 132, is almost identical with Murezx, 
and the shell accords with Apollon; but R. nitida, No. 134, which has very sharp 
varices, has its operculum widely removed from Sezoardica. It is closely related 
to that of Cerastoma, Rhizocheilus, and some of the Ocinebre; nucleus near the 
anterior end of the labrum; labral portions of the annular layers eroded ; scar as 
in Purpurids, with about thiee roughly angular ridges of growth, 


182 








DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 9 


143. Murex vibex. This Peruvian species also probably belongs 
to the Purpurid group. 


144. Murex vittatus=Muricidea v. 

145. (=M. 638), 146 (=M. 579). Stent. 

147. Fusus bellus, C. B. Ad. This is a pretty little shell, resem- 
bling a young Me¢u/a, and is probably one of the species assigned 
with doubt to that genus, M. 619-622, or to Fusus, M.642. [should 
erase the words, ‘‘some of which are varicoid”’ (referring to the ra- 
diating ribs), as my glass did not enable me to detect a single one. 

148. Fasciolaria granosa. A minute specimen is of the size and 
general appearance of the fry of Chrysodomus antiquus, with one and 
a half irregular nuclear whorls. An adult has its operculum broken 
and mended from a subcentral nucleas—a mode of proceeding which 
I have now observed in such a multitude of species belonging to dif- 
ferent families of Proboscidifers and Toxifers that I venture to assign 
it as the original type of their opercula, from which the special 
family forms are modifications of high development. Of the spiral 
Rostrifers there is not yet sufficient evidence to speak*. 

149. Turbinella cestus, M. 581. 

150. Turbinella custanea= Latirus c. 

151. Turbinella cerata=Latirus c., M.582. 

152. Turbinella rudis=Latirus r. 

153. Turbinella spadicea= Latirus s. 


154. Cancellaria affinis. Very closely allied to C. urceolatu, 
M. 445. 


195; 156, 157 (=M. 446), 158, 159. Stent. 

160. Cancellaria pygmea is simply a young specimen of C. g¢- 
niostoma, no. 157. 

161, 162. Stent. 

163. Pleurotoma aterrima=Drillia a. 

164. Pleurotoma atrior. This is a fine specimen, not quite ma- 
ture in the lip, of Drillia aterrima, var. melchersi, M. 461. 

165. Pleurotoma bicanalifera=Clathurella b. 

166. Pleurotoma collaris=Drillia ce. 

167. Pleurotoma concinna=Cithara ec. 

168. Pleurotoma corrugata= Drillia c. 


169. Pleurotoma discors=Drilliad. Probably a finely developed 
variety of aterrima. 


* When at Charleston, S. C., I had an opportunity of examining many very fine 
specimens of the giant Fasciolaria, so seldom seen in this country, of which a 
broken specimen in my collection measures 20 in. In sculpture, colour, and 
general appearance some were so very like /*. princeps, M. 584, that I was tempted 
to consider the latter a degraded iocai vanevy, uli 1 found the opeiculum, which 
is destitute of the singular grooving of the Gulf species. 


183 


10 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 


170. Pleurotoma duplicata= briltva d. 

171. Pleuretoma excentricu=Drilia e. I cannot endorse this 
and some other determinations of critical species of Pleurotomids, 
not being able to remove the specimens for comparison with types. 
Even the types in Mus. Cuming. do not always present satisfactory 
diagnostic characters. 

172. Pleurotoma exigua=Mangelia e. I could not discover “the 
rest in pairs.” 

173. Pleurotoma gemmulosa= Mangelia g. 

174. Pleurotoma grandimaculata=Drillia g. 

175. Pleurotoma incrassata=Drillia 7., M. 459. The collection 
contains D. luctuosa, M. 467, as trom Panama, but not of the Pro- 
fessor’s collecting. 

176. Pleurotoma nigerrima= Drillia n. 

177. Pleurotoma obeliscus=Drillia 0. Very worn and doubtful. 

178. Pleurotoma olivacea. Closely resembles P. funiculata, 
M. 457. 

179. Pleurotoma pallida=Drillia p, 

186. Pleurotoma rigida=Clathurella r. 

181. Pleurotoma rudis. It is probable that this is not the true 
Drillia rudis, being distinguished by white spots on the knobs: 
v. M. 460. 

182. Pleurotoma rustica=Drillia aterrima, var. melchersi, M. 
461. These specimens being very wern, their specific identity with 
P. 164 was not recognized by the Professor. One shell, marked 
‘rustica, var.,”’ may be the true rustica—a species by no means 
satisfactorily distinguished. 

183. Pleurotoma striosa=Drillia s. 

184. Pleurotoma zonulata= Drillia z.. M. 463. 

185. Pleurotoma, sp. a. A small, dark, purple-brown Mangelia, 
of the leufroy: type. 

186. Pleurotoma, sp. b. <A slender, pure-white, ribbed shell ; 
probably a Cithara. j 

187. Mangelia, sp.c. A young Daphnella. 

188. Mangelia, sp. d. A very worn, black shell; with white, 
knobby ribs. 

189. Mangelia, sp. e. A very small, white shell; resembling a 
young Bela turricula. 

190. Mangelia, sp. f. A very small, white Drillia, with distinct 
posterior notch; spirally striated, with rather sharp ribs. 

191. Mangelia neglecta. Of the “elevated spiral line on the 
middle of the whorls’? J could discover no trace, except of colour, 


It is therefore probable that it=M. acuticostata, Mirage 3. 
184 








a 





DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA, li 


192. Mangelia sulcosa is the true Columbella s of Sby. 
193. Cerithium adustum=C. maculosum, M. 381. 
194. Cerithium assimilatum= Cerithiopsis a., M. 563. , 


195. Cerithium bimarginatum=Cerithiopsis 6, A good species ; 
but I could not detect the ‘‘intermediate raised line.” The apical 
whorls are almost smooth. The ‘ prominent spiral fold” on the 
columella is simply that which bounds the recurved canal. 


196. Cerithium famelicum. Confusion has arisen from the Pro- 
fessor having sent to Mr. Cuming as his type a shell which does not 
answer to the diagnosis, and which is described as (? var.) medioleve, 
M. 382. Ten specimens are retained in the Amherst Museum, of 
which eight are of the uncinatum type, =M. 383, and two of the 
Cumingian. C. uncinatum, being an old species, is probably from 
the Atlantic or E. Indies: if this should prove identical, the name 
fumelicum must be dropped; if distinct, retained for the west coast 
uncinoids, according to the diagnosis. After an examiuation of a 
large series of specimens collected by Mr. Xantus at Cape St. Lucas, 
I am confirmed in the belief that the Cumingian shell is a distinct 
species, which must stand as C. medioleve. 


197. Cerithium gemmatum= Rhinoclavis gemmatus, M. 389. So 
much confusion has arisen from raising specific names to the generic 
peerage, that whenever a good distinct name has been given, it ap- 
pears best to retain it—the unbending rule of mere priority for work 
which is sometimes slovenly, and therefore best forgotten, notwith- 
standing. 

_ 198. Cerithium ? interruptum, C. B. Ad. (non Mke.=M. 388). 
Great confusion has arisen from this erroneous determination, as 
may be seen by comparing the Maz. Cat. zm /oco with the mono- 
graph of Sowerby, jun., who has redescribed the southern, highly 
sculptured forms of the true znterruptum as C. galapaginis. 


198 and 199 are regarded by Messrs. Cuming and Sowerby as 
varieties of 


200. Cerithium irroratum, C. B. Ad. (Gld. ipse et MSS., non 
Gld. in Expl. Exp.) =C. stercusmuscarum, M, 387. The aspect of 
the Panama shells is so different from that of the Mazatlan speci- 
mens that [ did not wonder at Dr. Gould’s opinion that they were 
distinct. He was, however, misled in affiliating the former to his 
C. irroratum, of which I fortunately discovered the figured type in 
the Smithsonian Institution, and which proves to be (according to 
Mr. Cuming) the C. obeswm of Sby. sen., from the Philippines. It 
is fortunate therefore that the name may be entirely dropped. Some 
of the specimens of no. 198 graduate sufficiently closely to the Ma- 
zatlan form; those of no. 199 are intermediate; while those of 
no. 200 present a stronger but smaller shell, well armed with small 
nodules, which are not to be seen in the fine Gulf specimens. 


201. Cerithium neglectum = Cerithiopsis n. 


202. Cerithium pacificum. Stet. 
185 


12 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA, 


203. Cerithium pauperculum is a good, new species of Chrysallida. 
The Professor probably did not recognize the Chemnitzoid apex aud 
the Ofostomoid plait. The following alterations may be made in 
the diagnosis :—Shell pale orange [vot horn], with six [not five] 
keels on the spire; spiral ridges anteriorly fainter [not obsolete] ; 
apex sinistral [not acute], of three Paludinoid whorls, the last large 
in proportion; columella effuse [not canaliculated], with a long, 
slender, slanting plait. 

204. Cerithium pulchrum=Cerithidea p. A distinct and truly 
beautiful species, seldom obtained by collectors. ; 


205. Cerithium reevianum=Cerithidea montagnei, M. 394. 


206. Cerithium validum=Cerithidea varicosa, M. 395. The 
Southern shells, in all their changes, present such a different aspect 
from the Gulf specimens, that Lam inclined to regard the form Ma- 
zatlanica as distinct, of which C. albonodosa may prove a variety. 

207. Triphoris alternatus, M. 391. 

208. Triphoris inconspicuus is scarcely even a variety of the last ; 
and does not differ so much as the specimens described under the 
same name, M. 392. 

209. Triphoris infrequens is not the shell described, under the 
same name, M. 393, but is the Cerithiopsis tuberculoides, M. 557. 
It would have been strange if I had recognized the shell from the 
diagnosis ; for both of the specimens are dextral. The apex is nearly 
smooth. I forbear to redescribe nos. 392, 393 of the Maz. Cat., 
as they were separated principally in deference to Prof. Adams’s 
authority, until more numerous specimens should have been examined, 

210. Turritella banksti=T. goniostoma, jun., M. 379. 

211. Caecum diminutum=Cecum firmatum, jun., with numerous 
close rings. All the Professor’s specimens of this genus were dead ; 
most of them pierced by Proboscidifers. They fully confirmed the 
judgments I ventured to form of them in the Maz. Cat. and in the 
*“ Monograph of the Ceecidee,” P. Z. 8S. 1858, p. 413 et seg. 

212. Caecum eburneum=C. firmatum. The rings vary from 
twenty-six to thirty-three. 

213. Cacum firmatum, M. 368. Add to the diagnosis in Maz. 
Cat. p. 320, last line, ‘ operculo vix concavo, suturis minus definitis.” 

214. Cecum leve. The two specimens are too worn for identifi- 
cation, but will pass sufficiently for the species described under the 
same name, M. 372. 

215. Caecum laqueatum. A good species of the E/ephantulum 
group: v. Maz. Cat. p. 315, and P. Z.8. loc. cié. p. 420. 

216. Caecum monstrosum=C, firmatum in the adolescent stage. 


217. Caecum parvum turns out, as was expected, to be=C. unda- 
tum, M. 371. The unique specimen is stunted and dead. 


218. Caecum pygmeum is a small but nearly adult C. frmatum. 


186 








i 
! 
} 


DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 13 


219. Chemnitzia aculeus, M. 521. 


220. Chemnitzia acuminata is a true Chemnitzia, and not a Chiry- 
sallida, as supposed in the Br. Assoc. Report, p. 334. The name 
misleads, as it is a peculiarly broad species. The vertex consists of 
three Paludinoid whorls, of which the apex is visible, projecting a 
little beyond the spire. The ribs, instead of ‘‘ terminating abruptly 
on the periphery of the last whorl,” become gradually evanescent 
round the base *. 


221. Chemnitzia afinis. Comp. M. 523, which was identified 
from Mr. Cuming’s specimen. ‘The diagnosis needs the following 
corrections from the type. The “ribs terminate”’ not very “ abruptly 
at the periphery.”’ Anteriorly very finely striated [not ‘‘ smooth”? |. 
«Last whorl” not “angular at the periphery.’’ Base prolonged. 
It is probably the adult form of my Chemnitzia undata, M. 531, the 
characteristic fine, waved, spiral strize having escaped the Professor's 
notice. The only difierence is that the ribs evanesce more suddenly 
in the Panama than in the Mazatlan shell, which may be due simply 
to age. 


222. Chemnitzia clathratula, part.=Chrysallida clathratula, M. 
513, which was identified from the Cumingian specimen. The spe- 
cimens preserved as types contain, along with this species, one of 
Chrysallida communis, one (almost certainly) of Chrysallida effusa, 
M. 510, and one of Dunkeria subangulata, M.537. Some parts of 
the description appear taken from the latter species: e. g. the “five 
or six” spiral lines, of which there are only four in the Chrysallida ; 
and the angle on the “upper part”’ of the whorls, which in the 
latter are well rounded. 


223. Chemnitzia communis, M.507. This is the type of the 
genus Chrysallida : v. M. pp. 416, 420. Prof. Adams’s tray con- 
tains also one specimen of Chrysallida effusa, M. 510 ; one of Chrys. 
telescopium, M. 508; one of Dunkeria nubangulains M. 537; and 
one which may be a variety of the latter, or a distinct species. 


224. Chemnitzia gracilior. The ‘ well-impressed spiral line”’ is 
only seen in some of the whorls. 
225 Chemunitzia major belongs to the section Dunkeria. I counted 
eighteen (not twenty-four) ribs. 
226. Chemnitzia marginata is a good species of Chrysallida ; but 
I poald not find the “spiral, compressed ridge.” 


227 Chemnitzia panamensis, M.518. I counted twenty-four 
(not twenty-seven) ribs. The tray also contains one specimen of 


* As several errors are here pointed out in the diagnoses of small shells, it is 
right to state that Prof. Adams had not the advantage of a microscope during a 
considerable portion of the work ; nor was the instrument a good one when cb- 
tained. Moreover the incessant demands on his attention as Professor of Astro- 
nomy and Mathematics, as well as of Natural History, and his duties as State 
Geologist of Vermont, did not leave him much time for original research. What 
he accomplished during his short life is marvellous. Had that life been spared to 
revise his works, the necessity foi Luis friendly criticism would not have arisen. 


187 


14 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 


Ch. C-B-Adamsii, M. 519, with straight ribs; and one with spiral 
sculpture, which may belong to Ch. gracillima, M. 530, but wants 
the produced apex. 


228. Chemnitzia similis, This species most nearly resembles 
aculeus, but is broader, larger, and with more ribs, of which I counted 
from twenty to tweaty-two (uot twenty-six). I shouid not cail the 
whorls “ convex.’’ They are, however, more rounded, and the base 
is more produced, than in the shell called ‘*? similis,” M. 520, which 
is perhaps a variety of panamensis. 

229. Chemnitzia striosa. The early whorls are very slender. 
The spiral strize are on the tops of the ribs, of which I counted from 
twenty-four to thirty-two (instead of ‘about forty’). 

230. Chemnitzia turrita. This species includes the ‘“ Eissoa, 
sp. ind.”’ no. 251. 


231. ? Littorina angiostoma is a Fossarus. 


232. Littorina aspera, M.397. The Mazatlan periwinkles, being 
in good condition, divide themselves very naturally into three 
species. The Panama specimens, being generally eroded, are not so 
easily dealt with. Of Prof. Adams’s specimens here retained, the 
majority belong to aspera, although several of the smaller ones are 
philippii, M. 393. The young appear to be of both species mixed. 
The ‘‘ variety” consists of the abnormal tall specimens of conspersa, 
M. 396, with a few very large philippi intermixed. 


233. Littorina atrata. This abundant little shell is a Fossarus, 
of which the Professor’s ?ddeorbis abjecta, no. 257, is a more ad- 
vanced form. It is possible that one of the Fossari described in 
Maz. Cat., nos. 404, 405, may be conspecific ; but among the mul- 
titude of specimens I could not find one with the nuclear whorls 
sufficiently perfect to decide. The shells vary extremely in shape 
and sculpture. 

234. Littorina conspersa, M. 396. Smaller and generally more 
stumpy than the Mazatlan shells, but containing a few specimens of 
the same extreme forms. 


235. ? Littorina exeavata= Fossarus e. 


236. Littorina fasciata, M. 400. The specimens of this species 
and of L. varia graduate rather closely towards each other. 


237. ? Inttorina foveata. A good species of Fossarus. Read, 
¢¢ Last whorl angular”’ at the umbilicus [not ‘ below the middle’’]. 


238. ? Littorina megasoma. This is also a good species of Fos- 
sarus. The Professor was doubtful whether to refer these forms to 
Littorina or to Narica. 


239. Littorina ? parvula, C.B. Ad. This is not Philippi’s L. 
parvula, but is a dwarf form of the L. philippti, M. 398. ‘The Pro- 
fessor suggests the name L. dudiosa tor this sufficiently well-marked 
species ; but as he catalogued and distributed his specimens under 
? parvula, and kept others under aspera, it may be best to retain 


188 








DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.’ 15 


the name philippii under which it has been very extensively cir. 
lated. 


240. Littorina pulchra. A very rare species, belonging (with 
fasciuta and varia) to the Melaraphe group. 


241. Littorina puncticulata. This is the normal state of L. con- 
spersa: v. M. 396. 


242. Littorina varia: v. note on P. 236. 


243. Rissoa clandestina. Three specimens appear of this specice 
of Rissoina, closely resembling R. woodwardii, M. 410, but with 
more ribs, and not displaying the intercostal striulz. 


244. Rissoa firmata. Another species of Rissoina, resembling 
R. stricta, M. 408, but smaller. The Professor did not observe 
the fine spiral sculpture, as described in no. 250 ; q. v. 


245. Rissoa fortis. A good species of Rissoina, differing from 
R. janus in the absence of spiral punctures. 


246. ? Rissoa. inconspicua, C. B. Ad., non Alder. The name 
being preoccupied, it is fortunate that the unique shell proves iden- 
tical with Alvania tumida, M. 414. I found twenty (not “twelve 
or fourteen ’’) ridges, which are not “‘ obsolete,’ but become fainter 
anteriorly. The two upper whorls are very finely cancellated. 


247. Rissoa infrequens. The unique specimen of this Rissoina 
is too much worn for description. It has more than the sixteen ribs ; 
and the diagnostic marks must be received with caution. 


248. Rissoa janus. The description of this Jzssoina is drawn 
from a very small, dead, broken specimen, from which the sculpture 
is almost entirely worn away. The “var. a” should be considered 
as the type, being in perfect condition, and the diagnosis be altered 
as follows :—The ‘‘ fine crowded spiral striz”’ are seen all over, as 
are also the “ribs,” which on each whorl “appear as strie,’”’ and 
are not ‘‘ obsolete near the periphery.” The diagnostic character is 
that the spiral strize are composed of rows of minute dots. 


249. Rissoa notabilis. After drawing this unique shell carefully 
under the microscope, and making copious notes on the diagnosis 
from the specimen, an untoward cough lodged it among the meshes 
of the Curator’s carpet, whence I endeavoured in vain to extricate it. 
This unfortunate accident is, however, the less to be regretted, as I 
caa state with perfect confidence that it was exactly identical with 
another shell in the collection, P. 255, q. v.; and with M. 498, 
Parthenia quinquecincta. The “concave summits” of the ribs imply 
that the ribs are sharp, with concave interstices ; and the “ upper 
keel’ is simply due to the angulation of the whorls. Though the 
hp was broken, the columellar plait, as well as the sinistral apex, 
escaped the Professor’s notice. 


250. Rissoa scalariformis. This unique specimen is simply the 
young of Fissoina firmata, P. 244; and probably = Lissoina sp. 
ind. M. 409. 189 


16 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 


251. Rissoa, sp.ind. This is a broken specimen of Chemnitzva 
turrita, P. 230. 

252. ? Cingula inconspicua. 'This unfortunate name, liable to be 
confounded with Rissoa inconspicua, Alder, and ? Rissoa inconspicua, 
C. B. Ad., will not be needed, as the type belongs to another sub- 
order, and = Chrysallida ovulum, M. 512. The Professor did not 
observe its close relationship with his Chemnitzia communis. 


253. Cingula paupercula, C. B. Ad. A good species. 


254. ? Cingula terebellum= Parthenia exarata, M.501. Although 
I took every pains, in preparing the Maz. Cat.,- to identify Prof. 
Adams’s species, I was not prepared, in the writings of so careful a 
naturalist who had devoted special attention to the minute species, 
to find a Pyramidellid under Trochidee, especially with the mark 
“apex subacute.’ The finding of a more perfect Mazatlan specimen 
enables me to add to the diagnosis :—“ vertice nucleoso parvo, satis 
extante, decliviter sito; interstitiis carinarum transversim rugulosis; 
labro solidiore. Long. °087, long. spir. 057, lat. -058.” 


255. ? Cingula turrita (+P. 249, Rissoa notabilis)=Parthenia 
quinquecincta, M. 498. Whenashell is described under two genera 
in the same sheet, the advocates of unbending priority will find it 
difficult to decide. As each name belongs to a widely removed 
family, that last given is at least the most correct and distinctive. 


256. ? Litiopa saxicola. The Professor states that this “shell 
has the appearance of a Litiopa;” but it wants both the peculiar 
nucleus and the semitruncated columella; also that the “ labium 
has a distinct deposit,”’ of which I could not see any trace in either 
of the specimens. It is probably a Cingula. 


257. ? Adeorbis abjecta. This is the adult form of the shell, of 
which P. 233, Littorina atrata, is the young. ‘The strize are seen on 
the lower as well as the ‘‘upper part of the whorls.’ The umbili- 
cus, though “small” for an Adeorbis, is rather large for a Fossarus, 
to which genus the species undoubtedly belongs. 


258. Vitrinella concinna. 1 could not find the “mere or less 
distinct ridge between the first two keels.” 


259. Vitrinella exigua=M. 305. The omissions in the Pro- 
fessor’s diagnoses of this and other species, being supplied in the 
Maz. Cat., need not be repeated here: v. M. pp. 236-247. 


260. Vitrinella janus. The Professor does not mention the fifth 
keel, which bounds the umbilicus, and within which are the ‘‘ minute 
spiral strive.’ The “transverse strize’’ are strong between keels 
2, 3, and 4; faint between 4 and 5, and between 1 aad 2; and eva- 
nescent near the suture. 


261. Vitrinella minuta. The original type of this ahaa, accords 
better with £thalia than with Teonostoma, to which I had referred 
the Cumingian type. 

262. Vitrinella modesta. The “modesty ”’ of this unique shell is 


190 








DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 17 


eoordinate with considerable attrition, and an umbilicus tilled with 
dirt. It appeared to me regularly rounded, without any keel. The 
“few spiral striae ’’ are probably the remains of what ouce covered 
the whole surface. 


263. Vitrinella panamensis=M. 295. 
264. Vitrinella parva=M. 296. 


265. Vitrinella perparva=M. 304. The coronation of the upper 
keel is seen (though not described) in the type specimen. 


266. Vitrinella regularis. The unique shell can hardly be called 
“‘subdiscoidal,” since the “ spire is convex, moderately elevated.” 
I could not find the “impressed spiral line.” It belongs to Hthalia. 


267. Vitrinella seminuda. The unique type of this species also 
is much worn. [ could not discover the “‘ minute strize of growth.” 
Beneath, there are five spiral liree, and a few spiral strize near the 
mouth. The umbilical region and the base have fine radiating distant 
striae. It comes nearest to VY. carinulata, M. 309, but is distinct. 


268. Vitrinella tricarinata. This unique type is also worn. 
The spiral keels are scarcely ‘“ prominent,” that on the periphery 
being decidedly faint. The ‘transverse striz”’’ are between the 
suture and the nearest rib. The umbilical striee are very faint. 


269. Vitrinella valvatoides. This species probably belongs to 
Ethalia. Beside the keels, there are three obsolete spiral lrae—two 
on the base, and one above the periphery. The umbilicus is bounded 
by a long, thin callosity, which gives a character to the shell inter- 
mediate between the two genera. . 


270. Solarium, sp. ind. a. Of the form represented by this 
species and the next I have been able to examine a large number of 
specimens collected at Cape St. Lucas by Mr. Xantus, and in the 
Gulf of Mexico. I know of no mark by which to distinguish the 
shells from the two oceans. From each locality they vary greatly 
in the size of the umbilicus, and in the strength of sculpture, number 
of knobs, &c. I should consider them all as varieties of S. granu- 
latum, Lam. SS. quadriceps, Hds., appears distinct, though it may 
only be an extreme variety. 


271. Solarium, sp. ind. 6. This contains the specimens with 
coarser sculpture than the last. 

272. Solarium, sp. ind. ec. This is a distinct species of Torinia, 
having the size and general aspect of Helix rotundata. 

273. Trochus catenulatus= Modulus c., M. 401. 

274. Trochus coronulatus=Omphalius c. This species reappears 
at Cape St. Lucas, and is closely allied to O. ligulatus, M. 293. 

275. Trochus leanus=Calliostoma 1. This distinctive generic 
name is strongly to be preferred to the specific Ziziphinus. 


276. Trochus lima. This shell exactiy accords with Callostoma 
antonti, Koch, in Mus. Cuming. 


191 


18 DR. LP. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA, 


277. Trochus lividus= Modulus disculus, M. 403. 


278. Trochus panamensis=Omphalius p. A good species, though 
apparently very rare; for I had the pleasure of adding it to the 
Cumingian collection. 


279. Trochus pellis-serpentis=Tegula p. 


280. Trochus reticulatus=Omphalius viridulus, M. 292. This 
is the common Trochid of the Panama region, as is ligulatus of the 
Mazatlan. 


281. Turbo buschii= Uvanilla inermis, M. 287. This shell ap- 
pears to replace U. olivacea in the southern fauna. Besides the dif- 
ferences indicated in Maz. Cat. p. 229, the operculum is quite 
distinct. 

282. ? Turbo phasianeila=Collonia ph.: not (Melaraphe) pha- 
sianella, Phil. 


283. Turbo rutilus. The unique type is in miserable condition, 
to which the ‘‘ bright red with pale streaks”? is owing. The shell 
may possibly have been originally a Pomaulax undosus, which is 
truly a Lower Californian species. It appears, however, to be a 
favourite with sailors, as specimens are continually appearing, not 
only high and low on the West’ Coast, but also from the Pacific 
Islands. The specimens brought by Comm. Wilkes’s U.S. Expl. Exp. 
were obtained in N. S. Wales! Prof. Adams’s fragments were pro- 
bably due to ballast. 


234. Turbo saxosus=Callopoma saxosum. This replaces the C. 
fiuctnosum of the Gulf, M. 282, and the C. tessellatum of Lower 
California. The ‘var. depressum”’ of P. Z. S., 1855, I believe to 
be really a Senectus from the Pacific Islands. 


285. Scalaria hexagona, C. B. Ad.: non Sby., M. 564. The 
Professor’s shell is (I think) one of the species I described in P. ZS. 
from Mr. Bridges’s collection; but the distinctions in this genus are 
too critical to decide without comparison of types. ‘Llis shell is 
broad; whorls very separate; varices long and sharp; spirally 
finely striated. 

286. Scalaria obtusa, C. B. Ad.; ?non Sby. This also appeared 
to me one of Mr. Bridges’s species. It is a very pretty shell, with 
close, sharp, coronated varices. 

287. Scalaria, sp. ind. a. Like the next, but larger, and with 
spiral striae between the extremely crowded, sharp varices. 

288. Scalaria, sp.ind. 6. Of the Clathratula type, without spiral 
sculpture. 

289. Scalaria, sp. ind. e, is probably the young of Cirsotrema 
funiculatum, M. 569, which, with its congeners, may be removed to 
Opalia. 

290. Eulima iota. This shell, which is a Letostraca (not ‘? Sty- 
lifer’’), is probably distinct trom the Mazatlan form, M. 595, which 
snould stand as L. retexta. 

192 








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=o 


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DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 19 


291. Eulima recta. The type is a very good species of Leio- 
straca ; but I doubt its identity with the Cumingian specimen, with 
which the Mazatlan shell, M. 550, was compared. It most resembles 
the L. linearis, M. 554, with which it agrees in divergeuce and 
general shape ; but that is very much smaller, with the upper whorls 
more tumid. In the Professor's type of Z. recta, I searched in vain 
for traces of the “two brown spots.” They were probably thrown 
by defective light. The ‘‘ two opaque spiral bands ”’ are simply the 
effect of the suture, and the previous whorl showing through. For 
the Mazatlan shell, M. 550, I propose the name of L. involuta. 


292. Eulima solitaria. This also is a Letostraca, not “? Sty- 
lifer,’ and accords exactly with the Letostraca, sp. ind. a, M. 552, 
but not with the supposed L. solitaria, M. 551. The latter agrees 
in shape with the unique Panama shell, whorl for whorl; but its 
base and labrum are much more produced anteriorly. For this rea- 
son, it may be known as L. producta. 


293. Pyramidella, sp. ind. This is probably the Odeliscus de- 
scribed in Maz. Cat. no. 486. 


294. Pyramidella conica = Obeliscus conicus, C. B. Ad., not 
M. 486. 


295. Natica chemnitzii= N. maroccana, M. 570. The Professor 
first labelled these shells ‘‘ NV. ? maroccana, Chem.,’’ but crossed it off 
in pencil. Another tray appeared (without number) labelled ‘? wi7- 
fasciata, Lam.” ‘They all belong to the large West Coast form of 
maroceana. [N.B. The shells described in P. Z. 8. as ‘var. cali- 
Jfornica,” on the authority of the late Mr. Nuttall, are (with others 
from the same source) undoubtedly from the Sandwich Islands. 
The Pacific specimens (of which I have examined many thousands, 
brought by Comm. Wilkes’s E. E.) present a very different type froin 
ions of the west coasts of Africa and America; but are regarded 
by Mr. Cuming as only a local variety. ] 


296. Natica ?lurida. These shells are simply a pale variety of 
N. maroceana. 


297. Natica otis, C. B. Ad. (not Brod. & Sby.). These shells 
appear to be the young of Polinices ‘‘ salangonensis,” P. 298 


298. Natica ? salangonensis. I had no opportunity of comparing 
this Polinices with the species of Récluz. 


299. Natica souleyetiana. The shells closely resemble N. ma- 
roccana, but with a larger umbilicus. 


300. Natica ? virginea, C. B. Ad. (not Reécl.) = Polinices uber, 
M. 576 

301. Natica, sp. ind. a. There is no ticket answering to this 
number, which was probably intended for the N. maroccana, var. 
“unifasciata.” 

302. Natica, sp. ind. 6. The shells are marked e, and are the 
young of Polinices uber, P. 300, M. 576. 

13 193 


or DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 


303. Natres, sp. ind. ec. The shell is marked f, and is probably 
=N. haneti 


304. Nerita scabricosta=M. 326. After examining a multitude 
of specimens from different parts of the coast, I have not the slightest 
doubt of the identity of the forms called ornata and desiayesit. 


305. Nerita, sp. ind. a=N. bernhardi, M. 327. 

306. Neritina guayaquilensis. Stet.+ N. intermedia, Sby. 

307. Neritina picta=M. 329. 

308-316. Stent. The shells described as “ duricula”’ belong to 
Melampus. 


317. Truncatella bairdiana. <A good species. 


318. ?? Truncatella dubiosa. This belongs to Hydrobia or some 
similar Rissoid. 


319. Bulla (Tornatina) infrequens=Tornatina i., M. 222. 


320. Bulla (Cylichna) luticola=Cylichna l., M. 221. The Ma- 
zatlan shell is much more constricted than most of Prof. Adams’s 
specimens. 


321. Bulla punctulata=B. adamsi, M. 224. The B. punctata, 
A. Ad.=B. punctulata, A. Ad., but is not the B. punctulata, 
C. B. Ad.=B. puncticulata, C. B. Ad., MS. on ticket. 


322. Bulla, sp. ind.=Tornatina carinata, M. 223. 


323. Vermetus ? glomeratus, C. B. Ad. (not Bivonia glomerata, 
Lam.)=V. eburneus, M. 354. The shells sometimes assume a ru- 
fous tint in the later whorls, in which state (if the Turritelloid apex 
be concealed) it is liable to be confounded with Aletes centiquadrus. 
Some of the Professor’s shells belong to the latter species. 


324. Vermetus panamensis, C. B. Ad. (? Rouss.)= Aletes centi- 
quadrus, M. 352. 


325. Stomatella inflata is a Lamellaria with broken lip and very 
much curved columella: v. M. 577. [A Sigaretus, with somewhat 
sharper columella than the ordinary W. Indian form, was found 
among the Professor’s duplicate Panama shells; but as it does not 
occur either in the catalogue or the collection, it was probably dropped 
in from the Jamaica series. | 


326. Hipponyx, sp. ind. Of the Professor’s ‘‘two small speci- 
mens’ marked “ swbrufa, jyun.,” one is H. grayanus, jun., M. 350. 
The other may be the same, but is probably the young of H. bar- 
batus. Neither are sufficiently perfect to determine with confidence. 


327. Hipponyx tbarbata. Part of these specimens belong to H. 
barbatus, M. 349; part to H. grayanus; part are too much worn 
to determine ; and one is a valve of Discina cumingit. 

328. Hipponyx panamensis= H. antiquatus, M. 347. The species 
is very widely diffused, and varies greatly in each locality. 

329. Hipponyx radiata= H. grayanus, M. 350. The collection 

194 








DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 21 


also contains a tray labelled “‘ Panama: C. B. Ad. don.,” in which 
are Hipponyx serratus, M. 346, H. barbatus, and Gadinia pentag:- 
niostoma, M. 270. This last name should be dropped, except as a 
variety of G. stellata, Sby., which is the normal state: v. B. A. Rep. 
1857, pl. 7. f. 3, a-g. 

330. Calyptrea aberrans. The Professor candidly allows that 
“‘in texture this shell much resembles a valve of an Anomia,”’ which 
it undoubtedly is, the supposed ‘probably imperfect cup ”’ bemg 
the ligamental pit. The large muscular scar is very clearly de- 
veloped ; but the others are faint, as is customary in young shells, 
and might stand for either 4nomia or Placunanomia. The valve is 
thin and glossy inside. The outside is smooth, excepting the lines 
of growth, and is encrusted with beautiful zoophytes. A tiny Ser- 
pula, which has coiled itself close to the umbo, carries out the idea 
of a Calyptreeid spiral apex ; but a careful microscopic examination 
displayed the true Anomoid nucleus, at a little distance from the 
margin, as is common in the Mazatlan specimens of 4. lampe, 


M. 219. 


331. Calyptrea (Syphopatella) aspersa=Galerus conicus, very 
worn and young, with the lamina broken away. One of the speci- 
mens may perhaps be mamillaris. 


332. Calyptrea cepacea=M. 345. 


333. Calyptrea conica. These are dead specimens, of which a 
few may be the true Galerus conicus, M. 332. But most of them 
belong to the brown-tinted variety of (the Professor’s G. regularis=) 
mamillaris: v. no. 340. 


334. Calyptrea dentata= Crucibulum imbricatum, M. 343. 
335. Calyptrea hispida=Crucibulum spinosum, M. 344. 


336. Calyptrea imbricata. The two specimens are too much 
worn to affiliate with confidence, the cups being broken out. ‘The 
outside is ribbed, with arrow-headed strize between the ribs) They 
probably = Crucibulum i., var. 


337. Calyptrea maculata=Crucibulum spinosum, M. 344. See 
the attempt to unravel the confusion in the synonymy of this family 
in Maz. Cat. pp. 264-295. Three specimens marked by the Pro- 
fessor ‘‘ C. maculata, var.,”’ are young, dead radiata, no. 339. 


338. Calyptrea planulata. This unique shell is simply a young, 
flat C. cepacea, with the cup prominent, and the outside sculpture 
faintly developed, from living in a hollow place. The strize are not 
‘obsolete around the apex.” 


339. Calyptrea radiata=Crucibulum r. This rare and beautiful 
Species is quite distinct, even in the early stages, from all varieties 
of C. spinosum. 


340. Calyptrea (Syphopatella) regularis=Galerus mamillaris, 
M. 333. 


341. Calyptrea umbrella=Cructhulum u. (=C. rudis, Brod.). 
195 


22 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 


342. Calyptrea ?unguis, C. B. Ad.=Crucibulum spinosum, yun, 
(not Galerus unguis, Brod.). 


343. Crepidula cerithiicola. Most of the specimens are the young 
of C. onyx, M. 340; but a few are of C. incurva, M. 339. 


344. Crepidula echinus=C. aculeata, M. 334. 
345, Crepidula excavata, M. 337. 
346. Crepidula ? hepatica=C. onyx, M. 340. 


347. Crepidula incurva, M. 339. A very interesting series of 
specimens ; of which two or three are probably the twdsted form of 
C'. onyx. One tray contains specimens adhering to other shells. 
One, fixed diagonally on a Calliostoma, takes exactly the arrow- 
headed sculpture of the var. Cal. imbricata, Brod. Another, grown 
diagonally on Pisania gemmata, has the general aspect of a Chiton. 
One, fixed on the back of its neighbour which has grown on a Cal- 
liostoma, has the granular interruptions of the ribs transmitted 
through the first specimen. The same is true of one which has 
grown on another which was planted on a Pisania. One specimen, 
which had established itself on a Calliostoma, and began with normal 
ribs, is losing these at the margin, adopting the sculpture of the 
Trochid. An extremely twisted specimen in the tray of separate 
shells has a bifid deck. A young one had edged itself into the apical 
part of the deck, as into a maternal pouch ; so the old one made a 
fresh deck over it. 

348. Crepidula lessonii. Most of the specimens are of C. nivea, 
var., M. 341. Two shells, which have the apex perfect, display the 
characteristic nuclear riblets. One dark-coloured specimen may be 
a hybrid, and another (though too much worn for confident aftilia- 
tion) appears to be C. unguiformis. Among the duplicates, all the 
specimens which were perfect at the apex presented the niveoid 
nucleus, though white ; but generally the riblets were more or less 
worn off, 


349. Crepidula squama. These are the flat form (mostly dead 
and worn) of C. nivea, M. 341. Some of them pass into lessonii. 
Some are highly coloured, and may be the young of C. onyx; one 
even of C. incurva. One of the young shells in phial appears to be 
C. onyx ; but whenever the apex is perfect, it presents the typical 
riblets : v. Maz. Cat. in loco. 


350. Crepidula unguiformis. The apex being hidden in dead 
shells, which I was not at liberty to break away, I could only exa- 
mine one specimen, which appeared to be a CO. nivea, var., as sup- 
posed in Maz. Cat. p. 285. Of the loose specimens, scarcely any 
are sufficiently perfect at the apex to speak with confidence. Most 
of them, however, have the characteristic painting of the variety 
squama; and all may belong to the common species (C. nivea), ex- 
cept one which is a true C. unguiformis, M. 342, on the back of 
another shell, and a few which are probably C. onya, var. Ot the 
d»plicates, which I was at liberty to extract from the dead shells, 


196 








DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 23 


some are undoubtedly C. nivea; others truly O. unguiformis ; and 
others probably C. nivea, but with the riblets worn away by the 
. crabs. 


351. Crepidula nivea, M. 341. The specimens are small and 
poor; mostly rough, of the variety sfriolata passing into lessonii. 
Wherever the apex is perfect, it presents the characteristic riblets, 
but is generally white, not brown as in most of the finely grown 
Mazatlan shells. 


352. Crepidula osculans. This is a perfect and extremely beau- 
tiful specimen of Seutellina navicelloides, M. 269. The Professor 
did not observe the non-spiral patelloid apex, and regarded the 
“navicelloid”’ columellaas an extremely narrow deck. To the diag- 
nosis in the Maz. Cat. may now be added “ apice obtuso, sublavi ; 
vertice haud spirali, viv conspicuo.”’ 

353. Crepidula rostrata=C. adunca, M. 338, ?non Sby. The 
examination of a large series of specimens from the temperate fauna 
has led me unexpectedly to confirm Mr. Reeve’s opinion that they 
are distinct. The northern shell is C. adunca, Sby. (= Garnotia 
[Gray] solida, Hds.=C. rostriformis, Gld.) ; and the tropical shell 
must take the prior name, C. uncata, Mke. (=C. rostrata, C. B. Ad., 
Rve.=C. adunca, Maz. Cat., non Sby.). 


354. Fissurella equalis= Vissurellidea e@. 

355. Fissurella alta=Glyphis alta, M. 280. 

356. Fissurella macrotrema. Stet. 

357. Fissurella microtrema. These are dead specimens, of which 
some are [’. rugosa, var., M. 273. 


358. Fissurella mus=Glyphis inequalis, var., M. 279. These 
shells are intermediate between the typical form and pica. 


359, 360. Stent. 


361. Fissurella virescens. tis doubtful whether any of the spe- 
cimens are of the true virescens, M. 271, as they run into nigro- 
punctata by insensible gradations. Perhaps both species may prove 
identical. 

362. Siphonaria characteristica=S. gigas, var. 

363, 364, 365. Stent. 


366. Siphonaria pica. These are young dead limpets (not 
Siphonarie ). 


367. Lottia ? patina, C. B. Ad. (non Esch.). These shells differ 
from Acma@a mesoleuca, M. 263, in being black instead of green, and 
are prettily striped. 


368, 369, 370. Lottia, sp.ind. There may be two or even more 
species of Acmea, but it is not impossible that there is only one 
among the professor’s Lotti, some of the specimens being the 
young of ? Patella, no. 371. 197 


24 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 


371. ? Patella, sp. ind. This has the general appearance of P. 
rulyata, but may be an Aemea, 


372. Chiton clathratus. (Genus indet.) 


373. Chiton dispar, C. B. Ad.; not Lophyrus dispar, Sby. I 
doubt whether any of the Professor’s specimens belong to Sowerby’s 
species, which is black mixed with grey ; area-sculpture very faint ; 
and sides imbricated, not rugulose. Among the duplicates were two 
(if not three) species: —the principal one with side-sculpture in lobated 
knobs, which may be named Lophyrus adamsii; a ?variety with 
simple knobs; and a well-marked species without distinct side areas, 
which may be called Lophyrus tenuisculptus. 


374. Chiton Tluridus. Probably correct. 
375. Chiton pulchellus= Callochiton p.+C. elenensis. 
376. Chiton stokesii=Lophyrus s. 


377. Anomia lampe, C. B. Ad. It is doubtful whether this is 
identical with the northern species, M. 219. 


378. Anomia tenuis. This is probably the young of the last 
species, and may give it a name, if new. It is doubtful how the 
diagnosis of the scars was made out; as they were not visible in © 
either of the specimens retained, being encrusted with dead animal 
matter. They were not distinct even after its removal. 


379. Anomia, sp. ind. a. Probably the same species as the two 
last, although far too dead, worn, and young to decide. See notes 
on the variations of 4. lampe, Maz. Cat. p. 168. 


380. Ostrea, sp. ind. a. The hinge notches of the upper valve 
fit between corresponding teeth in the lower. Inside rather flesh- 
coloured ; white, round margin. Scar kidney-shaped, dark in one 
valve, light in the other. A young valve is white, and as pearly as 
O. iridescens, M. 211. The species is best known by its tendency 
to make a very broad limb in the exterior coloured part, spreading 
out into palmations. A very young specimen, though covered above 
with Membranipore, shows the characteristic corrugations through. 
It may stand provisionally as O. panamensis. 


381. Ostrea, sp. ind. 6. This is probably a variety of O. pana- 
mensis, but more coarsely grown, so that there is a smaller limb, 
without palmations. Wherever the sculpture appears, there are evi- 
dent traces of the peculiar corrugations. The inside has the same 
characters, both of hinge, colour, iridescence, and scar. 


382. Ostrea, sp. ind. c. Rather square hinge, without plications ; 
one shell with an umbonal cavity. Pearly white. One specimen is 
tinted on the scar, which may become coloured in the adult. It is 
by no means “ pentangular,” and is more probably =O. rufa, Gld., 
than O. columbiensis, M. 213. 

383. Ostrea, sp.ind.d. The shells are broader than the Mazatlan 
specimens of O. virginica, M. 212, probably from not growing on 
twigs. The younger shells are very like O. edulis ; the older ones 


198 








DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA, 29 


have hollow umbos. One long shell, first marked e, but altered to /, 
is the adult form; several of the younger shells are doubtful. 


384. Ostrea, sp.ind. e.=Ostrea, M.215. Being a good species, 
I propose the name of O. amara. The Professor’s ‘small var.”’ is 
not plicated, and appears to belong to O. conchaphila, M. 214. 
[N.B. Additional specimens confirm me in tne belief that O. pal- 
mula, M. 214 6, is a distinct species. | 

385. Spondylus lamarckii, C..B. Ad.=S. calcifer, M. 208. 

386. Spondylus, sp. ind. a= Plicatula penicillata, M. 210. 

387. Pecten inca=P. ventricosus, Sby., as in errata. 

388. Pecten tumbezensis=P. aspersus, Sby., Hanl. (? Lam.). 

389. Lima angulata. Shells inflated, not gaping. 


390. Lima pacifica (=L. arcuata, Sby., Haul.). Young shells, 
species uncertain. 

391. Avicula ?margaritifera= Margaritiphora fimbriata, Dkr., 
M. 204=M. mazatlanica, Hanl.=M. barbata, Kve. 


392. Avicula sterna, M. 203. A. libella, Rve., appears to me 
the young of this species. 


393. Perna, sp. ind. a=Isognomon chemnitziana, M. 205. 


394. Perna, sp. ind. b=TI. chemnitziana, var. Rather more 
finely grown, and with less colour, but certainly the same species. 
The Professor's Jamaica specimens are labelled ‘‘ d¢color, Ad.” 


395. Pinna maura, M. 200. 


396. I‘nna tuberculosa. Thee of the specimens appear to me 
=P. maura, jun. The other may be the same, but is worn nearly 
smooth. 


397. Mytilus, sp. ind. a. Resembles the young of Modiola bra- 
siliensis, but with a few hinge-teeth, as in M. edulis. 


398. Lithodomus, sp. ind. a. Most of these specimens are of 
Lithophagus aristatus, M. 176; one (perhaps two) are L. attenua- 
tus, M. 173 (which is found from Lower California to Chili) ; and 
one appears to be L. plumula, M. 175; but they are too young to 
decide with confidence. 


399. Modiola? semifusca. These specimens all belong to the M. 
brasiliensis, M. 171, but are much more like the ordinary Brazilian 
specimens than are those from Mazatlan. As compared with the 
latter, the Panama shells are more rounded, with stronger posterior 
grooving, and with the angular ridge less marked. A similar shell, 
undoubtedly from New Zealand, is considered by Mr. Cuming con- 
specific. 

400-404. Modiola, sp. ind. a, 6, c, d, e. I could find no a or e 
in the collection; but there were two trays marked f. Tray 6= 3. 
ecpax, M.170. e contains several specimens of Mytilus multiformis, 
M. 168, strongly ribbed variety, perhaps intended for 6, uo. 401. 

199 


26 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 


d contains parts of six specimens, and perhaps should be a, no. 400. 
They appear to be a variety of Lithophagus cinnamomeus, M. 177, 
but with broken shells, &c., agglutinized on the posterior side. f(1) 
contains four specimens of MM. multiformis, the semigreenish variety 
(Maz. Cat. p. 119), and are probably intended fore. f (2) contains 
two specimens of the same variety of M. multiformis, in the burrow 
of a Lithophagus, and may stand for d or e. 

405. Chama buddiana= C. (? frondosa, var.) fornicata, M. 121, b. 
Additional specimens confirm me in regarding this species as distinct 
from all varieties of frondosa. The Professor’s shells not being very 
characteristic, the diagnoses do not exactly accord. The shell stands 
as C. buddiana. 

406. Chama? corrugata. The large valve appears a dead reversed 
C’. (frondosa) mexicana, M. 121, with the teeth perforated by Li- 
thophagi. The other may be corrugata, very dead, of sienna-tint, 
very pointed dorsally. 

407. Chamaechinata. These appear to me to be the young, partly 
of C. buddiana, but principally of C. mexicana, 

408. Nucula elenensis= Leda e., M. 199. 

409. Nucula exigua, M. 198. 

410. Nucula polita=Leda p. With semidiagonal lines. 

411. Pectunculus assimilis+ P. inequalis, M. 196. 

412. Pectunculus ?maculatus. Stet. 

413. Area alternata=Barbatia a., M. 188. 

414. Arca ?aviculoides appears.a young Scapharca, 

415. Arca emarginata=Scapharca e., M. 187. 

416. Arca gradata= Barbatia g., M. 194. 

417. Arca grandis, M. 180. 

418. Arca mutabilis= Byssoarca m., M. 190. 

419. Area (Byssoarca) pholadiformis. 'This is simply an elon- 
gated form of Barbatia gradata, probably from growing in the hole 
ot a Lithophagus. The umbos are ‘ flattened”’ by erosion; teeth 
not “obsolete” under the glass; “ligament concealed ”’ simply by 
the compressed and elongated growth. 

420. Arca reeviana= Barbatia r. 

421. Area reversa=Noetia r., M. 185. 

422. Arca similis. This is scarcely a variety of 4. tuberculosa, 
WL. 184. The specimens are dead and oiled, witn most of the epi- 
dermis abraded. 

423. Arca solida= Barbatia s., M. 195. 

424. Arca (Byssoarca) tobagensis= Barbatia illota, M. 193. 

425, Arca tuberculosa, M. 184. 


426. drca, sp. ind. a. These little shells approach the Noefia 
200 














DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 97 


type. Ribs fine, tuberculous, coarse on the angular side. Ligameut 
very narrow, truncated. 


427. Cardita affinis. (Lazaria.) 

428. Cardita laticostata=Venericardia I. 

429. Cardita radiata. (Lazaria.) 

430. Cardium graniferum, M. 134. 

431. Cardium obovale= Hemicardia o. 

432. Cardium planicostatum, C. B. Ad., not Sby. This looks like 


a dead ballast-valve of Hemicardia media; but it may be H. bian- 
gulata. 


433. Cardium procerum, M. 125. 
434, Cardium senticosum, M. 126. 
435. Venus ?amathusia= Anomalocardia subimbricata, M. 113. 


436. Venus discors= Tapes gratus, Say, M. 110. The Professor’s 
specimens of this species and 7. Aistrionicus are somewhat inter- 
mixed. 


437. Venus gnidia, M.101. Dead specimens ; of which one may 
possibly be Chione amathusia, M. 102. 


438. Venus multicostata. Closely resembling the West Indian 
form. 


439. Venus pectunculoides=Tapes histrionicus, M. 109. 
440. Venus subrugosa=Anomalocardia s., M. 112. 


441. Venus, sp.ind. a. A small species with concentric lamine, 
armed with one posterior row of blunt spines. Interstices with mi- 
nute concentric striz. 


442. Venus, sp. ind. b=Chione crenifera, M. 105=P. sugillata, 
Rve. C. I. no. 43. 


443. Cythereaaffinis. Probably=Callista concinna, var., M.99. 
444. Cytherea aurantiaca= Callista aurantia, M. 92. 
445. Cytherea consanguinea=Callista ec. Messrs. H. and A. 


Adams have not made a subgenus to include this group of thin, in- 
flated, almost colourless species. 


446. Cytherea radiata=Trigona r., M. 83. 

447. Cytherea squalida=Callista chionea, M. 93. 
448. Artemis dunkeri= Dosinia d., M. 90. 

449. Artemis saccata=Cyclina subquadrata, M. 91. 
450. Gouldia pacifica, M. 116. 


451. Cyrena maritima. Stet. The collection also contains two 
tubes, containing a very young ‘‘? Cyclas”’ and another “ Cyrena, 
jun.,”” marked “ Panama, C. B. Ad.” 


452. Lucina tellinoides=Felania t. Differs from F. sericata, 


201 


92 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 


M,. 152, in having a yellow, not silky, epidermis. The specimens 
vary considerably in thickness. The genus scarcely differs from 
Miltha. 


453. Capsa altior=Iphigenia a., M. 69. 
454. Donax assimilis, M. 74. 

455. Dona gracilis. Stet. 

456. Donax navicula, M. 77. 


457. Donaw rostratus. This single valve proves to be the true 
D. carinatus, M.71, and not the shell which I called D. culminatus, 
M. 72 (=carinatus, var.. Hanl. in Mus. Cum.), which I subse- 
auently afiihated to the supposed resfretus, Maz, Cat, p. 548, on the 
authority of Dr. Gould’s specimen. We were probably both misled 
by the “ very sharp angle,” which (as compar ed with the other form) 
I should eall rounded, and the “concave” surface, which I should 
translate into flat. The names have been altered in the Cumingian 
collection since the Mazatlan shells were identified ; but Mr. Hanley 
informs me that they are now correct ; that the D. culminatus, M. 
72, is his own orginal carinatus; and that the D, carinatus, M.71 
(olim Mus. Cum.), which is certainly D. restratus, P. 457, must 
stand under Prof. Adams’s name. 


458. Tellina aurora. Stet. 


459. Tellina cognata, C. B. Ad.=Psammobia casta, Rve., teste 
Cuming. The sculpture consists of semidiagonal strive passing over 
the lines of growth. In other specimens examined from Panama 
taese are sometimes crowded, sometimes distant, occasionally flex- 
uous, sometimes almost evanescent. 


460. Tellina columbiensis. (Peronea.) 


461. Tellina concinna=Macoma ec. The “slight tinge of pink” 
T could not discover. 

462. Tellina erystallina=Tellidora ec. 

463. Tellina cumingtt, M. 55. 

464. Tellina dombeyi=Macoma d., M. 50. 

465. Tellina felix, M. 51. (dagulus.) 

466. Tellina laceridens. (Peroneoderma.) 

467. Tellina prora. (Peroneoderma.) 

468. Tellina puella. Not unlike 7. felix, and distinct from M. 59. 

469. Tellina rubescens. (Peroneoderma.) 

470. Tellina siliqua. The two odd valves belong probably to a 
Muceoma, in shape resembling Thracta phaseolina, 


AT1. Tellina simulans=T. (Peroneoderm2) punicea, M. 34. The 
species was described, for geographical reasons, from a young, pale, 
and undeveloped valve. On comparing it with the Professor's own 


West Indisn specimens, I could detect no difference. 
202 














DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA, 29 


472. Tellina sincera=Strigilla 8. 


473. Vellina vicina=Heterodonax vicinus. The shells are la- 
belled 7’. versicolor by the Professor. They are larger than the ge- 
neral run of West Indian specimens; but the form is probably a 
local variety of the old Meterodonax bimaculatus. 


474. Tellina, sp. ind. a. The doubt concerning concave” and 
* convex” probably arises from an error in description, 


475. Tellina, sp.ind. 6. Looks exactly like the young of No, 474, 
but with lateral teeth. 


476. Tellina, sp. ind. ¢. Dead valves of T. feliz, No. 465. 


477. Petricola cognata. More characteristic specimens from the 
same coast are affiliated by Mr. Cuming to P. pholadiformis, from 
which this would probably not have been separated had it appeared 
on the Atlantic coast. 

478. Saxicava ttenuis. The Panama shell is more like Petricola 
than Saxicava, having two teeth in each valve, one of which is bifid. 
Sowerby’s species is called by Messrs. H. & A. Adams “ Saxicava 
tenuis” (ii. p. 349) and “ Petricola tenuis” (it. p.441). Shell with 
very fine radiating strive, crossed by irregular strive of growth, 


479. Cumingia coarctata=C. lamellosa, var., M. 42. 
480. Cumingia trigonularis, M. 43. 

481. Cumingia, sp. ind. a=C. trigonularis, No. 480. 
482. Cumingia, sp. ind. b=C. var. coarctata, No. 479. 


483. Cumingia, sp. ind. c=M. 45. This appears a distinct spe- 
cies, and may be quoted as C. adamsi, in remembrance of the labours 


of Messrs. H., A. and C. B. Adams. 


484. Cumingia, sp. ind. d= Maz. Cat. tablet 107, p. 31; well 
rounded, with close striz. Probably distinct. 

485. Amphidesma bicolor= Semele tvenusta, M.41 (non A. Ad.). 
The “species” in this genus are often separated by very variable 
characters. 

486. Amphidesma ‘ellipticum= Semele e. 


487. Amphidesma proximum. The type is not quite so elliptical 
as the last species; but as this is a very variable character (v. Maz. 
Cat. p. 25), I should regard it as the same. It is not the Semele 
proxima, M. 40 (=S. flavescens, v. Maz. Cat. p. 548). 

488. Amphidesma pulchrum= Semele p. 


489. Amphidesma striosum= Semele 8. 1 should describe the 
shell as smooth, with very fine diagonal stri« crossing the lines of 
growth. It has the general aspect of S. pulchra. ‘The teeth in one 
valve are long and sharp. 


490. Amphidesma tortuosum=Semele t. Teeth short and faint. 
491. Amphidesma ventricosum=Semelev. The “zones” are very 


203 


30 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 


“ill-defined.” Teeth scarcely visible. It looks outside like a Gead 
valve of Macoma solidula. 


492. Crassatella gibbosa. Also found at Cape St. Lucas. 
493. Mulinia donaciformis=M. angulata, M. 80. 
494. Mulinia ventricosa= Mactrella exoleta, M. 78. 


495. Lutraria elegans= Harvella elegans; ascribed by Messrs. 
H. & A. Adams to Florida (ii. p. 378), trom which I have never 
seen it. It isa rare, but (under different names) somewhat widely 
diffused west-tropical shell. Its “analogue” from Florida and Ca- 
rolina is Raéta canaliculata, 


496. Mactra velata=Standella v. Vide M. 79. The ‘small 
variety”’ is conspecific. 

497. Anatina alta. This valve of Periploma may prove identical 
with one of the four Gulf species. The spoon is supported under- 
neath by a linear plate. 


498. Pandora cornuta. It is singular that neither Prof. Adams 
nor Dr. Gould observed that the peculiar characters of this species 
are due to a fracture, producing a beak and sinus which are not seen 
on the limes of growth. The sentences about the “‘rostriform pro- 
jection,” the ‘‘sinus,”’ and the ‘ prominent angle,’’ should therefore 
be erased from the diagnosis. ‘The hinge-teeth consist of a long 
sharp tooth, very pointed, in one valve, fitting against a less prominent 
one in the other; a slight hgamental tooth in the first valve only ; 
and a very long, sharp, clavicular tooth in each valve, running near 
the posterior margin, against the inside umbonal portion of which 
the ligament is attached. Should it prove identical with P. clavicu- 
lata, the earliest name (as being given in error) may advantageously 
be dropped. It is surprising that Messrs. H. & A. Adams have not 
divided the old Lamarckian genus even into subgenera. 


499. Potamomya equalis. 500. P. inflata. 501. P. trigonalis. 
These three forms of Azara differ in outline, but not more than do 
some other species of Corbulids and such shells as Trigona radiata. 
The teeth, pallial lines, and general characters are the same in each. 
The first two I should consider certainly identical ; and a large series 
of specimens would probably graduate to the third. 


502. Corbula bicarinata, M. 30. 
503. Corbula biradiata, M. 31. 
504. Corbula obesa. Stet. 

505. Corbula ovulata, M. 33. 


506. Corbula rubra. A young orange-tinted specimen of C. di- 
radiata, No. 503. The “broad flexure’’ is an accidental growth, 
not shown in the lines of growth of an earlier stage. 


507. Corbula tenuis. Stet. 


508. Corbula, sp. ind. a. A very small angular valve, with sharp 
concentric ridges. It may belong to C. pustulosa, M. 32. 


204 








a a a 


. 
Le 


DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 351 


509. Corbula, sp. ind. 6. Dead valves of C. biradiata, No. 503. 
To the same species may be referred C. polychroma. We were mis- 
led by the different appearance of the dead shell, and by the locality- 
mark in Col. Jewett’s collection. His specimens were probably from 
Panama or Acapulco. 

510. Solecurtus affinis, M. 37. It is probable that this species 
is identical with S. (’ Novaculina) caribbeus. The Ariquibo speci- 
mens of the latter in Mus. Amherst are more like the Mazatlan shells 
than those are to the Panama type. Shells from Cape Palmas were 
affiliated to the Caribbzean species by Mr. Cuming. 

511. Solen rudis=Ensatella r. This interesting form passes 
towards Pharella. It is called ‘‘ Solena cbliqua, Spengl., var.” in 
Mus. Cuming. 


512. Pholas crucigera. With the general aspect of Barnea candida. 


513. Pholas tubifera= Pholadidea t. Of the melanura type, with 
a solid tube fitting on to the ends of the cups. 


514. Pholas xylophaga. Of the Martesia type, without cups. 
Dorsal and ventral plates long; umbonal plates moderate; wave of 
the adolescent gape rather suddenly arched. 


515. Pholas , sp. ind. a. Col. Jewett’s specimens of the 
same shell are named /aqueata by Mr. Cuming. It is of the non- 
‘waved, concameroid type; without radiating sculpture; concentric 
lamellee beautifully frilled. 

516. Pholas, sp. ind. 6. So like P. dactylus that it might be 
taken for a worn valve from ballast. The sculpture-ridges are, how- 
ever, further apart ; hinge-chambers larger and more numerous, with 
a little twisted lamina beyond; gape less conspicuous. 


517. Orbicula cumingii= Discina c., M. 14. 





The shells unfortunately are all loose, in trays, with the autograph 
names on tickets. Prof. Adams’s West Indian collections are in the 
same condition; and both series are arranged together, in zoological 
order, in the midst of the general collection. There is no evidence, 
however, that they have been handled since the Professor left them, 
none of the leading conchological writers in the New World having 
thought it needful to go out of their way to complete a review of the 
Professor’s work. Amherst is situated on a branch railway, and is 
within an easy walk of Northampton, Mount Holyoak, and the deli- 
cious scenery of the Connecticut River. In the College buildings 
are also deposited the most complete series of the Fossil Footprints 
of the Connecticut River, and the mineralogicat collection (including 
the meteorolites) belonging to Prot. Shepherd. 


205 




















DIAGNOSES 


OF 


NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSKS COLLECTED AT CAPE 
ST. LUCAS BY MR. J. XANTUS. | 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B. A., Pa. D. 


From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, Vol. 
XIIL, pp. 311-315, April, 1864. Ibid. (Nos. 15-36) pp. 474-479, June, 
1864. Ibid. Vol. XIV. (Nos. 37-52), pp. 45-49, July, 1864. 


( 207 ) 





7, —s” 











DIAGNOSES 


OF 


NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSKS 
COLLECTED AT CAPE Sr. LUCAS BY Mr. J. XANTUS 


BY 


PRILIP?. CARPENTER BA, Pu. D: 


Tue specimens here described belong to the Museum of the 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. The first available 
duplicates will be found in the British Museum or in the 
Cumingian Collection. An account of the labours of Mr. Xantus 
will appear in the forthcoming volume of British Association 
Reports ; and detailed notes on the species may be consulted ia 
the American scientific periodicals for the current year. 


Genus ASTHENOTHERUS*, 


Testa extus “ Thracie’’ similis: intus cardine edentulo, haud 


spathulato; cartilagine infra umLones sita. 


1. Asthenotherus villosior. 


A. testa ineequivalvi, inzequilaterali, umbonibus ad trientem lon- 
gitudinis sitis ; tenuissima, alba, (sub lente) omnino minutissime 
et creberrime pustulosa ; rugis incrementi obtusissimis, irregulari- 
bus, maxime t. juniore, ornata; epidermide tenui, pallide olivacea 
induta ; parte postica truncata, parum hiante ; antica valde rotun- 
data; marginibus dorsalibus et ventrali parum excurvatis; um- 
bonibus angustissimis; regionibus lunulari et nymphali subcari- 
natis: intus, margine cardinali utriusque valvze acuto; ligamento 
inconspicuo ; cartilagine subspongiosa, satis elongata, postice de- 
flecta; fovea haud indentata; cicatricibus adductorum_parvis, 
subrotundatis; sinu pallii majore, ovali, ad dimidium interspatii 
porrecto. Long. °38, lat. 26, alt. 14 poll. 


* "Acdevis, weak; @atpos, hinge. 
+ The measures of length are taken from the anterior to the posterior 
margins. The “detailed notes” are still in MSS. 


209 


2 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Molluske 


2. Solemya valvulus. 


S. testa minore, tenuissima, diaphana, vix testacea, cornea, pallidiory, 
{eis tenuibus, distantibus, fuscis, radiatim ornata; postice tenvie 
ter radiatim striata; tumente, satis elongata, marginibus antic. et 
postico regulariter excurvatis ; umbonibus vix conspicuis ; lines 
anticis deancunuibegs extus parentibus, imtus lacunam cartila- 
gineam definientibus ; cardine edentulo; ligamento postice elon- 
gato, antice curto, latiore, bifureato; cicatricibus adductorum 
subrotundatis. Long. °85, lat. °25, alt. +14 poll. 


3. Tellina (Peroneoderma) ochracea. 


T, testa majore, parum inezequilaterali, tenui, satis planata; carneo- 
echracea, intus intensiore; levi, nitida, marginem versus striis 
incrementi; postice vix radiatim striatula; ventraliter antice 
valde excurvata, postice vix angulata; marginibus dorsalibus ob- 
tuse angulatis, umbonibus conspicuis; ligamento tenui et cartila- 
gine subinternis ; nymphis intortis : dent. card. utriusque valvee il., 
quarum 1. bifidus ; dent. lat. valvee dextree ii.; sinu pallu irregula- 
riter ovali, per duos trientes interstitii porrecto; cicatr. adduct. 
subovatis, nitidissimis. Long. 179, lat. 1°4, alt. *44 poll. 


4. Psammobia (? Amphichena) regularis. 


P. testa minore, regulariter ovali, subzequilaterali; violacea, plus 
minusve radiata seu maculata; levi, striolis incrementi ornata ; 
epidermide tenui, flavido-olivacea induta, postice rugulosa; mar- 
ginibus undique regulariter excurvatis; umbonibus vix. projectis ; 
ligamento conspicuo : intus dent. card. i1.-i., haud bifidis ; cicatr. 
adduct. postica rotundata, antica ovali; sinu palli elongato, haud 
incurvato, per duos trientes interstitii porrecto. Long. 1°05, lat. «a, 
alt. ‘26 poll. 

5. Callista pollicaris. 


C. testa magna, ventricosa, solidiore; epidermide tenuissima induta ; 
sordide albida, umbonibus rufo- fuscis ; ; (t. adolescente) punctulis 
erebris rufo-fuscis, et teeniis paucis circa nymphas ornata; levi, 
striis incrementi exceptis ; postice, et panlulum antice, quasi pol- 
lice impresso notata ; latiore, antice producta, sed haud angulata ; 
postice unda depressa, supra nymphas radiante, inter costas duas 
obsoletas sinuante, margine subtruncato; marginibus ventral 
regulariter excurvato, dorsali rectiore ; lunula elongata, linea io- 
pressa definita, medio tumente, postice flaccida: intus candida ; 
dent. card. normalibus; dente laterali valvee dextree postico, valv.e 
sinistree antico, usque ad extremitatem lunulz porrecto; cicatr. 
adduct. subrotundatis; sinu pallii magno, rotundato, usque ad 
medium interstitii porrecto. Long. 2° 38, lat. 2°25, alt. 1°43 poll. 


Figured by Mr. Reeve (Conch. f. 45) as “ Dione prora, var.” 
The above diagnosis proves it to be a distinct and (considering | 
the general similarity of the thin, colourless, inflated group) a | 
well-marked species. 


210 








oo 


coliected at Cape St. Lucas. 


6. Callista (? pannosa, var.) puella. 


C. testa “C. pannose”’ simili, sed multo minore, tenuiore, plerum- 
que latiore ; sinu pallii majore, eleganter incurvato; dent. card 
multo tenuioribus, lat. ant. magis elongato ; lamina cardinali um- 
bones versus sinuata: colore maxime variante; nonnunquam ut 
in C. pannosa triangulariter maculata; plerumque ut in Tapete 
virginea notata ; interdum albida, seu aurantia, seu fusca, haad 
maculata ; rarius ut in Tapete fuscolineata penicillata ; rarissime 
paucistrigata, seu maculis paucissimis. Long. “66, lat. °5, alt. *32 
poll. 

Variat t. transversa. Variat quoque t. subtrigona, et formis inter- 
mediis. 


Quoted by Mr. Reeve, under Dione pannosa, as “ D. puella, 
Cpr.”; but the name was only given in MS. in accordance with 
Mr. Caming’s assertion that it was distinct. The colourless sub- 
trigonal shells were regarded by Mr. Reeve as a separate species ; 
but he did not allude to them in his monograph. 


7. Levicardium apicimum. 

L. testa snbtrigona, parva, tenuissima, nitidissima, subcompressa, 
epidernade tenui induta; radiis seu striis radiantibus nullis ; striis 
concentficis satis regularibus, subobsoletis, t. jun. magis extant?- 
bus; umbonibus angustis, parum incurvatis; margine ventrali 
satis excurvato, antico parum producto, postico subtruncato, 
dorsalibus obtuse angulatis: colore valde variante; plerumque 
pallide viridi-cinereo, rufo-fusco seu angulatim tseniato seu macu- 
lato seu punctato; regione umbonali plerumque pallida, interdum 
rufo-fusca seu aurantiaca; parte postica haud intensiore: imtus 
plerumque citrina, hepatico varie penicillata: dent. card. et lat. 
acutis, tenuibus; margine minutissime subobsoletim crenulato. 
Long. °55, lat. 5, alt. -3 poll. 

Variat t. latiore. Variat quoque colore fere omnino hepatico, seu 
carneo, seu pallide aurantiaco, seu pallide cinereo, seu albido ; 
Farissime ut in Tapete fuscolineata ornata. 


8. Lucina lingualis. 


L. testa solida, linguiformi, valde prolongata ; plerumque aurantiaco- 
carnea, intus intensiore ; lirulis concentricis obtusis crebre ornata ; 
marginibus undique excurvatis ; lunula minima, altissime excavata 
parte postica obscure biangulata, seu subrotundata; umbonibus 
anticis. incurvatis ; ligamento subinterno, lamina valida; dent. 
card. et lat. normalibus, validis; cicatr. adduct. posticis subovali- 
bus, anticis satis elongatis ; linea pallii lata, rugosa ; margine in- 
terno crenulato. Long. °88, lat. -92, alt. -4 poll. 

Variat t. minus prolongata. Variat quoque t. pallide viridi, seu pal- 
ude carnea, seu alba. 


9. ?Crenella inflata. 
1G. testa valde inflata, minuta, albida, subrhomboideo-orbiculari ; 


211 


4 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusks 


diagonaliter parum producta; marginibus subquadrangulatim roe 
tundatis; umbonibus prominentibus, valde antice intortis ; tota 
superficie ut in C. decussata sculpta, costulis crebris radiantibus 
zequidistantibus, hic et illic aliis intercalatis; lirulis concen- 
tricis decussantibus : intus margine dorsali brevissimo, arcuato, 
dentato ; ligamento curtissimo, in fossa omnino interna, celata, la- 
mina definiente, sito; Jamina cardinali sub umbonibus intus por- 
recta, dentibus validis instructa; marginibus internis omnino cre- 
natis ; cicatr. adduct. subeequalibus, ventraliter sitis. Long. °1, 
lat. °12, alt. -09 poll. 
Located provisionally in Crenella from its likeness to C. de« 
cussata, but with peculiarities of hinge and adductors which 
approach Nuculina on one side and Cardilia on another, 


Genus Bryopurpa*. 


Animal Aviculideeum, viviparum : inter algas, ete., habitans. 
Testa Pinneeformis, extus prismatica, intus subnacrea : ligamentum 
solidum : umbones extantes, terminales, intus concavi. 


10. Bryophila setosa. 


B. testa parva, regulari ; cinerea, salmoneo seu chocolateo, intus sub- 
ulacreo, exquisite tincta: t. Juniore planata, semirotundata, dor- 
saliter recta, eequilaterali, conspicue punctata : t. adolescente sub- 
diaphana: t. adulta solidiore; umbonibus rectis, terminalibus, 
intus alte excavatis ; marg. dorsali breviore, recto ; antico recto ; 
ventrali et postico late rotundatis: extus epidermide subspongiosa 
vestita, radius setarum subdistantibus, marginibus eleganter pecti- 
natis: intus ligamento solido dorsaliter producto; limbo palli 
eequaliter prope marginem decurrente ; cicatr. adduct. submediana, 
inconspicua ; postice hiantes antice propter byssum tenuem si- 
nuata. Long. °13, lat. - > alt. “1 poll. 


Like a minute Pinna, or a transverse Margaritiphora without 
ears, or an Jsognomon without pits. Differs from the other 
Aviculids in being viviparous, like some other minute bivalves. 

ll. ? Atys casta. 


?4. testa elongata, tenui, subdiaphana, albida; antrorsum paulum 
tumidiore ; spira celata, lacunata, (t. adultze) haud umbilicata ; 
columella paulum intorta, effusa; umbilico antico minimo ; labro 
postice producto, obtuse angulato ; tota superficie subtiliter spira- 
liter striatula. Long. °4, lat. +18 poll. 


On the confines of the genus, related to Cylichna. 


12. Ischnochiton parallelus. 


I. testa ovata, subelevata (ad angulum 120°); rufo-fusca, olivaceo 
tincta; valvis latis, marginibus parum rotundatis, interstitis par- 


* Bpvov, sea-moss; dios, loving. 


212 





collected at Cape St. Lucas. 5 


vis; valvis intermediis valde insculptis; areis lateralibus seriebus 
granulorum a jugo radiantibus circiter vi.; interdum irregularibus, 
granis rotundatis, separatis, extantibus; areis centralibus clathris 
creberrimis, jugo parallelis, horridis, extantibus, interdum granu- 
losis, ornatis; valvis terminalibus seriebus granulorum, circ. xx., 
interdum bifurcantibus, ut in areis lateralibus, ornatis; mucrone 
vix conspicuo ; limbo pallii angusto, pilulis furvicaceis creberrimis 
minutis conferto; lobis valvarum bifidis, terminalibus fiss»-is 
cire. xl, a parte externa simplici disjunctis. Long. °7, lat. -48, 
alt. 16 poll. 


Belongs to the group with minute setose scales. 


13. Ischnochiton (? var.) prasinatus. 


I. testa I. parallelo forma et indole simili, sed vivide viridi; ar. 
diag. seriebus bullularum irregulariter ornatis; ar. centr. clathris 
valde extantibus, acutis, jugo obtuso parallelis, utroque latere 
circ. xvi.; valv. term. seriebus bullularum circ. xviii. ; mucrone 
submediano, inconspicuo ; umbonibus haud prominentibus ; tota 
superficie minutissime granulosa: intus valvarum lobis mediarum 
i.- term. circiter x.-fissis; sinu lato, planato; suturis planatis ; 
limbo pallii angusto, minutissime squamulis furvicaceis creberrime 
instructo; interdum pilulis intercalatis. Long. °8, lat. -4 poll. 
div. 125°. 


14. Ischnochiton serratus. 


I. testa parva, cinerea, olivaceo hic et illic, preecipne ad suturas, 
punctata, interdum sanguineo maculata ; ovali, subdepressa, suturis 
indistinctis ; tota superficie minutissime granulata; ar. diag. valde 
distinctis, costis latissimis obtusis ii.-v. munitis, interstitiis nullis; 
marginibus posticis eleganter serratis; ar. centr. costis acutis, 
parallelis, utroque latere circ. xi. ; jugo obtuso, haud umbonato: 
costis transversis, subradiantibus, fenestrantibus, interstitiis im- 
pressis : mucrone mediano, obtuso; valv. term. costis obtusis, ut 
In ar. diag., circ. xx.: intus valvarum mediarum lobis bifissis, 
terminalium circ. ix.-fissis; lobis suturalibus magnis : |'mbo pallii 
ps majoribus, imbricatis, vix striatulis. Long. °34, lat. +2 polh., 

tye Lior 


Differs from Elenensis in the sculpture of the terminal valves. 


15. Nacella peltoides. 


N. testa parva, leevi, cornea, subdiaphana, ancyliformi, apice elevato, 
valde inzequilaterali, strigis pallide castaneis radiata; intus miti- 
disSima, subaurantia. Long. °14, lat. *11, alt. -05 poll. 


== Nacella, sp. ind., Maz. Cat. no. 262, p. 202. 


16. Acmea (? var.) atrata. 


A. testa solida, rugosa, conica, apice paulum antrorsum sito; extns 
costis crebris rotundatis irregularibus, hie et illic majorbus 
sculpta, haud apicem versus discordanter corrugatis; interstitiis 


213 





6 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusks 


minimis; intus alba, castaneo et nigro varie maculata; margine 
latiore, nigro tessellato. Long. 1°3, lat. 1-0; alt. *5 poll. 

Variat margine nigro-punctato, “punctis plerumque bifidis. Variat 
quoque costis parvis, creberrimis ; margine nigro. 


Intermediate between “ P. discors,” Phil., and “ P. floccata,” 
Treeve. 
17. Acmea strigatella. 


4. testa A. mesoleuce simili, sed minore, hand viridi; striolis mini- 
mis, confertissimis, plerumque erosis tenuissime sculpta ; albida, 
strigis olivaceo-fuscis, plerumque radiantibus, interdum confluen- 
Fue picta ; apice seepius nigro; intus albida, margine satis lato, 
strigis tessellato. Long. °9, Tat. 74, albaro poll. 

Wana colore hic et illic aurantiace tincto : strigis omnino tessellatis. 


According to Darwin, this might be regarded as a cross be- 
tween the northern forms A. pelta and A. patina, about to change 
into the Gulf species, A. mesoleuca. The dark variety resembles 
A. cantharus, but the very delicate crowded striz well distin- 
guish it when not abraded. 


Glyphis saturnalis. 


G. testa G. inequali simili, sed minore, latiore, altiore, tenuissime 
cancellata ; striis radiantibus plus minusve propinquis, plus mi- 
nusve nodulosis ; fissura prope trientem longitudinis sita, minima, 
lineari, medio lobata; intus callositate albida, truncata. Long. °38, 
iat. °24, alt. 18 poll. 


The minute hole resembles the telescopic appearance of Saturn 
when the rings are reduced to a line. 


Subgenus Eucosmra*, 


Testa solida, nitida, variegata, haud nacrea: apertura et anfractus 
rotundati: conspicue umbilicata: peritrema vix continuum, haud 
callosum. 

The shells here grouped are like small, round-mouthed, per- 
forated Phasianelle. The animal and operculum of the Cape 
St. Lucas species are unknown. - The Phasianella striulata, Maz. 
Cat. no. 283 b (= Turbo phasianella, C. B. Ad. Pan. Sh. no. 282), 
and even the Lunatia tenuilirata, Maz. Cat. no. 572, are perhaps 
congeneric. 

19. Eucosmia variegata. e 


E. testa parva, levi, turbinoidea, nitente, marginibus spire valde 
excurvatis ; rosaceo et rufo-fusco varie maculata’: ; anfr. nucleosis 
regularibus, vertice mamillato ; normalibus iv., valde tumentibus, 
rapide augentibus, suturis impressis ; ; antr. ultimo antice producto ; 
pasi rotundata ; umbilico carinato ; apertura vix a pariete inden- 


* Th. ev, well; xoopia, adorned. 


214 








collected at Cape St, Lucas. 7 


tata; peritremate pene continuo, acuto. Long. ‘1, long. spir. 03, 
lat. :07 poll., div. 70°. 
Variat interdum rugulis incrementi ornata. 


20. Eucosmia (? variegata, var.) substriata. 


E. testa E. variegate simillima, sed anfr. circa basin et supra spiram 
(nisi in anfr. nucl. leevibus), interdum tota superficie tenuiter et 
crebre striatis; stris anfr. penult. cire. x. 


21. Eucosmia punctata. 


FE. testa £. variegate simili, sed multo majore, multo magis elon- 
gata, angustiore, Phasianelloidea ; Aplcuaaque fusco creberrime 
punctata ; umbilico parvo. Long. °22, long. spir. +11, lat. 15 poll., 
div. 50°. 

22. Hucosmia cyclostoma. 


E. testa parva, valde obtusa, lata, regulari, valvatoidea ; marginibus 
spiree vix excurvatis; pallide cinerea, fusco-olivaceo ences punc- 
tata seu maculata; anfr. nucleosis pallidis, mamillatis ; normali- 
bus i., valde tumentibus, suturis valde impressis; apertura vix a 
pariete indentata ; umbilico magno, subspirali. Long. ‘05, long. 
spir. °025, lat. 05 poll., div. 90°. 


Curiously like a small depressed Valvata obtusa, but with the 
texture of Phasianella. 


Genus Hariococuitras*. 


Testa Colloniam simulans, sed haud margaritacea: apertura circu- 
laris, varicosa: columella haud callosa. 


The animal and operculum are unknown. Its affinities may 
be with Ethalia. 
23. Haplocochlias cyclophoreus. 

H. testa compacta, parva, solidiore; albida, seu pallide aurantiaca ; 
anfr. v., rapide augentibus, suturis impressis ; tota superficie mi- 
nutissime spiraliter striolata, nitida; apertura rotundata; peri- 
tremate continuo, incrassato, extus varicoso ; labio distincto ; axi 
t. jun. umbilicata, adultz lacunata. Long. *19, long. spir. -06, 
lat. °2 poll., div. 100°. 

When laid on its base, this shell resembles Helicina; but the 
mouth is more like Cyclophorus. The young shell is semi- 
transparent, and resembles a Vitrinel/a with thickened lip. 


24. Narica aperta. 
N. testa parva, inflata, tenui, alba; anfr. nucl.?....; norm. rapide 
- augentibus, lirulis crebris spiralibus, in spira hic et illic majori- 
bus, a striolis ‘creberrimis radiantibus minutissime decussatis ; 
suturis valde impressis ; apertura subcirculari ; umbilico maximo, 
* Th. dzdovs, unadorned ; koxXlas, snail. 


215 


& Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusks 


carinato, anfractus intus monstrante. Long. *28, long. spir. ‘08, 
lat. °3 poll., div. 110°. 


25. Fossarus parcipictus. 


F. testa parva, solidiore, spira plus minusve elevata; albida, rufo- 
fusco varie maculata; carinulis spiralibus fcanonines: quarum 
circ. vl. majores, striolisque crebris cincta ; anfr. ultimo tumidiore 3 
labro acuto, baud intus incrassato ; ambien satis magno, ad mars 
ginem carinato: operculo normali. Long. °24, long. spir. *06, 


ail *2 poll., div. 90°. 
The few specimens found are very variable in outline. 


26. Fossarus purus. 


F. testa F. angulato simili, sed alba, subdiaphana ; anfr. nucl. iL, 
fuscis, ut in I. tuberoso cancellatis ; ; norm. li. et dimidio, altis, 
valde tumentibus, carinatis ; carinis iv., validissimis, acutissimis, 
quarum il. in spira monstrantur ; carinulis als antice et postice 
plus minusve expressis ; tota superficie minute spiraliter striata ; 
carinularam basalium interstitiis subobsolete decussatis ; apertura 
late semilunata ; labro a-carinis valde indentato ; labio recto, an- 
gusto ; umbilico magno, carinato ; operculo fusco, valde pauci- 
spirali, minutissime “ruguloso, nucleo antico. Long. “08, long. 
spir. °03, lat. -08 poll., div. 90°. 


27. Litorina pullata. 


L. testa parva, solidiore, luctuosa; spira satis exserta ; nigrescente, 
seu livido-fusco tincta, lineis spiralibus exilissimis pallidioribus or- 
nata; interdum obscure tessellata; anfr. v., subplanatis, suturis 
parum impressis; subleevi, striolis spiralibus tenuiter Pear co- 
lumella intus incrassata; pariete haud excavato. Long. °4, long. 
spir. °18, lat. *29 poll., de 60°. 


== Litorina, sp. ind., Maz. Cat. no. 399, p. 350. 
28. Litorina (Philippit, var.) penicillata. 


L. Ph. testa parva, lineis radiantibus, variantibus, delicatulis, rarius 
ziczacformibus, et cingulis duobus spiralibus, quorum unum in 


spira monstratur, elegantissime penicillata. Long. °33, long. 
spir. 14, lat. 2 poll., div. 50°. 


Closely resembling the West-Indian L. ziczac, var. lineata, 
D’Orb. intermediate specimens, however, clearly connect it 
with the common Mazatlan form. 


29. Rissoa albolirata. 


M. testa parva, alba, crystallina, normali ; marginibus spiree undatis; 
anfr. nucl. i1., leevibus, mamillatis ; norm. iv., medio subconvexis, 
postice supra suturas planatis ; basi subplanata, effusa, haud um- 
bilicata ; lirulis spiralibus crebris, obtusis, quarum cire. x. in spira 
monstrantur ; apertura subovata, peritremate continuo; labro 


216 








Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusks. 9 


arcuato, vix antice et postice sinuato, calloso; labio valido. 
Long. *1, long. spir. *08, lat. 04 poll., div. 29%. 


30. Fenella crystallina. 


F. testa alba, subdiaphana, turrita, rudiore ; marginibus spire rectis, 
parum divergentibus ; anfr. nucl.?... (decollatis) ; uorm. v., valde 
rotundatis, suturis impressis ; costis radiantibus cire. xvi.. valde 
rotundatis, haud extantibus, interstitis latis ; striis spiralibus 
regularibus, in anfr. penult. xvi.; apertura rotundata; basi ro- 
tundata; peritremate continuo; labro extus varicoso ; labio cale 
loso. Long. °14, long. spir. *11, lat. 05 poll., div. 20°: 


81. ? Hydrobia compacta. 


7177. testa levi, curta, compacta, latiore ; marginibus spire vIx ex- 
curvatis ; anfr. nucl. normalibus, apice mamillato; norm. iv.. tu- 
midis, suturis distinctis ; spira curtiore ; basi rotundata ; apertura 
subovata ; peritremate continuo; labio definito. Long. -04, long. 
spir. 02, lat. 03 poll., div. 70°. 


This unique shell may be a Barleeia. 


32. Hyala rotundata, 


II. testa (quoad genus) magna, tenui, alba, diaphana ; anfr. nucl. 
normalibus, apice mamillato; norm. iv., globosis, rapide augenti- 
bus, suturis valde impressis ; basi rotundata ; apertura subrotun- 
data, ad suturam subangulata; peritremate continuo; labio a 
pariete separato, rimulam umbilicalem formante ; columella valde 
arcuata. Long. ‘18, long. spir. *09, lat. *1 poll., div. 40°. 


A unique shell, resembling a marine Bithina. 


33. ?Diala electrina. 


22. testa subdiaphana, rufo-cornea, nitida; marginibus spiree parum 
excurvatis ; vertice nucleoso, helicoideo ; anfr. i11., tumidis, suturis 
haud impressis, apice magno mamillato; anfr. norm. iii., subplanatis, 
suturis distinctis; sculptura haud expressa; tota superficie cos- 
tulis obscuris, latis, spiralibus, quarum Vi.—Vill. in spira monstran- 
tur, et iii.v: circa basim rotundatam, interdum obsoletis, cincta ; 
costulis radiantibus circ. xviii., subobsoletis; apertura regulariter 
ovata, ad suturam angulata, peritremate continuo ; basi haud um- 
dilicata; columella regulariter arcuata. Long. ‘09, long. spir. °07, 


lat. :03 poll., div. 30°. 


34. Acirsa Menesthoides. 


A. testa nitida, turrita, majore, solidiore, pallide fusca ; anfr. nuct. 
levibus; norm. vi., subplanatis, suturis distinctis ; lineis crebris 
spiralibus insculpta, quarum circ. vill. in spira monstrantur ; testa 
adolescente lirulis radiantibus obsoletis decussata; apertura sub- 
ovali; columella solida, imperforata. Long. 42, long. spir. “3, 
lat. °16 poll., div. 25°. 

217 


10 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusks 


35. Cythnia asteriaphila. 


C. testa C. tumenti simillima, sed umbilico minore, haud carinato, 
tenuissima, diaphana ; anfr. iv., tumidis ; vert. nucl. normali, haud 
stylineo, apice mamillato : operculo tenuissimo, elementis concen- 
tricis, nucleo submediano. sinistrorsum sito. Long. °03, long. 
spir. °015, lat. -025 poll., div. 60°. 

A solitary specimen was found by Dr. Stimpson, imbedded in 

a star-fish, hke Stylina; from which genus the vertex and oper- 


culum distinguish it. 
36. Bittium nitens. 


B. testa regulari, rufo-fusca, hic et illic pallida, maxime nitente ; 
anfr. nucl. iii., leevibus, tumidis, apice submamillato, subdeclivi ; 
norm. vi., tumidis, suturis impressis ; costis radiantibus cire. xiv., 
haud contiguis, angustis, interstitiis undatis ; costulis rotundatis, 
spiralibus, in spira iv., quarum postica multo minor, supercur- 
rentibus, ad intersectiones subnodosis ; costulis circa basim sub- 
rotundatam iv., haud decussatis ; apertura subquadrata ; columella 
baud tr uncata, cobunse angulata ; labro acuto, a costulis indentato; 
Jabio inconspicuo. Long. 21, long. spir. *16, lat. ‘06 poll., div. 20°. 


37. Manyelia subdiaphana. 


M. testa parva, subdiaphana, albida, interdum rufo-fusco pallide 
tincta; satis turrita, marginibus spires parum excurvatis; anfr. 
nucleosis ili., leevibus, diaphanis, apice mamillato ; norm. iv., satis 
excurvatis, haud angulatis, suturis impressis; fascia super spiram 
pallide fusca, alteraque candida contigua; costulis radiantibus 
XiV.-XVill., acutis, subrectis, distantibus, interstitiis undatis ; tota 
superficie minute et creberrime spiraliter striata; basi producta, 
striis magis expressis; apertura subelongata; labro ad dorsum 
incrassato, postice distincte emarginato, intus haud deuntato ; labio 
tenuissimo ; columella recta, antice late canaliculata. Long. 19, 
long. spir. *1, lat. -06 poll., div. 30°. 


38. Drillia appressa. 

D. testa parva, compacta ; rufo-fusca, interdum supra costas palli- 
diore; marginibus spiree excurvatis ; anfr. norm. vi., planatis, 
suturis sndiseinctis ; ; costis tuberculosis radiantibus circ. iy ., antice 
et postice obsoletis; striolis spiralibus ereberrimis ; costa spirali 
irregulari postica, tuberculosa, super suturas appressa; area sinus 
parvi vix definita; basi satis prolongata ; ager en subquadrata ; 
labio distincto. Long. *3, long. spir. °17, lat. °12 poll., div. 40°. 


39. Cithara fusconotata. 


C. testa parva, satis turrita, tenui, albida; postice linea, seu serie 
macularum, rufo-fusea, jatefaane altera peripheriali ornata ; mar- 
ginibus spiree rectioribus; anfr. nucl. 1i., rotundatis, apice raat 
lato; norm. vi., in spira rotundatis, suturis impressis ; basi satis 
rotundata ; coats radiantibus cire. ix., acutis, distantibus, antice 


218 





collected at Cape St. Lucas. ll 


et postice subobsoletis ; tota superficie spiraliter sulcata, sulculis 
subdistantibus, undatis, costas superantibus; apertura subovali, 
satis elongata, postice valde sinuata; labro acuto, dorsaliter costu- 
lato, intus haud dentato; labio tenui. Long. °36, long. spir. *18, 
lat. -16 poll., div. 40°. 





40. Obeliscus variegatus. 


O. testa O. hastato simili; nitidissima, striolis incrementi exilissimis ; 
livido et castaneo varie nebulosa; prope suturam canaliculatam 
lineis alpidis picta; hic et illic callositate alba interna ; peripheria 

| circa basin insculpta, unicolore; columella truncata, triplicata ; 

plica superiore acuta, exstante, circa basim continua ; plicis anticis 
parvis, spiralibus. Long. °44, long. spir. °3, lat. °15 poll., div. 23°. 


41. Odostomia (Evalea) equisculpta. 


O. testa parva, ovoidea, alba, subdiaphana; marginibus spire sub- 

rectis; vert. nucl.?...., normaliter truncato; anfr. norm. iv., 

parum arcuatis, suturis impressis ; tota superficie costulis spirali- 

bus cire. xiv., quarum vi. in spira monstrantur, latis, planatis, 

| zequidistantibus ; interstitiis parvis; basi rotundata; apertura 

ii ovata; peritremate haud continuo ; labro acuto; labio subobsoleto ; 

| plica juxta parietem conspicua, acuta, transversa ; columella arcuata, 

E | rimulam umbilicalem formante. Long. ‘07, long. spir. :04, lat, 
| °03 poll., div. 40°. 


42. Odostomia (Evalea) delicatula. 


O. testa tenuissima, alba, diaphana, nitente, elongata; margini- 
bus spire eleganter excurvatis; vert. nucl. levi, globoso, decli- 
viter immerso ; anfr. norm. iii., subplanatis, suturis impressis ; 
liris subacutis, spiralibus, quarum v. in spira monstrantur ; inter- 
stitiis latis, undatis, creberrime decussatis ; basi elongata; aper- 
tura oblonga, peritremate haud continuo; labro tenui; labio vix 
conspicuo; plica juxta parietem exstante, declivi. Long. -075, 
long. spir. °04, lat. -03 poll., div. 30°. 


43. Chrysallida angusta. 


C. testa parva, satis elongata, nitida, alba, sculptura minus expressa; 
marginibus spiree parum excurvatis; vert. nucl. parvo, subito 
immerso, dimidium truncationis tegente ; anfr. norm. v., planatis, 

elongatis, suturis minus impressis; costis radiantibus cire. xiii., 
| plerumque lineis continuis marginibus utrinque parallelis, circa 
basim productam obsoletis; lirulis spiralibus angustis, in spira 
circ. v., interstitiis decussantibus, supra costas haud nodulosis ; 
apertura ovali; peritremate parum continuo; labro tenui, trans- 
hicido ; labio tenui ; plica juxta parietem parva, obtusa. Long. 
995, long. spir. :065, lat. -028 poll., div. 20°. 


44, Eulima fuscostrigata. 


E. testa minore, gracillima, albida, striga latiore rufo-fusca supra 
219 


12 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusks 


peripheriam ornata; basi quoque rufo-fusca, valde prolongata, 
reculariter excurvata; anfr. nucl. ii., tumidioribus; norm. Viil., 
planatis, suturis haud conspicuis ; varicibus nullis ; apertura valde 
elongata ; labro vix sinuato; labio vix calloso. Long. °17, long. 
spir. *12, lat. 05 poll., div. 20°. 


45. Opalia crenatoides. 


D. testa turrita, alba, marginibus spire rectis; anfr. nucl.?....3 
norm. vi., compactis, attingentibus ; costis radiantibus circ. x., in 
spira plerumque obsoletis, ultimo anfractu validioribus, datis, haud 
exstantibus, attingentibus, spiram lineis fere rectis ascendentibus ; 
suturis inter costas altissime indentatis ; carina obtusa basali, su- 
turee continua; inter costas radiantes undique, ut in suturis, in- 
dentata ; costis interdum, propter lirulas spirales subobsoletas, sub- 
nodosis ; columella haud umbilicata ; basi antice levi. Long. °54, 
long. spir. *38, lat. *23 poll., div. 30°. 


Additional specimens may connect this with the Portuguese 
O. crenata. 


46. Truncaria eurytoides. 


T. testa parva, turrita, gracili; albida, szepius fascia circa peripheriam 
maculis fusco-aurantiacis picta; anfr. nucl. mamillatis, leevibus ; 
norm. v., effusis, subplanatis, ultimo paulum constricto ; costulis 
radiantibus cire. xx., aperturam versus evanidis; apertura sub- 
quadrata ; labro haud incrassato, interdum intus subtiliter striato, 
haud dentato; labio appresso; columella abrupte truncata. 
Long. °3, long. spir. ‘2, lat. +11 poll., div. 23°. ‘ 

Variat basi fusco tincta, seu tota superficie ut in Nitidella cribraria 
picta. 

47. Sistrum (? ochrostoma, var.) rufonotatum. 


S. testa S. ochrostomati simili, sed minore, angustiore, vix tabulata ; 
alba, linea punctorum rufo-fuscorum subperipheriali, interdum 
lineis spiralibus, interdum ejusdem coloris maculis, ornata; vert. 
nucl. mamillato, anfr. iii., levibus, vix tumidis; norm. v., plus 
minusve elongatis, in medio nodoso-angulatis, postice planatis, 
suturis ad angulum valde obtusum conspicuis ; seriebus nodulorum 
spiralibus iii., quarum postica major, secundum costas radiantes 
obsoletas circ. vi.—vill. ordinatis ; seriebus anticis inconspicuis Li. ; 
interdum costulis spiralibus intercalatis; canali brevi, rectiore, 
aperto, angusto; apertura subovali, vix subquadrata, itus pallide 
aurantiaca; labro acutiore, dorsaliter subvaricoso, postice seepe 
sinuato, intus obscure vi.-dentato ; labio conspicuo, interdum exe 
stante. Long. °5, long. spir. *23, lat. °32 poll., div. 60°. 

Variat testa obesa, nodulis validis. Variat quoque testa acuminata, 
nodulis subobsoletis. Long. °52, long. spir. °23, lat. *25 poll., 
div. 42°. 

48. ?Nitidella millepunctata. 


?N. testa parva, nitida, livida; spira exstante, anfractibus subpla- 
natis, suturis distinctis ; anfr. nucl. leevibus, adolescentibus ubso- 


220 





collected at Cape St. Lucas. 13 


lete radiatim lirulatis, adultis levibus; zona alba postica, suturam 
attingente, aurantiaco maculata, tota preeter zonam superficie au- 
rantiaco puncticulata, punctis minimis, creberrimis, in quincunces 
dispositis ; apertura subquadrata; labro incrassato, intus vi.-den- 
tato; labio exstante, a lirulis cirea basim spiralibus indentato. 
Long. °3, long. spir. +17, lat. +15 poll., div. 40°. 


Differs from Columbella albuginosa, Rve., in its pecnhat and 
constant painting. 
49. ?Nitidella densilineata. 


?N. testa ?.N. millepunctatam forma et indole simulante, sed omnino 
nitida, anfractibus planatis, suturis indistinctis, striolis circa basim 
minimis ; livida, lineolis aurantiaco-fuscis divaricatis, seepe re 
feriaibac! densissime signata. Long. °25, long. spir. -15, lat. ° 
poll., div. 33°. 


The opercula of these two species being unknown, their 
generic position remains doubtful. The same is true of the two 
following. 


50. ? Anachis tincta. 


?4. testa parva, turrita, albida, rufo-aurantiaco supra costas tincta ; 
anfr. nucl. lzevibus; norm. iv.—v., subplanatis, suturis valde im- 
pressis ; costulis x. ‘vadiantibus, et liris spiralibus transeuntibus, 
In spira lil. supra costas conspicuis, unaque in sutura, dense in- 
sculpta; interstitiis alte czelatis; apertura subquadrata ; labro in 
medio incrassato. Long. -19, long. spir. 12, lat. °08 poll., 





P div. 30°. 

51. ?Anachis fuscostrigata. 

B | 74. testa parva, turrita, livida, nitida ; zonis rufo-fuscis, subspiralibus, 
B | in spira cire. lil., interdum, maxime ad basim, confluentibus, con- 
spicue cincta; lirulis radiantibus subobsoletis, cire. x., prope su- 
| turam se monstrantibus ; apertura subquadrata. Long. *13, long. 
| spir. ‘095, lat. -045 poll., div. 20°. 

BD 

B | 52. Pisania elata. 


P. testa minore, valde turrita, Latiroidea; alba, rufo-fusco antice et 
postice varie maculata seu strigata; anfr. nucl.?....; norm. vi., 
convexis, suturis impressis; costis radiantibus vi.—vill., obtusis, 
interstitiis undatis ; lirulis spiralibus distautibus, in spira plerum- 
que il., aliis minoribus intercalantibus; canali angusto, sub- 
recurvato ; ‘apertura subovata; pariete postice dentata; columelle 
parum contorta. Long. *68, long. spir. *37, lat. °29 poll., div. 38°. 

221 


Se 


a arama ee 
* 
7 








= 





CONTRIBUTIONS 





TOWARDS A 


MONOGRAPH OF THE PANDORIDE. 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pa. D. 





From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 596-603, 
November 22, 1864, 


( 223 ) 











ConTRIBUTIONS 2OWARDS A MONOGRAPH OF THE PANDORID. 
By Purure P. Carrenter, B..\., Pa.D. 


IT is remarkable that, notwithstanding the zeal with which most of 
the old genera have been divided, to meet the wants of modern mala- 
cology, the genus Pandora, Lam., has been left untouched by Dr, 
Gray, Messrs. Adams, and their follower, Chenu, Yet the species 
known to the elder Sowerby present three distinct types of hinge, 
which were well figured by him in his ‘ Conchological Illustrations.’ 
Specimens and even species of Pandora (except of the well-known 
N. Atlantic forms) being very rarely seen in collections, it is pre- 
sumed that naturalists have had but few opportunities of studying 
them. Mr. Cuming having most kindly allowed me to examine the 
hinge of all the species in his collection, it has appeared desirable to 
propose two new genera, and also to group part of the typical species 
under a subgenus. 

It was at one time thought that the presence of an ossicle in the 
cartilage was a family mark of dnatinide, to which Myadora from 
Pandoride, and Tellimya from Kelliade, were consequently removed. 
One of the new genera of Pandorids, however, possesses a well-deve- 
loped ossicle; and a small one is seen even in some species of the 
normal genus. 

The most highly organized structure in the family is found in the 
North American genus Clidiophora, which has both clavicle* and 
ossicle ; the next is the East-Indian group Celodon, which wants 
both clavicle and ossicle, but possesses a tent-shaped dentition in the 
left valve. The simplest form is the well-known Pandora, which 
has neither clavicle, tent, nor ossicle ; but in the subgenus Kenner/ia 
the ossicle is present. The genus Myodora is quite distinct, but 
connected with Pandora through Kennerlia. 


Genus CLipIopHoRAT. 


Testa Pandoriformas, ventraliter expansa; valva dextra tridentata, 
dente postico elongato ; valva sinistra sepius bidentata, dente 
antico simplict ; cartilagine ossiculo firmata ; sinu pallii nullo. 


1. Type, CuipiopHORA CLAvicuLata, Cpr. (Pandora cl.) P.Z.S. 
1855, p. 228. 

* The word “ clavicle” is used (in default of a better) to denote a linear dental 
process running into the body of the shell, often serving as a support to the car- 
dinal plate, as in 4natina and some species of Placunonia. 

t Th. «rerCior, a clavicle; gepw. 


15 225 


In the dentition of the right valve this genus resembles Ca/odon, 
except that the posterior lamina is greatly developed, resembling a 
clavicle. The left valve wants the central tooth and chamber of that 
genus. ‘This structural deficiency, however, is compensated by the 
development of an ossicle in the long cartilage. As far as is known, 
all the species are from North and Central America, and are swollen 
ventrally. 


2, CLIDIOPHORA CRISTATA. 


C. t. securiformi, minus transversa, tenui, subplanata ; umboni- 
bus ad 2 longitudinis sitis; ventraliter maxime excurvata ; 
marginibus dorsalibus, post. maxime incurvato, ant. hic et illic 
alulis triangularibus cristato : intus marginibus posficis utra- 
que in valva erectis: v. dextr. dente postico satis longo, cica- 
trice adductoris tenus haud porrecto ; dente centrali extante ; 
dente antico a margine separato, usque ad cic. anticam porrecto, 
haud extante: v. sinistr. dente post. bifido, haud extante, al- 
terum recipiente, fossa cartilaginea contigua ; d. centr. nullo ; 
d. ant. satis extante, usque ad cicatr. anticam porrecto ; linea 
palliart a margine valde remota, regulariter in puncta divisa ; 
radiis ab umbonibus usque ad puncta conspicuis, equalibus ; 
ossiculo tenui, elongato. 

Long. 1:0, lat. °6, alt. °1 poll. 

Hab. in sinu Californiensi ; legit Conway Shipley diligentissimuss 

sp. un. in Museo Cumingiano. 

This species is known from C. claviculata by the much greater 
posterior curvature of the beaks, and anteriorly by the beautiful tri- 
angular wing-like serrations: of the margin, in which it resembles 
Tellidora burneti. The inside has elegant rays from the umbo te 
the dotted pallial line. 


3. CLiipropHora TABACEA, Meusch. (Mus. Gron.). 


Specimens under this specific name are preserved in the Cumingian 
collection. 


3a. CLIDIOPHORA TRILINEATA, Say (Pandora tr.), Hanl. Rec. 
Shells, p. 49. 


36. CuipiopHoRa nasuTa, Sby. (Pandora n.), Sp. Conch. f, 
18,19: 


It is probable that these are simply varietal forms of the well-known 
New England species. Say’s name and Sowerby’s excellent figure 
prove that the peculiar hinge of the genus was observed by both 
authors. Mr. Cuming gives “ Philippines”’ as the habitat of his 
specimens of C. nasuta, probably inerror. Mr. Hanley quotes it as a 
synonym of C. trilineata. An examination of a large series from Staten 
Island proves that the outline varies considerably. The tablet in 
the Nuttallian collection at the British Museum, marked Pandora 
punctata, belongs to this species. Young shells, when quite perfect, 


226 

















display faint radiating grooves on the prismatic layer of the flat valve, 
as in Kennerlia. 


4. CLipIOPHORA PuUNCTATA, Conr. 


This very rare species was only known in England by worn left 
valves in the British Museum, and in Mr. Cuming’s and Mr. Hanley’s 
collections. The first perfect specimens were dredged by Dr. J. G. 
Cooper (Zoologist to the Californian State Survey) at San Pedro. 
A young shell, sent by him to the Smithsonian Institution, displays 
a dentition agreeing in the main with C. ¢rilineata. In the flat 
valve, the central and anterior teeth are close together and nearly 
parallel ; the anterior short, nearly obsolete ; the middle long and 
sharp, corresponding with the long, sharp tooth in the convex valve, 
which points to the outside of the anterior scar, instead of to the 
middle, as in C. trilineata. The (posterior) clavicle-tooth in the fiat 
valve is longer than in the Eastern species, with the cartilage on it 
for two-fifths of the length. In C. trilineata it lies by the side, nearly 
the whole way. The posterior margin of the convex valve fits between 
the clavicle and the margin of the flat valve. The ossicle is remark- 
ably long and thin. The punctures are extremely conspicuous even 
in this young, transparent, and papyraceous specimen ; and, what is 
more peculiar, the dried remains of the animal are covered with 
minute pearl-shaped grains of shelly matter corresponding with them. 


4a. CLipiopHora DEpRESSA, Sby.,= Pandora d., Sp. Conch. f. 
11, 12; Hanl. Rec. Shells, p. 49. 


The ‘“posterior”’ dilated side of Sowerby is the “anterior’’ of 
Hanley. The species was constituted from a “very few specimens, 
all of them much worn down, as if they had been used as ornaments.”’ 
The hinge therefore may not have been accurately observed. They 
were part of the Humphrey collection, and perhaps from the Califor- 
nian region. Judging from the shape (for no type has been disco- 
vered), it may be identical with C. punctata, Conr. 


5. CLIDIOPHORA ACUTEDENTATA (vice C. B. Ad.). 


C. ¢. parum “ elongata, ovata; parte postica”’’ haud rostrata, 
latiore, obtusa; ‘“margine dorsali”’ postico “‘subrecto; margine 
ventrali rotundato,” haud tumente; parte antica curtiore ; 
“umbonbus subaquahter subconvexis, umbone dextro postice 
angulato”’: intus, v. convexa dente antico magno, acutissimo, 
medio parvo, postico valido, maxime elongato ; v. planata den- 
tibus antico et postico acutis ; ligamentojuxta dentem posticum 
sito. 

*Long. *7, lat. °42, alt. 11 poll.” 

Hab. in Panama: sp. unicum, postice fractum, legit C. B. Adams 
deploratus : Museo Coll. Amherstianz := Pandora cornuta (Gld.), 
C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, no. 498, P.Z.S. 1863, p. 368. 

Prof. Adams’s ‘‘ appropriate name suggested by Dr. Gould ”’ being 
calculated to mislead, 1 have thought it necessary to change it. 


227 


Most of the original diagnosis must also be dropped, the parts above 
quoted being all that it is desirable to retain. The present descrip- 
vion is written from notes and drawings made on a careful examiua- 
tion of the broken type. The lines of growth show that, so far from 
being ‘‘cornute,” the species is remarkable for the absence of beak, 
—the margins being more equally rounded even than in P. obtusa, 
which in shape it somewhat resembles. The hinge is almost exactly 
like that of C. claviculata, jun., but differs in the somewhat greater 
proportionate length of the clavicle, and in the unwonted size and 
sharp pointing of the anterior tooth. The new name has been chosen 
to record this peculiarity, rather than follow the modern custom of 
naming from the author of the mistake. The best naturalists occa- 
sionally err ; but corrections can be made without affixing a false come 
pliment in perpetuity. 


6. ?CirpropHora viscors, Sby. (Pandora d.), P. Z. 8. 1835, 
p- 99; Sp. Conch. f. 29, 30. 


The type has not been discovered; the figure and diagnosis only 
relate to the outside; and the habitat is not stated. The genus is 
therefore doubtful; but in shape it resembles the young of C. clavi- 
culata. 


7. ?Cxiipr1opHoRA ARCUATA, Sby. (Pandora a.), Sp. Conch. f. 27, 
28; P.Z.S. 1835, p. 93; Hanl. Rec. Shells, p. 49. 


The worn valves in the Cumingian collection do not allow of a 
confident determination of the genus. 


Genus CaLopon®. 


Testa Pandoriformis: valva sinistra dentibus duobus, cicatricem 
adductoris anticam versus radiantibus, lamina infra cavernosa 
gunctis : ossiculo nullo : sinu pallu nullo. 


The shells of this group vary considerably in shape and dentition 
in the different species ; but agree in this, that in the left valve there 
is a kind of tent, formed by a thin laminated roof lying on the top of 
two diverging teeth. It is hard even to guess what is the use of this 
(perhaps unique) structure ; especially as its opening is not towards 
the body of the shell, but directly facing the anterior adductor. It 
is seen at once on opening the typical species, which was well figured 
by Sowerby, Sp. Conch. f. 22. In the aberrant forms it might easily 
be overlooked, and a glass is needed to detect it in small specimens ; 
but if it exists, the shell can be supported on a pin thrust into the 
“hollow tooth.” When more species are known, the group may 
require subdivision, the C. fleruosus especially presenting a marked 
transition to Clidiophora. In that genus the posterior part excels 
in development; in Celodon, the anterior. All the known species 
are from the Eastern seas, but are very seldom seen in collections. 
An enlarged diagnosis of the type species is offered. 


* Th. xotAos, hollow; ddobv, toothe 
228 








1. C@Lovon CrytANICus. 


Pandora ceylanica, Sby. P. Z. 8. 1835, p. 94 ; Sp. Conch. f. 20, 
Cie Dos ceylonica, Hanl. Rec. Shells, p. 50, =p indica, Cheun, 
Man. Conch. ii. p. 54. f. 214. 


C. t. planata, rostrata, securiformi; ventraliter maxime, antice 
satis excurvata ; margine postico dorsali valde incurvato : 
intus, valva dextra, margine postico rectangulatim superstante, 
dentibus anticis wv. prelongis, satis extantibus, usque ad cica- 
tricem adductoris continuis, dentem cavernosum valve alteriys 
amplectantibus ; dente postico curtiore, extante, fossam carti- 
lagineam per totam longitudinem gerente: valva sinistra, mar- 
gine postico subrectangulatim superstante ; sulco postico 
dentem v. alt. recipiente ; dentibus anticis usque ad cicatricem 
adductoris continutis, centrali longiore, plus quam dimidio inter- 
stitii lamina tenui tecto, ventraliter arcuato. 

Under this species, of which the correct locality appears in the 
name, Mr. Sowerby quotes “a single specimen obtained at Island 
Muerte, W. Columbia, 11 fm., by Mr. Cuming.” The hinge may 
not have been examined. The shell quoted does not now appear in 
the Cumingian collection, and probably belonged to Cldiophora 
claviculata, which in shape resembles the typical Calodon. 


la. CaLtopon cumineu, Hanl. (Pandora c.), P. Z.S8. 1861, 
p. 272. 
This agrees with the last species in shape and dentition, and is 


probably only a variety. 
Hab. Philippines (Cuming). 


2. CaLopon DELICATULUS, A. Ad. (Pandora d.) P. Z.S. (diagn. 
auct.). 


e-.marginibus dorsalibus ad angulum circ. 160° divergentibus : 
cardine v. dextr. dente postico satis elongato ; centrali curto, 
ad umbonem valde calloso ; antico longissimo, cicatricem ant. 
superante, margini contiguo: v. sinistr. dente centrali curto, 
supra cavernam evecto, in anticum prelongum continuo. 

In this species, the shape of which is not unlike P. obéusa, though 
less transverse, the anterior teeth are enormously dev eloped at the 
expense of the central. These are short, but prominent ; in the left 
valve bent over, along the whole length, to form the roof of the 
chamber, and then drawn on into the anterior tooth. 


3. C@HLODON ELONGATUS, 0. s. 


C. t. parva, tenvissima, maxime planata ; parte antica minore, 
excurvata ; ventraliter valde excurvata, postice maxime elon- 
gata, rostro angustiore ; dorsaliter valde incurvata : intus, v. 
dextr. dente post. satis longo; d. centrali prelongo, postice 
flecto, cicatricem adductoris parum superante; d. antico mi- 
nore: v. sinistr, cartilagine valde elunguta, postice sita; d. 


229 


ecentrali prelongo, postice flecto ; d. antico minore a margine 
remoto, lamina totius longitudinis ad centralem juncto. 

Long. °65, lat. *3, alt. -05 poll. 

Hub. in China et Borneo (Mus. Cuming.). 

This species is the Eastern representative of P. rostrata, as is C. 
delicatulus of P. obtusa. It has the reverse dentition, the central 
tooth being very long, and the anterior short, bridged over to meet 
it at the whole length. In the Borneo shell, which is lar ger, the 
anterior tooth is rather longer, with the front margin of the ceiling 
more incurved; but the differences are probably due to increased 
age only. 


4. CaLopon FLexvosus, Sby. (Pandora f.), Sp. Conch. f. 13, 
14,15; Hanl. Rec. Shells, p. 49 (diagn. auct.), 


. cardine v. dextra dente postico pralongo, a margine separato, 
visu ad ccatr. adduct. porrecto ; fossa cartilaginea curta, 
inter dentes post. et centr. sita ; d. centr. curtissimo, maximeée 
extante, retrorsum deflecto ; d. ant. minimo, pene obsoleto : v. 
sinistr. sulco prelongo postico; fossa cartilaginea separata, 
curtiore; d. centr. extante, curtissimo, supra cavernam pyri= 
Sormem, in dentem anticum usque ad cicatr. adduct. prolonga- 
tum, porrecto. 

This long-known but rare Red Sea species is to Pandora what 
Trisis (Gray) is to Arca. It is swollen and twisted, and, by its 
long clavicle, forms an interesting transition to Clidiophora. 


4a. ?CaLopon unGuicuLus, Sby. (Pandora u.), Sp. Conch, 
f. 16, 17; Hanl. Rec. Shells, p. 49. 


The type has not been found of this species, which was described 
from a convex valve only. It clearly belongs to the same section as 
C. flecuosus, and, though the shape is somewhat different, perhaps 
it is only a variety. 


Genus Panpora, Lam. 


It is proposed to limit this genus according to the diagnosis of Sow- 
erby, founded on Lamarck’s. Succeeding naturalists Have adopted 
the diagnosis, while they have included in it species to which it did 
not apply *. It presents a very simple type of hinge, as though the 
Pandorid idea were’ gradually fading away towards Myodora. The 
P. wardiana is the finest species in the group ; but it is scarcely 
typical, having the radiating grooves of the section Aennerlia. The 
Lamarckian type is the Tellina inaequalis of Linneus. 


1. Pannora rostrata, Lam., Forbes & Hanl. et auct. plur.= 
P. inequalis, Linn., Gray, Add. 


* Chenu, however (Man. Conch. ii. p. 51), gives an original and extended 
diagnosis, in which he accredits to the whole genus “une dent triangulaire, 
aplatie, bifurquée. dont la portion, jantérieure, plus longue, se prolonge jusqu’a 
Vimpression musculaire antérieure ”—a character which. only belongs to the sece 
tion Celadon. 

230 











2. Panpora ostusa, Lam., auct. 


3. PANDORA BREVIFRONS, Sby., Sp. Conch. f. 25, 26; P. Z.S. 
1835, p. 93. 


4. Panpora cisTULA, Gld. Otia, p. 77. 


This species is not quoted in the index to the E. BE. Moll., but 
appears in the text (p. 396) and in the Atlas (f. 500). In shape, 
but not in texture, it resembles P. oblonga. 


5. PANDORA OBLONGA, Sby., Sp. Conch. f.10; Hanl. Rec. Shells, 
p- 49. 


The unique type of this species, from Humphrey’s collection, has 
not been found ; it was not described in the P. Z.S., and very closely 
resembles P. rostrata. 


6. PanporA RADIATA, Sby., P. Z.S. 1835, p. 24; Sp. Conch. 
f. 23, 24. 


7. Panpora warpiAna, A. Ad. P. Z.S. 1859, p. 487. 


No ossicle has been observed in any of the above species. If it be 
found hereafter in living specimens of the grooved P. radiata and 
P. wardiana, they should be removed to the subgenus. The group 
is not local, as appears to be the case with Calodon and Clidiophora, 
being found in both hemispheres and on both sides of the equator. 


Subgenus KenNnERLIA*. 


Pandora cartilagine ossiculo tenuiore instructa; lamina exte- 
riore prismatica valve planate radiis plerumque insculpta. 


The typical species have radiating grooves in the exterior prismatic 
layer of the right valve. These have not been observed in K. gla- 
cialis, but perhaps the specimens are somewhat decorticated. The 
essential character is the possession of an ossicle. ‘This is well deve- 
loped in K. glacialis, but so thin in the other species that it is often 
hidden in dried shells by the contraction of the cartilage. The first 
species in which it was observed (Dr. Kennerley having sent several 
fresh specimens, preserved in alcohol, to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion) was 


1. KENNERLIA FILOSA, N. 8. 


K. ¢. tenui, planoconvexa, maxime rostrata ; marginibus dorsa- 
libus rectis, ad angulum circ. 160°; ventrali regulariter et 
modice excurvato, postice vir sinuato; epidermide olivacea, 
plerumque erosa, postice corrugata ; lamina externa prismatica 
spongiosa ; valva planata radiatim sulcata (quasi filosa), sulcis 
distantibus ; valva convera, costa obtusissima postice decurrente ; 


* Named in grateful remembrance of the services rendered to science by the 
late Dr. Kennerley, the naturalist to the American N. Pacific Boundary Survey ; 
whose premature death has interrupted, almost at the onset, our kauwledge of 
the dredging-fauna of Puget Sound 

231 


lineis seu undis incrementi conspicuis : intus dente cardinah 
uno, parvo, extante ; callositate claviculoidea antica, margint 
contigua ; fossa cartilaginea postice sita ; cicatricibus addue- 
torum rotundatis, margin dorsali contiguis ; linea pallii sim- 
plicit. 

Long. °8, lat. °4, alt. °12 poll. 

Hab. in sinu Pugetiano (Kennerley). 


2. KENNERLIA BICARINATA, N. 8. 


K. ¢. “K. filosee”’ semili, sed haud rostrata; postice latiore ¢ 
carinis in valva convera duabus, in valva planata una, ex umbo- 
nibus postice decurrentibus ; lamina prismatica radiatim sul- 
cata, haud spongiosa ; valva convexa tenuiter indentata; liga- 
mento elongato, tenuissimo. 

Long. *5, lat. *25, alt. ‘06 poll. 

Hab. in insula Catalina, Californiz ; 40-60 uln., rara (Dr. J. G. 
Cooper. State Geological Survey Coll. no. 1063; Mus. Smithsonian 
Inst.). 

Tie shape and keels at once distinguish this beautiful little species 
from its Northern ally, with which, in the hinge and threading of 
the outer layer, it exactly agrees. The ligament in both species is 
extremely thin, holding the valves together from the umbo to the 
posterior end. The fossil Pandora bilirata, Conr., may prove iden- 
tical with this recent species; but the diagnosis, figure, and type 
specimen are so imperfect that it would be too hazardous to affiliate 
them. 


3. K&NNERLIA GLACIALIS, Leach (Pandora gl.), Sby. Sp. Conch. 
f. 4, 5,6; Hanl. Rec. Shells, p. 49 (diagn. auct.). 


...valva dextra callo conspicuo fossam cartilagineam firmante ; 
ossiculo fortiore. 

The known species of Kennerlia are thus confined to the North 
Pacific and the Arctic seas. The diagnosis of No. 1 belongs to a 
paper on Dr. Kennerley’s new species in the Journ. Ac. N.S. Philad. ; 
and that of No. 2 to a series of papers on Dr. Cooper’s new species 
in the Proc. Calif. Ac. N.S. They are inserted here to complete 
the monograph, as far as known to the writer. The ‘ Pandova 
striata, Quoy” (Add. Gen. ii. p. 371), is a Myodora. The latter 
genus is so well defined that no alteration is proposed in it, 


232 























: 


DIAGNOSES 


OF 


NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSCA 


FROM 


THE VANCOUVER DISTRICT. 


BY 
e 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pu.D. 


From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, Vol 
XIV. (Nos. 5—87), pp. 423—429, December, 1864. Ibid. Vol. XV 
(Nos. 87—56), pp. 283—32, January, 1865. 


( 233 ) 





2 
. 
‘ 


aes ane 

















DIAGNOSES 


OF 
NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSCA 


THE VANCOUVER DISTRICT. 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pu.D. 


Tue shells here described were mostly collected by Indian chil- 
dren for their excellent teacher Mr.J.G.Swan, in the neighbour- 
hood of Neeah Bay, W.T. They were presented by him to the 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. ; and, in accordance 
with their liberal policy, the first available duplicates will be 
found in the British Museum or in Mr. Cuming’s Collection. 
The species are numbered to correspond with the list im the 
British Association Report for 1863, pp. 626-628; see also 
pp- 636-664. 


5. Mera salmonea. 


M. testa parva, solida, compacta, subquadrata ; levi, nitente, epi- 
dermide tenui cinerea induta; extus pallide, intus vivide salmoneo 
tincta; marginibus dorsalibus rectis, ad angulum 120° separatis, 
umbonibus haud extantibus; marginibus antico et ventrali regu- 
lariter late excurvatis; parte postica brevissima, heud angulata : 
intus, dent. card. utraque valva ii., quorum unus bifidus ; laterali- 
bus v. dextr. zequidistantibus, ant. extante, post. parvo ; nym phis 
rectis, haud conspicuis ; cicatr. add. post. subrotundata, ant. sub- 
rhomboidea; sinu pallii satis regulariter ovali, per iv. inter v. 
partes interstitil porrecto. Long. *57, lat. °45, alt. °11 poll. 

Variat testa aurantiaca, rarius albida, rosaceo tincta. 

Hab. San Francisco (Pac. Rail. E. E.); Neeah Bay (Swan), 
plentiful; Monterey, 20 fathoms (Cooper). 

In shape almost close to Macoma crassula, Desh. (Arctic) ; 
but that species is thinner, not glossy or salmon-coloured, aud 
has no lateral teeth. 

6. Angulus variegatus. 

A. testa forma A. obtuso simili, sed costa interna omnino carent, : 

valde inzequilateraii, solidiore, mitente, rosaceo et flavido subrar 
235 


2 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusca 


tim eleganter variegata ; striis incrementi concentricis, postice ex- 
tantioribus ; umbonibus postice flectentibus, obtusis ; parte antica 
prolongata, regulariter excurvata ; marginibus dorsali et ventrali 
subparallelis, subrectis ; parte postica curtiore, subangulata: intus, 
dent. card. utraque valva ii. minutis, quorum alter bifidus; v. 
dext. dent. lat., ant. curto, satis extante, post. nullo; nymphis 
curtis, latis, parum concavis, subito sectis, valvis postea subalatis ; 
sinu palli fere cicatr. ant. tenus porrecto. Long. *72, lat. -42, 
alt, “15; 


Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan); Monterey and Catalina Island, 
20-60 fathoms, rare (Cooper). 


Subgenus Mropon*, 


Testa Lucinoidea, dentibus cardinalibus, ut in Cardita, elongatis ; 
laterali antico parvo instructa. 


This little group of species is intermediate in character be- 
tween Astarte, Venericardia, and Lucina. It first appears in 
the Great Oolite, where it is represented by Astarte (Miodon) 
orbicularis, J. Sby. Min. Conch. pl. 444. f. 2,3. This must not 
be confounded with a second and true Astarte orbicularis, by the 
same author, pl. 520. f. 2. It appears in Mr. Searles Wood’s 
Crag-series as Astarte corbis. The following is the only recent 
species at present known. 


9. Miodon prolongatus. 


M. testa parva, solida, tumida, compacta, albida; ventraliter antice 
valde prolongata, excurvata ; lunula longa, rectiore, haud impressa ; 
umbonibus antice inflectis, obtusis, valde prominentibus ; margine 
dorsali postico parum excurvato; costis radiantibus x.—xii. latis, 
obtusis, marginem attingentibus, parum expressis, dorsaliter obso- 
letis, a liris incrementi concentricis, plus minusve distantibus, ex- 
pressis, hic et illic interruptis : intus, margine a costis plus minusve 
obsoletim crenulato ; cardine dentibus v. dextr., uno postico, inter 
duas fossas elongato, et lat. ant. lunulari; v. sinistr., dent. ant. trian- 
gulari, post. valde elongato, lat. ant. minimo, obsoleto; cicatr. add. 
subrotundatis, ventraliter sitis. Long. +23, lat. -24, alt. -16. 


Subgenus Apuxa, Add. (diagn. auct.). 


Testa inter Modiolam et Lithophagum intermedia, cylindracea ; 
umbonibus obtusis; parte antica longiore ; ligamento subinterno, 
valde elongato; epidermide haud testacea. 

Animal byssiferum, in cryptis affixum; musculis adductoribus 
majoribus, antico ovato. 


Constituted by Messrs. Adams for A. soleniformis, D’Orb., 
which very closely resembles the young of the Vancouver species : 
enlarged to receive the shells of Lithophagoid shape which are 


* Th. peiwy, smaller; édovs, tooth. 
Q 
236 








Jrom the Vancouver District. 8 


moored by byssus, like Modiola. The largest known species is 
A, falcata, Gld., which is nor mally straight, but often grows in 
a twisted burrow. A. parasitica, Desh., and the long-known 
A. cinnamomea appear congeneric. 


13. Adula stylina. 


A. testa cylindracea, lithophagoidea, levi, tenuissima, parum ar- 
cuata, subnacrea, albida, postice interdum livido tincta; epider- 
mide nitente, levi, solidiore, nigro-fusca: testa jun. typice modio- 
leeformi, umbonibus subanticis, obtusissimis; margine dorsali 
antice (rarissime paululum, testa minima, postice) tenuiter crentt. 
lato: testa adulta marginibus dors. et ventr. fere parallelis, ant. 
et post. rotundatis ; umbonibus detritis, haud conspicuis, circiter 
sextantim antice sitis ; incrustatione haud solida, densissime spon- 
giosa, aream posticam diagonalem tegente, supra valvas prolongata, 
appressa ; ligamento interno, postice valde prolongato ; paging 
interna pallida ; cicatr. add. postica tumida, pyriformi, antica 
(quoad familiam) maxima, haud impressa, oblonga ; cicatr. pedali 
antica magna, circulari, impressa; callositate es (testa 
jun.) cieatr. pedalem versus conspicua. Long. *156, lat. -4, alt. -5. 

Variat t. magis arcuata; ut in d. falcata, antice tumidiore, sube 
angulata. 

Variat quoque testa attenuata. 

Variat interdum ventraliter late hiante. 


Hab. Neeah Bay, abundant (Swan) ; Monterey (Taylor). 
On smashing a large lump of hard clay, bored by Pholads, 


Petricolids, &c., large numbers of this species, with a few of 4. 
falcata, of all ages from ‘06 onwards, were found in situ. Several 
struggled for room in a single crypt. The umbos are abraded 
by the wide opening of the valves. 


14. Axinea (?septentrionalis, var.) subobsoleta. 


d. testa A. septentrionali simili, parum ineequilaterali, haud tumida; 
umbonibus obtusis, latis, satis prominentibus; cinerea, rufo-cas- 
taneo varie picta; epidermide copiosa, sublaminata; marginibus 
ventrali et postico valde rotundatis, antico parum producto, dor- 
sali recto; sulcis radiantibus subobsoletis sculpta, dorsaliter seepe 
evanidis ; intus, marginibus ventrali valde, ant. et post. parum cre- 
natis ; lamina cardinis subangulata ; dentibus paucicribus, validis, 
angustatis ; cicatr. add. antica castanea, callosa; ligamento su'- 
cato. Long. °413, lat. -12, alt. +7. 


Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan) ; Shoalwater Bay (Cooper). 


Middendorff’s shell is figured with much stronger ribs, bus 
may have been described from decorticated specimens. 


15. Stphonaria Thersites. 


S. testa parva, tenui, haud elevata, valde inzequilaterali, dense nigro- 
castanea, levi, seu interdum costulis paucis, obtusis, obsoletis, 


237 


4 Dr. P. P. Carpenter en new Forms of Mollusca 


radiatim vix ornata; epidermide levi, tenui, fugaci; costa pulmo- 
nali intus et extus valde conspicua, tumente; vertice obtuso, 
plerumque ad quadrantem, interdum ad ieubens totius longitu- 


dinis sito ; intus tense nigro-fusco, margine acuto. Long. *46, 
lat. 233, alts 7172 


Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan). 


This genus, which culminates in western tropical America and 
at Cape Horn, is not known in California. The Vancouver spe- 
cies resembles S., /ateralis and its congeners, but differs m having 
an enormous lung-rib and no colour-rays. 

16, Mopalia (Kennerleyi, var.) Swannii. 

M. testa M. Kennerleyi typice simili, sed jugo fornicato, haud cari- 
nato; omnino rubida, sculptura multo minus expressa ; areis late- 
ralibus vix definitis ; latera versus subgranulata; dorsum versus 
lineis jugum versus procedentibus, interstitiis punctatis; sinu 
postico latiore; limbo pallu lato, coriaceo, vix piluloso. Long. 
2:4; lat. .1:; div.. 120°. 

Hab. Tatooche Island (Swan). 


23. Margarita Cidaris, A. Ad. 


M. testa magna, conica, Turcicoidea, tenui; albido-cinerea, nacreo- 
argentato; anfr. nucleosis?...(decollatis), norm. vii., subplanatis ; 
suturis alte insculptis; superficie spiree tota valide tuberculosa, 
seriebus tribus, alteris postea intercalantibus ; peripheria et basi 
rotundatis, carinatis; carinis cire. vill., haud acutis, irregularibus, 
seabris, haud tuberculosis: ; lacuna umbilicali vix conspicua ; aper- 
tura subrotundata; labro tenuissimo; labio obsoleto; columella 
arcuata. Long. 11, long. spir. °65, lat. *75, div. 60°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan). 


Mr. A. Adams suggested the above expressive name for this 
very remarkable and unique shell. 


25. Gibbula parcipicta. 


G. testa solidiore, parva, conica, pallida, purpureo-fusco varie nebu- 
losa et maculata; anfr. v., rotundatis ; carinis il. validis in spira 
se monstrantibus, minore intercalante ; interstitiis subsuturalibus, 
subleevibus, inter carinas obtuse decussatis ; lira peripherica de- 
finita, seepe in spira se monstrante; basi valde rotundata; lirulis 
basalibus circ. v. rotundatis, subdistantibus ; apertura subcirculari; 
columella arcuata ; umbilico majore, infundibuliformi, haud angu- 
lato. Long. -14, long. spir. °07, lat. *13, div. 70°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan) ; Santa Crux (Rowell). 


26. Gibbula succincta. 


G. testa parva, subelevata, solidiore ; livida, testa jun. strigis angustis, 
creberrimis, fusco-purpureis penicillata, testa adulta maculis quo- 
que magnis nebulosa ; anfr. v., subquadratis; liris obtusis medianig 


238 











from the Vancouver District. 5 


et striis subobsoletis cincta, suturis valde impressis ; basi rotun- 

-data, obtuse angulata, striis seepe evanidis spiralibus ornata, testa 
adulta circa umbilicum magnum, infundibuliformem, vix angu- 
latum, seepe tumidiore, medio obtuse impressa; apertura sub- 
quadrata, parum declivi; columella subarcuata. Long. *16, long. 
spir. ‘07, lat. °16, div. 70°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan); Lower Califorma, on Halior's 
(Rowell). 
27. Gibbula lacunata. 


G. testa parva, fusco-purpurea, solidiore ; marginibus spire valde 
excurvatis ; anfractibus nucleosis normalibus, postea iv. subpla- 
natis, suturis distinctis, apice mamillato; sublzevi, circa basin 
vix angulatam striolata, striolis spiralibus distantibus ; apertara 
suborbiculari, parum declivi; labio juxta umbilicum constrictum, 
quasi lacunatum, lobato; columella callositate parva umbilicum 
constringente. Long. ‘11, long. spir. °05, lat. *11, div. 80°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan). 
28. Gibbula funiculata. 


G. testa parva, elevata, compacta, fusca; marginibus spire excur- 
vatis; anfr. vi., haud tumidis, suturis parum impressis ; lirulis 
crebris rotundatis undique cincta, quarum v. in spira monstrantur ; 
interstitiis parvis ; basi rotundata, haud angulata ; umbilico parvo, 
haud carinato; apertura suborbiculari, parum igateee columella 
vix arcuata. Long. ‘24, long. spir. 11, lat. -2, div. 70°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan), specimen unicum. 


29. Hipponyx cranioides. 


H. testa valde planata, m majore, albida; vertice nucleoso ? ...; testa 
adulta apice interdum subcentrali, seepius plus minusve postico ; 
Jaminis incrementi confertis, undique rapide augentibus ;  striis 
radiantibus fortioribus, confertissimis, laninarum margines seepe 
erenulantibus ; margine acuto, cicatr. musc. angusta, margini 
contigua, regione capitis minore, seepe dextrorsum torsa; epi- 
dermide?... Long. °85, lat. °75, alt. -3. 


Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan). 


30. Bivonia compacta. 


B. testa satis magna, seepe solitaria, purpureo-fusca, spiraliter ple- 
rumque satis regulariter contorta, obsoletim cancellata seu sculp- 
tura fere evanida; testis tenacissime adherente. Long. (plerum- 
qne) °7, lat. °3, diam. apert. 

Hab. Barclay Sound; abundant on Pachypoma gibberosum 

(Swan). 

Belongs to Bivonia, Gray (not Morch). Has the aspect of 

Petaloconchus macrophragma on a large scale, but 1s entirely 

destitute of internal lauiuce. One specimen had a faint colu- 


239 


6 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusca . 


mellar thread for two whirls only. Operculum normal, with 
thin edge, dark red. 
32. Lacuna porrecta. 


L. testa L. puteolo simili, sed multo majore, spira magis exserta ; 
seu omnino fusea, seu zona pallidiore, seu pallida lineolis fusces- 
centibus tenuissime spiraliter ornata; epidermide tenuiter striata 
olivacea seu viridescente induta; tenuiore, spiraliter tenuiter striata ; 
anfr. v., vix planatis, rapide augentibus, suturis impressis, vertice 
mamillato ; apertura tumente ; labio tenui, vix parietem attingente, 
intus subrecto; lacuna maxima, elongata, ad basin arcuata; peri- 
pheria expansa. Long. *52, long. spir. 2, lat. 4, div. 80°. 

?Var. effusa: testa L.porrecte simili, sed multo majore ; spira elevata, 
satis effusa ; anfr. tumidioribus, suturis valde impressis ; aperturam 
versus magis expansa. Long. °65, long. spir. *25, lat. °5, div. 60°. 

2Var. exvequata: testa L. effuse simili, sed anfr. planatis, suturis 
parum impressis. Long. °5, long. spir. *2, lat. 42, div. 80°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan). 


The form L. evequata is intermediate between the very dif- 
ferent L. porrecta and L. effusa. The Lacune vary so much 
(vide Forbes & Hanley in loco) that, even with a large multitude 
of specimens, it is not easy to state what constitutes a species. 


33. Lacuna (? solidula, var.) compacta. 


L. testa DL. solidule, var., simili; parva, solida, compacta, angusta, 
subturrita, marginibus spiree excurvatis : aurantiaca, interdum pal- 
lidiore zonata; anfr. subplanatis, suturis distinctis ; tota superficie 
confertissime spiraliter striolata ; basi valde angulata, subplanata ; 
apertura subquadrata; cole«mella vix lacunata. Long. *23, long. 
spir. *1,.lat. “7, div..60>. 

Variat testa elongata: variat quoque columella normaliter lacunata. 


Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan). 


Possibly an extreme form of the very variable L. solidula, Lov. 
(= L. carinata, Gld., non A. Ad., = Modelia striata, Gabb), yet 
distinct in all ages. The young shells resemble small Litorine. 


34. Lacuna variegata. 


L. testa tenui, plus minusve elevata, soluta, irregulari; adolescente 
fusco-purpureo ; adulta livida, radiatim seu diagonaliter varie ir- 
regulariter strigata, strigis fusco-aurantiacis, seepe ziczacformibus ; 
anfr. vi., quorum primi compacti, apice submamullato ; dem solutis, 
postice planatis, antice expansis; basi rotundata seu angulata ; 
apertura subovata ; labro postice porrecto ; labio seepe parietem vix 
attingente ; ; Columelin intus recta, extus valde lacunata. Long. *3, 
long. spir. +16, lat. 17, div. 50°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan). 
Painted like L. decorata, A. Ad., which differs in having a 
normal growth, with very slight chink. 
240 





. from the Vancouver District. 7 


35. Isapis fenestrata. 


I. testa I. ovoidee forma et indole simili ; carinis ix. acutis (quarum 
iv. In-spira monstrantur) cincta ; interstitiis duplo latioribus, con- 
cinne quadratim decussatis, liulis radiantibus acutiss:mis; aafr. 
postice tumentibus, suturis aide excavatis ; peritremate continuo; 
labro a carinis pestinato ; labio parietem parum attingente, medio 
ealloso; umbilico angusto. Long. °18, long. spir. °13, lat. *19, 
div. 70°. 

Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan); S. Diego and Sta. Barbara Island 

(Cooper). 


Dr. Cooper’s shells are much smaller than those from the 
Vancouver district, which are white and eroded, varying much 
in the size of the ainbulieue: 


36. Alvania reticulata. 


A. testa parva, subturrita, rufo-fusca, marginibus spire rectis; anfr. 
nucleosis ii. et dimidio, naticoideis, leevibus, tumentibus, apice 
mamillato ; norm. iil., tumidis, suturis impressis ; liris angustis, 
distantibus, spiralibus cire. xii. (quarum iv.—vi. in spira mon- 
strantur), et hrulis radiantibus, supra transeuntibus, haud nodulosis, 
secundum interstitia incurvatis, eleganter exsculpta ; interstitiis 
altis, quadratis; peritremate continuo, subrotundato, acutiere. 
Long. °085, long. spir. -05, lat. -04, div. 30°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay; two specimens in. shell-washings (Swan). 


37. Alvania filosa. 


A. testa A. reticulate indole et colore, haud sculptura, simili; multo 
majore, elongata ; anfr. nucl. ?... (detritis), norm. iv. ; striis parum 
Separatis cire. xviii, (quarum Cire. xii. in spira monstrantur) cincta ; 
rugulis radiantibus posticis creberrimis, haud expressis, cirea peri- 
pheriam evanidis ; peritremate continuo; columella rufo-purpureo 
tincta. Long. ° 1 long. spir. °09, lat. -06, div. 20°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay; one specimen in shell-washings (Swan). 


38. ? Assiminea subrotundata. 


14. testa haud parva, leevi, tenui, fusco-olivacea ; anfr. nucl. ?...(de- 
coijlatis) ; norm. v., rapide augentibus, subrotundatis; marginibus 
spiree rectis, suturis valde impressis ; basi rotundata, haud wmbili- 
cata; apertura rotundato-ovali, intus fuscescente; peritremate 
continuo; labro acuto; labio parum calloso; columella areata. 
Long. ‘28, long. spir. 13, lat. +2, div. 65°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay; one specimen among Lacune (Swan). 


May prove to be a large Hydrobia. 


39. ?Paludinella castanea. 
'P. testa compacta, solidiore, fuscu-castanea, marginibus < spire rece 


T6io 241 








8 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusca * 


tioribus ; rugulosa, lineis distantibus spiralibus irregulariter in- 
sculpta; anfr. nucleosis?.... (detritis), vertice late mamillato s 
norm. iv., rapidius augentibus, tumidioribus, suturis satis im- 
pressis; basi regulariter excurvata, vix rimata; apertura suborbi- 
culari, haud continua ; labro acuto; labio supra parietem obsoleto, 
supra columellam arcuatam ipius eailoso: operculo, ante. iv. haud 
rapide augentibus. Long. ‘21, long. spir. *U9, lat. -17, div. 70°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay; one specimen among Lacune (Swan). 
May be an aberrant Assiminea. 


40. Mangelia crebricostata. 


M. testa tereti, rufo-fusca, albo zonata; anfr. nucl.?... (decollatis) ; 
norm. v. elongatis, subrotundatis, suturis impressis; costis radi- 
antibus, obtusis, subrectis, circ. xv., spiram ascendentibus ; sculp- 
tura spirali?... (detrita); apertura pyriformi, antrorsum in ca- 
nalem brevem attenuata; labro postice parum sinuato; labio con- 
spicuo. Long. °54, long. spir. 3, lat. °2, div. 28°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay; 1 specimen (Swan). 


41. Mangelia inter fossa. 


M. testa parva, valde attenuata, rufo-fusca, marginibus spirae parum 
excurvatis ; anfr. nucl, i., ut in Chrysodomo irregularibus, apice 
mamillato ; norm. vi., parum excurvatis, haud tabulatis, suturis 
distinetis ; costis radiantibus circ. xv., angustis, extantibus ; cos- 
tulis spiralibus cire. xv., quarum cire. v. seu vi. in spira monstrantur, 
angustis, supra costas transeuntibus, ad intersectiones parum uo- 
dulosis ; interstitiis altis, quadratis; basi effusa; apertura sub- 
pyriformi; labro acuto, postice vix emarginato; labio tenui. 
Long. °38, long. spir. ‘22, lat. °13, div. 25°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay; very rare (Swan). 


42. ?Mangelia tabulata. 


?M. testa parva, solidissima, luride rufo-fusea, marginibus spire ex- 
curvatis ; vertice nucleoso chalcedonico (eroso); anfr. norm. v., 
postice rectangulatim tabulatis, suturis impressis; costis radianti- 
bus cire. xvi., validis, obtusis, circiter basim attenuatam obsoletis ; 
costis spiralibus in spira iii.—iv. angustis, extantibus, supra cost. 
rad. nodosis ; interstitiis alte insculptis, subquadratis ; costis circa 
basim circiter vii., quadratim extantibus, interstitiis a lineis incre- 
menti vix decussatis; canali curta, aperta; labro acutiore, ad an- 
gnlum posticum vix sinuato; labio tenui; columella obsolete uni- 
plicata. Long. *45, long. spir. °26, lat. *2, div. 35°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay ; several worn specimens (Swan). 


The distinct fold near the base of the pillar may require the 
formation of a new genus. 
242 











. from the Vancouver District. : ‘9 


43. ?Daphnella effusa. 


?D. testa gracillima, maxime effusa, rufo-fusea ; anfr. angustis, elon- 
gatis, suturis impressis; striis spiralibus crebris a lineis incre- 
menti decussatis ornata; labro tenuiore, postice vix sinuato. 
Long. °65, long. spir. 45, lat. -22, div. 30°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay; one broken specimen (Swan). 


44, Odostomia satura. 


O. testa magna, alba, levi, solidiore, satis elevata; anfr. nucl. ii., 
aagustis, subplanorboideis, valde decliviter sitis, dextrorsum im- 
mersis, sinistrorsum extantibus;-norm. v., tumidioribus, regula- 
riter convexis, suturis impressis ; ; basi “atiniesleties tumente, quasi 
umbilicata; apertura ovata; labro vix sinuato; labio tenui, ap- 
presso; plica columellari valida, subantica, parieti haud contigua, 
transversa. Long. *26, long. spir. *14, lat. 13, div. 40°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay ; rare (Swan). 


Var. pupiformis: anfr. primis valde depressis, planatis; vertice 
mamillato; anfr. ult. normali. Specimen unicum, quasi monstru- 
osum. Long. "19, long. spir. *1, lat. °12,-div. 45°. 


44.6, Odostomia (? var.) Gouldit. 


O. testa solida, alba, ovoidea, marginibus spire valde excurvatis ; 
vert. nucl. decliviter immerso ; anfr. norm. v., subplanatis, suturis 
valde impressis; peripheria haud angulata ; basi excurvata, haud 
tumida; apertura ovata, postice parum constricta; labro solido ; 
labio conspicuo, rimam umbilicalem formante ; plica submediana, 
solida, extante, haud declivi. Long. 23, long. spir. *13, lat. 
div. 30°. 

Hab. Neeah Bay; very rare (Swan). 


Agrees in some respects better with the diagnosis of O. gra- 
vida, Gould, than do Col. Jewett’s shells, from which it is pre- 
sumed the species was described. These large forms appear 
very variable. 

45. Odostomia nucifotmis. 

O. testa magna, compacta, leevi, solida, alba; anfr. nucl.?.. .(erosis), 
vertice submamillato; anfr. norm. v., subplanatis, subelongatis ; 
spira brevi, marginibus valde excurvatis ; basi elongata, haud um- 
bilcata ; apertura subovali, postice angusta; labro solido; labio 
tenui; plica antica, solida, obtusa, transversa, parietem haud attin- 
gente. Long. ‘3, long. spir. *14, lat. °18, div. 70°. 

Hab. Neeah Bay; extremely rare (Swan). 


45 6. Odostomia (? var.) avellana. 
O. testa O. nuciformi indole simili, sed spira valde prolongata. 
Long. °32, long. spir. *16, lat. +16, div. 50°. 
Hab. Neeah Bay; one specimen (Swan), 
Like a gigantic form of O. conoidalis, 
243 


10 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusca 


47, Odostomia tenuisculpta. 

O. testa ovoidea, subelevata, albida, tenui, diaphana; anfr. nucl. 
subverticaliter immersis, angustis; norm. iil., parum tumidis, su- 
turis impressis, suleulis spiralibus latioribus haud impressis, dis- 
tantibus, in spira li., cirea basim rotundatam cire. vi. subobso- 
letis ; apertura ovata; plica acuta, declivi, parva, parieti contigua; 
labro acuto; labio indistincto; columella antice parum effusa. 


Long. ‘1, long. spir. 04, lat. -06, div. 60°. 
Hab. Neeah Bay; one specimen (Swan). 


48. Scalaria Indianorum. 

S. testa gracili, turrita, alba; anfr. cire. x., rotundatis, parum sepa- 
ratis, leevibus; basi simplici, haud umbilicata; costis vili.-xv. 
(plerumque xii. ), acutioribus, subreflexis, interdum latis, plerumque 
lineis irregularibus margini spire recto parallelis ascendentibus, 
rarius juxta suturam subnodosis; apertura ovata. Long. 1°00, 
long. spir. °8, lat. °36, div. 28°. 


Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan). 


Strung as ornaments by the Indian children. Intermediate 
between S. communis and S. Turtonis, and scarcely differs from 
“ S. Georgettina, Kien.,” Mus. Cum. no. 34, Brazil. 


48 b. Scalaria (? Indianorum, var.) tincta. 


S. ?Indianorum costis acutis, haud reflexis ; anfractibus postice fusco- 
purpureo tinctis. 


Hab. Cerros Island (Ayres); S. Pedro (Cooper). 


The Lower-Californian shell may prove distinct. It is like 
S. regularis, Cpr., but without the spiral sculpture. 


Subgenus Opatta, H. & A. Ad. (diagn. auct.). 


Scalarie varicibus obtusis, irregularibus, parum definitis : sculp- 
tura basim versus interrupta. 

Ex. in Mus. Cum. :—O. crassicostata, O. crassilabrum, O. dia- 
dema, O. funiculata, O. crenata, O. granulosa, O. australis, O. bi- 
carinata, O. attenuata, Pse., O. M‘Andrea, Fbs., sp. ined. (West 
Indies). Other West-coast species are O. crenatoides and var. 
insculpta, O. spongiosa, and O. retiporosa. 


The species of this very natural group were arranged by Messrs. 
Adams partly under Opalia and partly under Cirsotrema. 


49. Opalia borealis, Gld. 


O. testa O. australi simillima, valde elongata; anfr. xii., planatis, suturis_ 
parum impressis ; testa jun. costis validissimis viii. latis, rotundatis, 
peripheriam attingentibus, interdum interruptis; testa adulta seepius 


244 











from the Vancouver District. 24 


obsoletis, ad peripheriam evanidis; circa basim totam usque ad 

peripheriam angulatam lamina spirali, planata; apertura ovali ; 

tota superficie minutissime spiraliter striolata: operculo pauci- 

spirali, nucleo ad trientem longitudinis sito, leis meremenu va- 

lidis. Long. 1:7, long. spir. 1-3, lat. °53, div. 20°. 

Hab. Puget Sound (U. S. Expl. Exp.); Neeah Bay and Ta- 
tooche Island (Swan). 


This species was doubtfully indicated, not described, by Dr. 
Gould, in the ‘E. E. Moll. p. 207. It appears to be exactly iden- 
tical with “ cr assicostata, Australia,” in Brit. Mus., and is nearly 
related to Ochotensis, Midd. It must not be confounded with 
Acirsa borealis, Beck. One young specimen has the ten ribs of 
O. australis. 

50. Cerithiopsis munita 


C. testa C. purpuree simili, sed angustiore, marginibus spire fere 
rectis ; costis spiralibus magis expressis, testa adulta minus nodu- 
losis ; basi eequaliter lirulata. Long. 34, long. spir. °24, lat. -11, 
div. 20°. 

Hab. Neeah Bay ; common (Swan). 


51. Cerithiopsis columna. 


C. testa majore, valde elongata, purpureo-fusca; anfr. norm. ix., 
planatis, suturis distinctis; seriebus ii. nodulorum  spiralibus 
valde appressorum, creberrimorum, interstitiis parvis, altis ; aliis 
interdum intercalantibus ; lira quarta supra suturam haud valde 
nodulosa, liris duabus haud expressis aream suturalem cir- 
cumeuntibus ; basi planata, haud sculpta, ad Peay ue ee 
angulata; apertura quadrata. Long. °38, long. spir. 32, lat. 
div. 10°. 

Hab. Neeah Bay ; several worn specimens (Swan) : Monterey; 
rolled fragment of larger shell (Cooper). 
Kasily recognized, even in portions, by the “strung-fig ” 
pattern. 
55. Cancellaria modesta. 


C. testa elata, subrufa, trichotropiformi, marginibus spire rectis ; 
anfr. norm. v., rotundatis, postice subtabulatis, suturis impressis 5 ; 
costis spiralibus obtusis, distantibus, in spira cire. iv., circa basim 
prolongatam cire. vil., aliis minoribus interdum intercalantibus ; 
interstitiis secundum incrementa, decussatis ; apertura sub- 
quadrata; columella plicis duabus declivibus anticis et costulis 
basalibus ornata; labio nullo. Long. -68, long. spir. -34, lat. 34, 
div. 50°. : 

Hab. Neeah Bay; one specimen and fragment (Swan). 


56. Velutina prolongata. 
V, testa majore, subplanata, tenuiore, carnea, spira minima ; anfr. ili, 


245 


12 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusca. 


et dimidio, rapidissime augentibus; vertice vix conspicuo; anfr. 
ult. antice valde porrecto; regione columellari incurvata ; labio 
valido; axi haud rimata; epidermide tenui, rugis incrementi or- 
nata, spiraliter haud striata. Long. *1, long. spir. °15, iat. °95, 
div. 140°. 
Hab, Neeah Bay ; rare (Swan), 

246 








DIAGNOSES 


oF 


NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSCA 


FROM 


THE VANCOUVER DISTRICT. 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pu. D. 


From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 201-204, 
February 14, 1865. 


( 247 ) 








Dracnoses oF New Forms or Monuvusca FROM THE VAN- 
CouvER District. By Pururp P. Carpenter, B.A., Pu.D. 


TEBEBBATULA UNGUICULA, N. 8. 


T. ¢. juniore ‘‘ Terebratuline capiti-serpentis’”’ simillima, sed la- 
tiore, Subtwangulata ; punctis valde conspicuis; costis con- 
spicuis, interdum obtusioribus, aliis intercalantibus ; intus, 
amento suboctiformi, postice aperto, cruris diagonalibus cardini 
affivis: testa adulta valva inferiore subrotundata, marginem 
versus haud planata; umbone valde tumente, latiore; striis 
radiantihus, ut in“ T. capite-serpentis’ conspicuis ; marginibus 
erenulatis, haud undatis ; intus amento majore, bisinuato, dor- 
saliter haud continuo, calcaribus duobus munito. 

Long. °6, lat. °5, alt. -3 poll. 

Hab. San Diego, 6 fm.; Monterey, not rare in 20 fm., (in Cali- 
fornia State Geological Survey) Cooper. Neeah Bay (valve), Swan. 
Vancouver, Forbes. 

The specimens sent by Dr. Cooper were all of small size, and, from 
the intercalation of riblets near the margin, clearly immature. They 
presented the incomplete loop of the restricted genus to which Dr. 
Cooper affiliated them. Notwithstanding, as both Davidson and Wood- 
ward state that the young of the British species has the loop similarly 
open, it remained doubtful whether this might not prove conspecific. 
Messrs. Reeve and Hanley unhesitatingly pronounced them to be 
“ caput-serpentis, jun.,” the latter gentleman stating that they pre- 
sented the peculiar form of that species which belongs to the Medi- 
terranean examples. Dr. Forbes, however, was fortunate enough to 


249 


2 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON NEW MOLLUSCA. 


obtain an adult shell, which passed into the Cumingian Collection 
Waving removed the animal matter with great care, the loop was 
found to retain the form seen in the young shell, only perhaps stil’ 
more open. This is the first recent species of the genus which has 
been discovered with a sculptured surface, and affords an instructive 
lesson not to rely on external characters. 





Terebratula unguicula: 1, 2, outside views of Mr. Cuming’s adult specimen, 
natural size: 3, 4, inside views of the upper valve, slightly magnified. 


The outline of the adult is much rounder, and the margin blunter, 
than in 7". exput-serpentis. Inside, the noncompletion of the some- 
what w-shaped loop is a very obvious character. This is large ir 
proportion, extending to about two-fifths of the length and one- 
third of the greatest breadth of the shell. It is bent upwards in the 
middle, as seen from the partly opened valves; with a double wave at 
the sides, as seen from the direction of the opposite valve. Two spurs 
ascend from the crests of the side waves, as though preparing tc 
complete the loop. The similar Terebratella angustata from Japan. 


when of the same size as Dr. Cooper’s specimens, has the loop quite 
continuous *. 


Subgenus NeTTrasToMELLAT. 


Pholadidea: valvis postice in calycem testaceum planatum pros 
longatis ; calyce coriaceo nullo. 


NETTASTOMELLA DARWINII, Sby. (diag. auct.). 


N. ¢. minore, elongata, tenuissima ; parte postica costis radians 
tibus acutioribus circ. vii. et laminis concentricis acutissimis, 
distantibus, antice continuis, elegantissime ornata; rostris pla: 


* Dr. Cooper having forwarded for my inspection a large aud beautifully per 
fect specimen of the true Waldheimia californica, I have compared it with the 
geries of the very variable IV. globosa in the Smithsonian Museum, undoubtedly 
from Orange Harbour. The California shell, however, has a strong brownish- 
red tinge, and does not display the beautiful veining of the Maghellan species. 


t Th. wnrra, a duck, ordua, mouth. The name Nefastoma, given in the 
‘ Brit. Assoc. Report,’ 1863, being preoccupied in another sabkingdom, according 
to Dr. Cooper, it is thought necessary to vary the termination. 


o_ 
































DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON NEW MOLLUSCA, 3 


natis, postice divergentibus, striis incrementi crebris acutis, 
aliter haud sculpta ; parte antica t. jun. aperta, adulta@ clausa ; 
clausis tenuissimis, secundum incrementa undulatis, super um- 
bones prolongatis, umbilicos postice formantibus ; epidermide 
Sugaci, tenui, pallide virrdi. 

Hab. Monterey, Rich.; Vancouver, Lord; S. Diego, Cooper. 

= Pholas darwinii, Sby. 

= Jouanettia durwinti, Mus. Cuming. 

= Parapholas penita, Tryon, Mon. Phol. 

This remarkable shell differs trom Jouanettia in having both 
valves equal; from Pholadidea proper in having no coriaceous 
cup, its place being supplied by a flattened prolongation from 
each valve, like a duck’s bill in miniature. In Mr. Lord’s specimen 
(preserved in the British Museum), though the valves are closed, the 
prolongations are widely divergent, as when the bird utters its cheer- 
ful “ quack.’’ The loose, thin epidermis appears to have covered the 
bill as well as the valves. Mr. ‘Tryon had probably not seen a speci- 
men, else he could hardly have affiliated so very different a shell to 
Pholadidea penita. The original specimen is said to have come from 


Chili. 


DARINA DECLIVIS. 


D. t. tenuissima, planata, elliptica, Machereformi, utroque latere 
hiante ; cinerea, epidermide fortiore induta ; marginibus regu- 
lariter excurvatis ; umbonibus haud conspicuis, ad duas inter 
quingque partes longitudinis postice sitis: intus cartilagine 
spathula elongata, dorsum versus utraque valva decliviter sita, 
a ligamento lamina extante tenuissima separata; dente car- 
dinali laminato, extante, curtiore ; lateralibus vie conspicuis ; 
sinu pall ovali, fere ad medium porrecto. 

Long. 1°77, lat. -85, alt. -34 poll. 

Hab. Vancouver’s Island (Forbes). 

The only other species of Darina known is from the Straits of 
Maghellan. The northern shell may have been passed over as the 
young of Machera patula, to which it bears a strong external re- 
semblance. 


SAXIDOMUS BREVISIPHONATUS. 


S. ¢. subovali, tenuiore, subplanata, albida, epidermide pallide 
olivacea induta; tota superficie rugis concentricis, crebris, 
valde obtusis, et undis incrementi interdum majoribus, ornata ; 
marginibus subequaliter excurvatis, maxime ventrali: intus 
cardine tenuiore, dente antico elongato; sinu pallii parvo, ad 
trientem interstiti porrecto, latiore. 

Long. 2°65, lat. 2°05, alt. 1°15 poll. 

Hab. ?Vancouver, ?Japan (Mus. Cuming).. 

A very distinct species, in shape and hinge not unlike Callista, but 
without lunule. It is more rounded and flatter than the three ty- 
pical Californian species, and known at once by the very small mantle- 
bend. From four to six blunt riblets are seen on each of the very 

251 


204 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON NEW MOLLUSCA. 


blunt waves of growth. The shell was sent me as from Dr. Forbes’s 
Vancouver collections, and is so quoted in the Br. Assoc. Rep. 1863, 
p- 607; but Mr. Cuming subsequently stated his belief that it came 
from Japan. It may be allowable to state that many of the species 
included in Saxidomus by authors are more correctly rough forms of 
Tapes, of the decussata-type; the true Saaidomi differing from that 
genus (as Callista does from Venus) in having an additional pseudo- 
lateral anterior tooth. This is very evident in the young shell, which 
has a much rounder outline than the adult, and can scarcely be 
distinguished trom Callista, except by the absence of lunule. 


252 











& 


DIAGNOSES 






OF 





NEW SPECIES AND A NEW GENUS OF MOLLUSKS, 


FROM 


THE REIGEN MAZATLAN COLLECTION ; 


| WITH AN ACCOUNT OF ADDITIONAL SPECIMENS PRESENTED TO 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B. A., Pa. D. 


From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 268-273, 
March 14, 1865. 


( 253 ) 








; 











Dracnoses oF New Species anp A New Genus or Mor- 
LUSKS FROM THE REIGEN MAZzATLAN COLLECTION: WITH 
AN ACCOUNT OF ADDITIONAL SPECIMENS PRESENTED TO 
THE British Museum. By Puiuip P. Carrenter, B.A., 


Paced: 


After the publication of the British Museum Mazatlan Catalogue, 
the backs of several fresh Spondylus-valves were examined by Mr. 
R. D. Darbishire and myself. Among the specimens were several 
tvhich were deemed worthy of being added to the national collection; 
they were deposited there, with a MS. appendix to the Catalogue, 
in 1858. As it is not judged necessary to print this separately, I 
have (with the permission of Dr. Gray) transcribed what should be 
placed on record, in hopes that it may not be judged out of place 
in the ‘ Proceedings.’ Those who use the Mazatlan Catalogue are 
requested to observe not only the corrections in the Appendix, 
pp- 547-552, but also those made in the Review of Professor C. B. 
Adams’s Panama Catalogue, P. Z. 8. 1863, p. 339; and in the 
British Association Reports, 1863, pp. 543 et seg. The numbers, 
both of species and of tablets, are continued from the Mazatlaa 
Catalogue, and correspond with those in the Report. The student 
of the Gulf fauna should also consult the account of Mr. Xantus’s 

255 


270 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON NEW SPECIES 


Cape St. Lucas shells in the ‘Annals Nat. Hist.’ 1864, and in the 
Report, pp. 616-626 *. 


704. CeLLEPORA AREOLATA, Buskf. 
Tablet 2540 contains a specimen on Omphalius ligulatus. 


705. MemBRANIPORA ?FLEMINGH, Busk tf. 
Tablet 2541 contains a group on O. ligulatus. 


* The following additional specimens from the Reigen Collection have bean 
presented to the British Museum .— 


Tablet. 
12*. A group on Omphalius ligulatus. 
15*. Lepralia adpressa and Membranipora, sp. ind., on ditto. 
42. Young opposite valve of ?So/ecuréus, perhaps conspecific. 
201*. Four young valves (smallest ‘05 by ‘034) probably of this species. 
266*. Minute transparent valve, ‘028 across, teeth unformed; perhaps of 
this species, 
358*_ Two specimens; margin irregular. 
594*, Several specimens in Uvanilla unguis; one, not having room within, has 
made a case for itself outside the Uvanilla. 
642*, A pair, ‘5 by -15; probably an older state of the same species, Barbatia 
alternata. 
60*. A minute, transparent valve, ‘045 by 024, without teeth ; resembling 
“? Saxicava fragilis, Nyst,” Jeffr., in ‘ Ann. Nat. Hist.,’ Aug. 1858. 
486*, A young shell, -06 across, laid open; crowded inside, especially near the 
umbones, with a pinkish mass of young ones, about ‘0018 in length. 
500. A younger pair, much more transverse, transparent, without concentric 
ridges, the lateral teeth in one valve being simply the raising of the 
dorsal margins. 
853*. Two young specimens, nestling among Nullipore on Fisswrella alba, 
869*, Two specimens, with egg-cases arranged in pattern like Ordz¢olites. 
876*. One specimen, curiously mended after fracture. 
877*. One specimen, with columella curiously contorted. 
1023*. One specimen, with ribs rounded and aspect of Siphonaria lecaniuwm 3 
probably a distinct species. 
1058*. One young specimen, probably conspecific, though only ‘07 by -0473 
there is no trace of spire. 
1059*. Three specimens; broad form. 
1468*, Fragment of Spondylus calcifer, with basal supports of Hipponyx ?sers 
ratus, in burrow of Lithophaqus plumula. 
1795*. Two specimens with five mtercalary teeth. 
1834*, One specimen with the canal bent back, as in Cassidaria, 
2221*. One specimen, mended after severe fracture. 
2223*, One specimen; columellar fold bifid. 
2224*, Two specimens; columella bent and straight. 
2225*, One specimen; labrum thin. 
2226*, One specimen ; ribs close. 
2376*, One specimen, dwarf form ; nodulous, as in N. nodulifera, Phil. 
2516. An opposite larger valve, since found, in which there 1s only one distinct 
posterior tooth, and the anterior hooked tooth is separating into two. 
[2534. One specimen of Vitrinella ? tricarinata, jun., of which the ribs are 
nodulous in the young state. If rightly determined, this adds no. 710 
to the list of species. | 
2536. A nuclear shell, ‘046 across, of Naticoid shape, very finely striated in each 
direction. It is probably a young Hipponye 


t Both of these species were kindly identified by Mr. G, Busi, 
256 

















OF MOLLUSKS FROM MAZATLANe 279 


Genus CYCLADEILA. 


Testa bivalvis, tenuis, equilateralis, equivalvis, haud hians, vm 
bonibus planatis. Ligamentum tenuissimum, externum. Cardo 
linea curvata, dent. lat. distantibus, card. transversis, haud 
radiantibus. 


56. CycLADELLA PAPYRACEA, N. SPs. 


C. t. tenuissima, subdiaphana, epidermide tenui induta, planatea, 
suborbiculari; concentrice fortiter lirata, liris rotundatis, intus 
excavatis; tota superficie lineis granulosis radvantibus creber- 
rimis minutissime celata; dent. card. 1. transversis, mar- 
gint dorsali subparallelis ; dent. lat. validis. 

=“ Tellina ?eburnea, Hanl.” (iragments only), Maz. Cat. no. 56. 

Mr. Hanley kindly sent for my inspection a perfect pair (as 

* Tepton”), which he had found nestling in a burrow in Spondylus. 
The hinge more resembles Cyclus (Lam.) than any other known 
genus. Its great peculiarity is, that the cardinal teeth, instead of 
radiating from the umbo, fall in the curve of the hinge-line, as 
though uniting the lateral teeth. The shell is too thin (being deeply 
indented within by the concentric waves) to make out the pallial 
line ; but no trace of sinus is visible. It may therefore rank, provi- 
sionally, under Kelliad@, although in other respects its athnities 
appear to be with Gdalia and Cooperella. The hgament appears 
little more than a prolongation of the epidermis. Beside the trans- 
verse cardinal teeth, there is in each valve a curved line, slightly 
raised. like the end of a finger-nail, which bounds what would be the 
lunule in other shells. 

Long. °1, lat. +123, alt. -045. 

Hab. Mazatlan; one perfect specimen frcm Havre Collection 

(Mus. Hanl.) ; fragments, Liverpool Collection. 


706. ? MonTACUTA OBTUSA, n. Sp. 


1M. ¢. planata, valde inequiluterali, subrhomboidea; subdia- 
phana seu chalcedonica, haud punctata, levi ; marginibus ple= 
rumque regulariter excurvatis, dorsali recto, umbonibus haud 
prominentibus ; cardine, utraque in valva, dente uno cardinalt 
et fossa ligamentali; dent laut. altera valva elongatis, rectis, 
altera vix conspicuis. 
Differs from ? M. dionea in the elongation of the lateral teeth, 
and in the possession of a distinct cardinal tooth in each valve. 
Long. 047, lat. -06, alt. 01. 
Hab. Mazatlan ; two fresh specimens, Liverpool Collection. 
Tablet 2530 contains the larger specimen; the other 1s trans 
parent. 


. 


696. PecTrUNCULUS, sp. ind. 
Tablet 2531 contains a minute valve, “033 across; outside wrt» 
ciose, prominent concentric ridges, foliated by about twenty-frug 


17 257 


271 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON NEW SPECIES 


rounded ribs, which are evanescent near the umbo. Inside with a 
very few strong teeth, developed in a curved line. 


698. ScissURELLA RIMULOIDES, N. sp. 


S. t. rapide augente, albida, tenuissima; apice celuto; anfr. 
ul., radiatim liratis, liris subdistantibus, acutis, obliquis ; um= 
bilico magno; labro declivi, haud fisso, sed apertura postica, 
ut in“ Rimula”™ sormata, subquadrata, elongata; liris trans- 
versis gradus teste wucrescentis definientibus , peritremate cOn= 
tinuo, obliquo. 

Only one specimen was found of this beautiful little species, the 
first known from America. It looks like a Velutina crossed by 
sharp ribs in the direction of the slanting mouth. In the first whorl 
wie ribs are very close. It then assumes its normal sculpture, but 
there is nearly a whorl before there is any trace of incision. This 
appears to have begun as a slit, which was afterwards closed up. A 
band, marked off by ten transverse ribs showing stages of growth, 
encircles the shell as far as the hole, which is long and somewhat 
:eetangular; but there is no band between the hole and the outer 
lin. The shell furnishes a complete transition to Rimuda. It is 
preserved on tablet 2532. 

Long. *023, long. spir. ‘003, lat. °03; div. 140°. 

Hab. Mazatlan ; off Spondylus calcifer ; Liverpool Collection. 






699. VITRINELLA ORNATA, 0. Sp. 


V. t. subdiscoidea, diaphana, tenuissima ; anfr. iv., quorum iil. 
prime nucleosi, insculpti ; ultimo carina maxima circa periphe- 
riam ; postice subangulata, rugis radiantiGus et striolis spi- 
ralibus ornata; antice carinata, carina nodosa; basi carina 
altera et rugis radiantibus ornata; umbilico angulato, satis 
magno ; labro a carina indentato. 

Long. °015, lat. 028-035 ; div. (cire.) 175°. 

Hab. Mazatlan; one specimen off Spondylus, on tablet 2533; 

Liverpool Collection. 


700. VirTRINELLA TENUISCULPTA, 0. Sp. 


V. t. planata, diaphana, tenuissima ; anf. iii. et dimidio, quorum 
il. nucleosi; stris elevatis, spiralibus, quarum una magna, 
quasi carina prope suturam sculpta; peripheria haud angu- 
lata; basi bis angulata, interdum rugis radiantibus distantibus 
ornata ; umbilico satis magno, carinato ; apertura undata, sub- 
quadrata. 

The sculpture is not uniform over the last whorl. The principal 
diagnostic features are the biangulated base, the infrasutural keel, 
and the rounded periphery, 

Long. -016, long. spir. 0, lat. °023--03 ; div. 180°. 

Hab. Mazatiin < one specimen off Spondylus, on tablet 2534 5 
Liverpool Collection. 


258 












































OF MOLLUSKS FROM MAZATLSN. Q7% 


701. 2? ViTRINELLA, sp. ind. 


Tablet 2535 contains » fragment, ‘085 across, of what was pre- 
Loa gigantic species of this genus or of Cyclotrema, strong}y 
eeled. 


492. Diana pAuPERCULA, C. B. Ad. 


=Cingula paupercula, C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, no. : diagnos 
mutata. 

=?Odostomia mamillata, Maz. Cat. no. 492: diagnosi aueta. 

D. t. nitida, solida; vert. nucl. anfr. iv., lirulis spiralibus et 
radiantibus tenuiter decussato; t. adulta decollata, vertice 
mamillato ; anfr.norm.iv.; peritremate continuo ; basi obtuse 
angulata, lacuna umbilical a labio separato formata. 

Long. °085, long. spirze °055, lat. -C5; div. 34°. 

The fortunate discovery of a perfect young specimen and some 
adult shells in the shell-washings of Professor Adams’s collection 
enables us to explain the anomalies described in the Mazatlan Cata- 
logue, where the solitary dead shell was referred, with doubt, to 
Odostomia, in consequence of its truncated apex. It was not pos- 
sible to recognize in it Professor Adams’s “ Cingula,”’ since that was 
described as having the apex “‘ subacute,”’ and the angular base and 
continuous peritreme were not mentioned. The nuclear whorls are 
sculptured as in Alaba supralirata ; but the vertex, instead of being 
persistent as in that genus, appears to be always decollated in the 
adult. The shell has the peculiar glossy texture of Diala. 


702. MANGELIA SULCATA, 0. sp. 


M. ¢. subturrita, albida, apice obtuso; anfr. vii., tumidioribus , 
liris vii., obtusis, rectis, vir angulatis ; sulcis spiralibis creber= 
rimis, circa basim continuis; labro? ... [ fracto]. 

Long. -2, long. sp. 12, lat. 07; div. 35°. 

Hab. Mazatlan; one specimen off Spondylus, on tablet 2538 5 

Liverpool Collection. 


703. ? Torinta, sp. in. 


Tablet 2539 contains a small shell, :035 across, consisting of 33 
smooth, flattened, sinistral whorls; with a distinct suture, but not 
vmbilicated. In a larger specimen (unfortunately lost), under the 
microscope this sinistral vertex appeared turned completely upside 
down, with more than half a whorl of an orbicular shell, white, 
sculptured like Vitrinella, with a very strong peripherical keel, and 
other smaller keels, decussated by radiating ruge. This mode of 
growth is exactly as in the young Torinia ; but the adult must have 
been very distinct from any known species, and perhaps did not 
belong to any described genus. 


550. MuCRONALIA INVOLUTA, N. Sp. 


M. ¢. parva, tenut, albida, irregulari, marginibus spire valde 
excurvatis ; vertice Jecliv? ; anf. norm. vi. +.... satis excur- 
259 


273 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON NEW SPECIES 


vatis, suturis valde impressis ; bast prolongata, obtusa ; apere 
tura ovali, postice angusta; labro acuto; tabio tenuissimo. 
Long. ‘105, leng. spir -068, lat. -033; div. 20°. 
= Leiostraca ?recta, Maz. Cat. in loco: non C. B. Ad. 


551. Ler1osTRACA PRODUCTA, 0. Sp. 


L. ¢. parva, albida, subfusiformi, marginibus spire rectis; vertice 
acutiore, recto; anfr. norm. 1x., planatis, suturis vis conspi- 
curs ; peripherva satis rotundata ; basi rapide angustata, postea 
producta ; apertura subrhomboisea, axi antice acuta, angulata; 
labro acuto; labio tenut. 

Long *123, long. spir -08, lat. 046; div. 23°, 

= Leiostraca ? solitaria, Maz Cat., in loco: non C. B. Ad. 

This species is easily recognized by its very peculiar sharply- 

pointed beak; in shape like a young Rostellaria, without the canal. 


652. ANACHIS TENIATA, Phil. 


Columbella teniata, Phil. in Zeit.. ”. Mai. 1846, no. 26 (non Ad. 
& Rve. in Voy Samarang). 
= Anachis Gaskoin, Cpr. in Maz. Cat p. 519. no. 652. 


Variat liners spiralibus fuscis vill., quarum ill. in spira mone 
straatur ; maculis alternatis inter secundam et tertiam sitis. 
Variat quoque maculis evanescenivbus. 


Hab. Callao (teste Gaskoin) ; Mazatlan (2. B. Philippi, Reigen); 
Cape St. Lucas (Xaatus) 

It appears that Mr. Gaskoin was not acquainted with Phi- 
lippi’s species. which had not then reached the Cumingian Collec- 
tion; as he pronounced M. Reigen’s specimen to be new, and sug- 
gested the specific name in the Mazatlan Catalogue. It would have 
avoided a double synonymy, could the name tenzata have been re- 
tained for the Samarang shell, and Mr. Gaskom’s for this. The 
Cape St. Lucas shells vary as above in heated. 


650. ?7ANACHIS SERRATA, Cpr. 


Maz. Cat. no. 650, p.509. Perfect specimens of this singular 
species having been found at Cape St. Lueas by Mr. Xantus, the 
diagnosis may be thus completed -— 

Epidermide fimbriata, lirulas spirales eleganter decussante ; labri 

denticulis variantibus, interdum subobsoletis. 

Long. °28. long. spir- 15. lat +13; div. 40°. 

With the sculpture and general aspect of a small Cantharus, it has 
the mouth of an dnachis. The operculum, and therefore the generic 
relations, are not yet known*, 


* The following additions and corrections may be useful to the students of 
the British Museum Catalogue :— 

Species 181 Arca multicostata further differs from 4. grandis in the epi- 
dermis being soft and very finely hairy. : 


260 

















OF MOLLUSKS FROM MAZATLANe 27% 


223. The length should be 1:1. 

319. For “ labio nullo” read “ tenuissimo” 

330 The nuclear shell has two whorls, Ampw/laria-shaped. 4 

367. Add to diagnosis, “ operculo concavo, linea elevata suturam definiente.” 
368. Add to diagnosis, ‘“operculo vix concavo, suturis minus definitis.” 

373. Add to diagnosis, ‘‘operculo concavo, suturis distinctis, peripherian 
wersus linea elevata instructis.’ The species was found livimg among the smal 
Olivelle. 

376. Add to diagnosis, “operculo concavo, suturis via definatis.” Living 
among Olivelle. 

501. Instead of the specimen from which the description in the text wa 
written, tablet 1966 contaims a much finer shell, since found, which allows of th 
following additious to the diagnosis:—“ vert nucl. parvo, satis extante, dech 
viter sito; anfr. norm. v ; tnterstitiis carinarum transversim rugulosis ; labr- 
solidiore. Long. 087, long. spir 057, lat. :038.” 

510. A very beautiful shell, found in the refuse of Professor Adams’s Panam 
collection, is probably of this species, though the sutural cancellations are close 
It has one more whorl- vertex Chemnitzoid, of three Helicoid whorls, scarcel, 
projecting ; apex hidden 

650. From perfect Cape St. Lucas specimens, add the following to diagnosis 
—‘“epidermide fiunbriata, lirulas spirales eleganter decussante.” 

Page 312. Add to the diagnoses of opercula of Vermetide :— 

*(h.) Operculum corneum, intus convexum, nitidum, umbone magno extante 
ectus concavum, paucisprrale, lamina extante suturas definiente. Diam. -045.° 
Tablet 2537 contains the only specimen found, resembling Siphonium, fron 
the Spondylus-washings. 

Tablet 447 is Liocardium apicinum, which should stand as species 709. 

Page 314, note * (ez seg.), for “ Inflatulum” read ‘‘ Mioceras,” 

Page 359, line 18, for “regular” read “irregular.” 


261 








ROY sb Wontar Tan ae 





SN Ce et Oe ae meee et my ake Cor A 
idl eee ee ee 
: \ : 


ial 


Dis Chik TEONS 


OF 


New Spectres AND VARIETIES OF CHITONIDE AND ACMAIDA, 


FROM 


Tue Panawa Contection or THE LATE Pror. C. B. Avanms. 


BY 


PHITEP PP CARPENTER Bsa, bx. 1: 


From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 274-277, 
March 14, 1865. 


( 263 ) 


























DEscRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES AND VARIETIES OF CHITONIDS 
AND ACMZIDH, FROM THE PANAMA COLLECTION OF THE 
’ LATE Pror. C. B. Apams. By Puiuip P. Carpenter, B.A., 


Pu.D. 
LeEpPiIDOPLEURUS ADAMSII. 


L. ¢. “ L. dispari”’ simili; pallide rufo-fusca, colore intensiore 
arregulariter strigata seu maculata; sepius maculis albidis 
regione diagonali ornata ; jugo vix acuto; areis centralibus 
et valvis terminalibus conspicue granulosis ; areis lateralibus 
irregulariter verrucosis, verrucis plerumque lobatis ; mucrone 
antico, vie conspicuo: intus, valvis centralibus uni-, termina- 
libus vill.—x.-fissis ; subgrundis parvis, dentibus acutis ; sutu- 
ris medianis postice rectis, antice laminas haud attingentibus, 
sinu planato, latissimo: limbo pallit imbricatim squamoso. 

Long. *6, lat. 3 poll. ; div. 110°. 

Variat verrucis minus expressis, simplicioribus. 

=Chiton dispar, ©. B. Ad. no. 373, par. 

= Lophyrus adamsii, P. Z.S., 1863, p. 24. 

Unfortunately for those who do not like to remove the non-tes- 
taceous portion from their Chitons, as they do from their other shells, 
the mantle-margin by no means affords a safe clue to the structure 
of the valves. Among the species of the genus Ischnochiton, Gray, 


265 


Zio DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON NEW SPECIES 


(=Lepidopleurus, Add.,) known by the sharp incisor-teeth lying 
within a projecting lip, there are three types of mantle-margin, 
which may be conveniently separated as subgenera, to aid in the 
difficult task of describing and identifying species. The typical 
forms, for which the name Ischnochiton should be retained, have the 
scales somewhat chaffy, and very finely striated. J. magdalensia 
and J. sanguineus well represent the group. But another series have 
the mantle-seales imbricate and strong, as in Chiton, Gray, (= Lo- 
phyrus, Add.,) from which they cannot be distinguished without 
dissection. For this Messrs. Adams’s name Lepidopleurus may be 
retained in a restricted sense. It is uncertain what NRisso’s original 
genus was meant to include: his diagnosis applies to all Chitons 
with distinct side-areas and scaly margins. 

A third group, separated by Dr. Gray in his ‘ Guide,’ p. 182, as 
having the ‘ mantle-scales minute, granular,” has been nanred 77a- 
chydermon: it abounds in the Californian region. 

The specimens of L. adamsii were found among the duplicates 
named Chiton dispar by the Professor; one was attached to Discina 
cumingite 


LEPIDOPLEURUS TENUISCULPTUS. 


L. ¢. “L. adamsii”’ simi/i; olivacea, colore pallido seu intensiors 
minute variegata ; tota superficie minute granulosa; ares 
lateralibus vix definitis ; suturis plerumque albido maculatis ; 
mucrone antico, satis conspicuo, parte postica concava : intus, 
ut in *L. adamsii”’ formata. 

Variat: ¢. pallidore, ad jugum rufo-tincta, 

=Chiton dispar, C. B. Ad. no. 373, pars. 

The outside of this shell so much resembles the young of Chitox 

(Lophyrus) stokesii, that specimens may have been distributed under 
that name. Very few individuals were found. 


IsCHNOCHITON ELENENSIS (diagn. auct.). 


Extus areis centralibus clathris parallelis circ. xx. decussatis , 
ar. lat. costis ii., validioribus, tumidis, tuberculosis: intus 
marginibus suturalibus posticis reflexis, tuberculatis, sinu ad 
jugum parvo; laminis insertionis unifissis, ad laminas sutu- 
rales anticas junctis, sinu latissimo. Valva antica extus costis 
xii., haud validis ; intus fissuris X., dentibus acutis, subgrunda 
parva. Valva postica mucrone subpostico, depresso; parte 
postica expansa, concava, costis circ. xl. subobsoletis ; intus 
lamina insertionis circ. 1x.-fissa, dentibus curtis, subgrunda 
parva, intus callosa. 

The central valves in this species are normal; but the posterior 

valve offers a transition towards Callochiton, the outside being con- 
cave posteriorly, the insertion-teeth short and the eaves callous. 


IsCHNOCHITON (? var.) EXPRESSUS. 
I. ¢. 1. elenensi’”’ stmili, sed carnea; areis centr. clathris x., 


266 























AND VARIETIES OF CHITONID® AND ACM EIDE. 276 


distantibus, crebre decussatis, jugo acuto; ar. lat. costis ii., 
validissimis, angustis, tuberculis angustis : intus marginibus 
suturalibus posticis planatis, haud tuberculosis, haud sinuatis ; 
lam. insert. ut antea, sinu angusto, ad jugum angulato. Valva 
antica costis x., validis, angustis: intus ut antea, sed fissuris 
vill. Valva postica mucrone postico, planato; parte postica 
expansa, haud concava, costis circ. vil. validissimis : intus 
lumina circ. vil.-fissa, subgrunda planata. 

With a strong general resemblance to I. e/enensis, the differences 
in detail in the only two specimens examined, as above stated, ap- 
pear of specific importance. If only varietal, it is equally important 
to notice how much change is tolerated by the habits of the animal. 
It may be the shell called Chiton clathratus by Prof. Adams, of which 
there were no duplicates to compare. It offers a still more marked 
transition to Callochiton, the margin of the posterior valve being 
somewhat pectinated by the great projection of the ribs. 


39 


‘© CALLOCHITON”’ PULCHELLUS: diagn. auct. 


Extus areis centr. lineis interdum parallelis, interdum radian- 
tibus, rugose scrobiculatis ; ar. lat. costis ii., validissimis, im- 
bricato-nodosis: valva antica costis similibus cire. 1x.: v. 
post. area centrali lata; mucrone subpostico, planato ; parte 
postica costis vil. similibus, medianis curtissimis, excurvatis : 
pallio squamulis minutis imbricatis. Intus v. ant. subgrunda 
(ut in Ischuochitone) munita, sed a costis pectinata ; dentibus 
acutis, intus linea undulata secundum costas instructa, extus 
concavis, parte convexu costarum incisis : v. medianis similiter 
pectinatis, laminis secundum costas diag. uniscissis : laminis 
suturalibus medio continuis, late sinuatis; suturis posticis a 
sculptura externa granulatis: v. post. vii.-lobata, marginibus 
planatis, laminis dense compressis incrassatis ; dentibus obtu- 
sissimis, appressis, haud extantibus, subobsoletis, extrorsum 
planatis, ut in v. ant. fissis; interdum fissuris quoque in par- 
tibus concavis. 

As I have seen no published diagnosis of the very peculiar type of 
insertion-plates observed in this species, which has hitherto been too 
rare to allow working naturalists an opportunity of dissection, I have 
given a minute description. The plates of insertion, as well as the 
exterior eaves, are scalloped by the strong ribs, and alternate with 
them. In the posterior valve the eaves are flattened outwards, in 
closely appressed layers, the blunt, ill-developed insertion-teeth 
lying flat upon them. The valves easily separate from the mantle, 
when immersed in water. Outside, the species is easily recognized 
by the two strong ribs of the diagonal areas, the central pitted in 
somewhat branching rows, and the ribs on the curiously flattened 
posterior valve resembling a clenched fist. 


Acma (? FLOCCATA, var.) FILOSA. 


A. ¢. ‘A. mesoleucee” forma et indole simili; sed sculptura multo 


267 


DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON CHITONIDE AND ACMEID&, 


tenuiore; t. jun. levi; dein lirulis delicutulis, acutis, haud 
granulosis, valde distantibus, interdum obsoletis, filosa ; mter- 
stitiis latis, levibus ; tenui, planata, ovali, subdicphana ; ngro- 
Jusco, corneo radiatim strigata, seu varie maculata: intus 
livida seu albida, coloribus externis transeuntibus ; linbo lato, 
acuto. 

Long. *7,, lat.."56, alt. “12. 

= Lottia * patina, C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, no. 367. 

JTab. Panama (C. B. ddams). 

There is no described west-tropical species to which these shells 
ean be affiliated, unless they prove to be a very delicate variety of 
A. floceata, Rve. Unfortunately the Panama limpets have never 
been collected in sufficient numbers to make out their specific limits 
satisfactorily. The names here given may stand as species or va- 
rieties, according to future elucidation. In shape and texture, but 
not in colour or sculpture, these shells’ resemble 4. fascicularis ; in 
the latter respects, 4. strigatella. They were named “ tenera, Ad.” 
by Dr. Dohrn, but are sutticiently distinct from that West-Indian 
species. 


Acma (? FLOCCATA, var.) SUBROTUNDATA. 


A. t. “A. var. filosee”’ simili, sed subrotundata, magis elevata, 
vertice subcentrali ; colore intensiore, lineis corneis crebrioribus, 
angustis ; t. gun. sepe pallidiore, radius duobus postice trian- 
gulata: intus callo livido, tenuiore. 

Long. *53, lat. °45, alt. °15. 

= Lottia, sp. ind. a, C. R, Ad. Pan. Shells. no. 368. 

Hab. Panaina( C0. B. Adams y. 


Aca (? var.) VERNICOSA. 


A. t. parva, subrotundata, depresso-conica, apice ad duas quintes 
partes sito; albido-viridi, strigis paucis rufo-fuscis hic et cllic 
ornata, sepius radiis duobus candidis, postice triangulata ; 
extus lineis acutis radiantibus, valde distantibus, sepe obsoletis 
viv sculpta: intus livida, callosa, sepius spathula candida or- 
nata; basi subplanata, limbo angusto. 

Long. °3, lat. *24, alt. <1. 

Hab, Panama (Jewett, C. B. Adams). 

= Lottia, sp. ind. 6, C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, no. 369. 

Had this form been brought from the China Seas, it might have 
been taken for the young of 4. biradiata, Rve. From its solidity, 
however, its rough exterior, and its callous interior, it appears to 
be adult. It is barely possible that it may develope into A. vesper- 
tina. It differs from the young of 4. subrotundata in being much 
thicker and less spotted with the green tint. 


268 








DIAGNOSES 


OF 


NEW SPECIES OF MOLLUSKS, 


FROM 


THE WEST TROPICAL REGION OF NORTH AMERICA, 


PRINCIPALLY COLLECTED BY THE REV. J. ROWELL, OF SAN FRANCISCO 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pu.D. 


From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 273-282, 
March 14, 1865. 


( 269 ) 


X 


= 
=< 
Se 5 siaeaion 














DraGNnosts oF NEw Species oF MoLuusks, FROM THE WES? 

* TropicaL Region or NortTH AMERICA, PRINCIPALLY COL 
LECTED BY THE Rev. J. Rowe tz, oF SAN Francisco. By 
Puiie P. Carpenter, B.A., Pu.D. 


Of the new species quoted in the “ Supplementary Report on the 
Present State of our Knowledge of the Mollusca of the West Coas* 
of North America,”’ published in the Transactions of the British As 
sociation, 1863, pp. 517-686, the principal portion (namely, those 
dredged by Dr. J. G. Cooper, Zoologist to the Californian State 
Geological Survey) are described in the ‘ « Proceedings of the California 
Acad. Nat. Sciences,’ for 1864-65; those dredged i in Puget Sound, 
during the U. S. North Pacific Boundary Survey, by the late Dr. 
Kennerley, are described in the ‘Journal of the Philadelphia Acad. 
Nat. Se.’ for the present year. The species obtained by the natu- 
ralists of the British Survey are described in three papers by Dr. 
Baird and myself, P. Z. S. 1863-65. The new species sent by 
Mr. J. Xantus from Cape St. Lucas, and by Mr. J. G. Swan from 
Neeah Bay, appear in the ‘Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.,” 1864-65. In 
the same Journal are described the new species which I found in 
Col. Jewett’s collection. Those sent to Dr. Gould from the same col- 
lection had been previously analyzed in the ‘ Proc. Zool. Soc.’ 1856. 
The above are the principal sources of fresh knowledge; but a number 
of species from the Californian province, which do not range under 
any of these heads, will be found in the ‘Journal de Conchyliologie’ 
for the current year. 

In separate papers communicated to the Zoological Society are the 
diagnoses of additional species from Prof. Adams’s Panama and from 
M. Reigen’s Mazatlan collections. The remaining species, from the 
tropical province, are embodied in the present paper. The types 
(unless otherwise stated) are in the Museum of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 


(TELLIna) ANGULUS DECUMBENS. 


A. t. tenui, subplanata, alha seu rosacea; levi, striolis incre= 
menti insculpta ; epidermide pallide straminea induta ; antice 
et ventraliter valde producta; postice truncata, angulata ; 
umbonibus acutioribus, vix prominentibus ; marginibus dorsa- 
libus postico recto, antico ad angulum parum excurvato, antico 
et ventrali valde et regulariter excurvatis ; parte postica v. 
dextr. subito angulata, v. sinistr. parum sinuata ; nymphis an- 
gustis, elongatis, cartilagine omnino externo: dent. card. m4 
nimis; dent. lat. v. dextr. antico satis conspicuo, postico obso- 
leto; v. sinistr. nullis ; cicatr. adduct. posticis subrhomboideis, 
anticis valde elongatis, angustis; sinu pallii maximo, subtri- 
angulari, usque ad cicatricem alteram utraque valva porrecta. 

Long. 1°7, lat. 1:2, alt. ‘68 poll. 

Hab. Panama (teste Rowell, Pease). 

This shell was afiiliated by Mr. Hanley to the W. African 7. 

271. 


sy er 


os: DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON NEW SPECIES 


nymphalis, but differs in the internal scars. Externally it resem- 
T. dombeyi, Lam. (= Scrobicularia producta, Cpr. P. Z.8. 1855, 
p- 230), but is easily recognized by the strictly Tellinoid ligament 
and anterior lateral tooth, “by the posterior portion being pinched 
instead of waved, and by the junction of the pallial sinus ‘with the 
Opposite scar. By the same characters it is distinguished from 7, 
tersa, Gld., which closely resembles 8. dombey?, var., in Mus. Cum. 
Like many other Tellens, it has a white and a pink ae The 
name was printed by an oversight in Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1863, p. 669, 
as A. amplectans ; but as it was unaccompanied by a diagnosis, and 
does not describe the shell, no confusion will arise from reverting 
to the name first given. 


Lucina UNDATA. 


L. t. convexa, tenuiore, albida; tota superficie lirulis concentricis 
creberrimis, compressis, haud acutis ornata, interstitiis mini- 
mis; parte ventral costis radiantibus ii., obtusis, latis, vali- 
dissimis, tnterstitis parvis ; lunula maxima, a sulco bene defi- 
nita, sub umbonibus incurvatis fossa alta minuta indentata ; 
parte postica alata; margine a costis valde undato, minute 
crenulato ; ligamento quasi interno: intus dent. card. parvis, 
a fossa lunulari intortis ; lat. curtis, obtusis ; cicatr. adduct. 
antica irregulari, postica subovuli ; linea palliari prope mar- 
ginem sita, undata. 

Long. °45, lat. °44, alt. °3. 

Hab. Gulf of California (teste Rowel/). 

The outline somewhat resembles Cryptodon; but the aspect 
is more that of Verticordia, while the minute subumbonal pit 
is suggestive of Opis. The shell is sexpartite ; the portion between 
the anterior rib and the lunule resembles a fourth rib, while the 
projecting lunule and the posterior wing are quite distinct from the 
body of the shell. The specimen sent by Mr. Rowell to the Smith- 
sonian Institution was completely smashed. ‘The diagnosis is written 
from a perfect shell sent by Dr. Newcomb to Mr. Cuming. 


Cauiiostoma (? LIMA, var.) ZQUISCULPTA. 


C. t. “C. lime” simili; sed anfr. planatis, suturis haud dis- 
tinctis ; sculptura regulari ; jun, monilibus spiralibus inter se 
equalibus; t. adulta majore et minore alternantibus ; colore 
rufescente, granulis interdum rufo-fusco maculatis. 

Hab. Acapulco (Newberry). 

Dr. Newberry’s specimens agree in most essential respects with 
“ Trochus lima, Phil.,” in C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, no. 276, which 
appears identical with the shells marked * Ziz ciphinus antonii, Koch, 
N. Zealand,” in Mus. Cuming. The Acapulcan shells are quite 
flat, while those from Panama are for the most part shouldered as 
in C. eximium, Rve. (= C. versicolor, Mke. Maz. Cat. no. 289). 
However, there is no little variation among the Professor’s speci- 
mens of C. dima, and some are so slightly shouldered that the Aca- 
puican form may be a local variety. 


272 





+ ane 


II A BE a 





' 
' 
{ 


OF MOLLUSKS FROM WESTERN NORTH AMERICA. 280 


NARICA INSCULPTA. 


N. ¢. “N. apertee”’ simili, sed magis compacta ; paullum angus- 
tiore, umbilico tamen majore; lineis spiralibus circ. xxvi. dis- 
tantibus insculptis cincta, quarum x.in anfr. penult. monstran= 
tur ; postice lineis incrementi vix conspicuis. 

Long. °3, long. spir. *08, lat. -28; div. 100°. 

Hab. Acapulco, on Ostrea iridescens, Rowell. 

The Cape St. Lucas species (vide Ann. Nat. Hist. 1864, xiii. p. 476) 
has the sculpture in irregularly raised lirnle, while this has minute 
grooves chiselled out of a smooth surface. It appears that the San 
Franciscans import the huge tropical oysters in large quantities, 
their own species having the coppery flavour which Americans dis- 
like in the British species. From the outside of the valves, Mr. 
Rowell obtained this and many other interesting species. 


DriILiLia EBURNEA. 


D. t. turrita, carneo-albida, tenuiore, levi, maxime nitente; mar- 
ginibus spire rectis; anfr. nucl.? .. . [decollatis| ; norm. 
circ. ix., postice planatis, supra suturas appressis, medio satis 
excurvatis ; hic et illic rugis radiantibus, obsoletis, irregula- 
risus exsculpta; basi prolongata, canali conspicuo, aperio ; 
sinu postico minore, in sulco lato, haud definito, sptram ascen- 
dente sito; labro acuto ; labio indistincto ; columella planata. 

Long. 1°3, long. spir. °8, lat. -45; div. 30°. 

Hab. Near Gulf of California (teste Rowell). 

Easily recognized by its smooth glossy aspect and French-white 

colour; the notch lying along a broad spiral channel, which throws 
the junction of the whorl as it were up the suture. 


MANGELIA ALBOLAQUEATA. 


M. ¢. solida, turrita, alba, rudi, marginibus spire rectis ; anfr. 
nucl.? . . . [decollatis|; norm. circ. ix. subrotundatis, costis 
circ. xi.—xv., declivibus, satis angustis, postice obsoletis, lineis 
subregularibus spiram ascendentibus ; lirulis spiralibus anticis 
crebris, postice obsoletis ; basi elongata; labro? ... 5 labio 
zalioso ; sinu postico majore, suturam attingente. 

Long. °88, long. spir. °55, lat. -34; div. 30°. 

Hab. Paviama (teste Rowell). 

Described from an imperfect and worn specimen, but easily recog- 
nized by its ivory-white colour, and ribs in slanting rows, as though 
the creature were roofed with white tiles. It was erroneously quoted 
in the Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1863, p. 669, as a Drillia. 


EvuLiMA FALCATA. 


E. ¢t. valde tereti, valde curvata, alba, politissima, solidiore, 
marginibus spire meniscoideis ; anfr. nucl.? . . . [detritis] ; 
norm. circ. x., planatis, lente augentibus ; axi hamata, suturis 
indistinctis ; bast elongata, haud tereti; apertura pyrijorme, 
antice latwre; labro acuto; labio tenui, appresso. 


18 273 


281 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON NEW SPECIES 


Long. °31, long. spir. *21, lat. -09; div. 12°. 

Hab. Acapulco, on Ostren tagesceya Rowell. 

The spire-outlines are.scythe-shaped. It is much larger and more 
solid than ZL. distorta and (?var.) yod. 


CERITHIOPSIS INTERCALARIS. 


C. t. valde elonyata, rufo-fusca, marginibus spire rectis, suturi. 
impressis ; anfr. nucl. lil. +? . . . (decollatis), radiatim dis 
tanter liratis; norm. x., planatis ; costis radiantibus primur 
xit., dein circ. xxii., angustis, haud extantibus, ad peripheriaw 
continuis, interstitiis quadratis ; carinis spiralibus primum ii. 
nodulosis, dein alteris ii. minoribus inter eas intercalantibus ; 
carina postica suturali haud nodulosa, secunda valde nodulosa, 
tertia intercalante equante sed haud nodosa, quarta antica 
valde nodosa, quinta circa peripheriam, prime et tertie simili, 
haud nodosa, alteraque contigua, minima, inter quas sutura 
gyrat ; basi concava, levt; columella valde contorta; canalr 
brevi, aperto; labrot... * 

Hab. Guacomayo. 

This beautiful species comes nearest to C. dimarginata, C. B. Ad., 
of which, indeed, the type does not agree with the diagnosis so well 
as does this specimen. It differs in having other spiral ribs inter- 
calating between the two principal ones, and in the radiating sculp- 
ture being continued to the periphery. One specimen only wag 
found in the shell-washings, not perfect at the mouth. 


CoLUMBELLA HUMEROSA. 


C. @. parva, turrita, alba, linea seu maculorum serie fusca inter- 
dum spiram ascendente ; marginibus spire parum excurvatis ; 
anf. nel... . [detritis] ; norm. vi., convexis, postice tumen- 
tibus, suturis valde impressis ; costis radiantibus vil.—vill., dis- 
tantibus, validissimis, rotundatis; interstitiis late undatis ; 
lirulis validis spiralibus extantihus, interstitiis eas equantibus, 
costag et harum interstitra transeuntibus ; basi angusta; labro 
tix varicoso, postice emarginato, intus solidiore, dentibus cire. 
iv. munitis ; apertura late undata, compacta. 

Long. *26, long. spir. °15, lat. -13 ; div. 38°. 

Hab. Acapulco, on Ostrea ieacene: Rowell. 

The sculpture resembles that of RAizocheilus, and the tall spire that 

of Anachis; yet it appears to belong to the restricted typical genus. 


MurICIDEA DUBIA, var. SQUAMULATA. 


Variat ¢. omnino albida; sculptura tenuiore; spira elevata; tota 
superficie minute squamulata, squamulis imbricatis. 
Hab. Cape St. Lucas (Xantus). 
The opercula in the beautiful specimens sent by Mr. Pease are 


* T forgot to measure the specimen before returning it to the Smithsonian 
Inst. ; but it is about the size of C. assimilata. 


274 








OF MOLLUSKS FROM WESTERN NORTH AMERICA. 282 


typically Muricoid. The essential features are those of M. dubia ; 
the pale colour and delicate sculpture and imbrication may arise 
from a deep-water station, as is seen in similar European shells. 
Mr. Cuming, however, regards it as distinct. 


275 








ee eS ere ~~ as ee 


DIAGNOSES 


OF 


NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSCA, 


FROM 


THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA, 


minSst COLLECTED BY’COL. BE. JEWETT. 


BY 


‘PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pa. D. 


From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, Vol. 
XV., pp. 177-182 (Nos. 373-386), March, 1865. Ibid., pp. 394-899 
(Mangelia variegata to end), May, 1865. 


(277 j 
































DIAGNOSES 


ie 


NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSCA 


FROM 
THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA, 


FIRST COLLECTED BY Cot. E. JEWETT. 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B:A.; Pa.D. 


AN account of Col. Jewett’s sheils will be found in the British 
Association Reports for 1856 (pp. 226-231) and 1863 (pp. 534— 
539). The exact localities are often uncertain; but many of 
them have been fixed by subsequent explorers. Being generally 
worn beach-specimens, the diagnoses have been written (where- 
ever practicable) from perfect shells, and especially from the 
beautiful series dredged by Dr. J. G. Cooper, in the Californian 
State Survey. The types belong to Mrs. Boyce, of Utica, N.Y., 
and are at present in my keeping. The numbers, in the species 
from the temperate fauna, refer to the table in the British Asso- 
ciation Report for 1863, pp. 636-664. 


37 b. Solen (? sicarius, var.) rosaceus. 


S. testa S. stcario simili, sed minore; multo angustiore, elongata, 
recta, extus et intus rosacea; epidermide tenui, valde nitente. 
Long. °27, lat. °5, alt. °32 poll. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; S. Pedro (Cooper). 


74. Subgenus AMIANTIS*, 
Callista: dente postico utraque valva ruguloso. 
Type: Amiantis callosa, = Cytherea callosa, Conr.,= Dosznia 


* Th. dpiavros, 6 Kat 7, unpolluted. 


279 


2 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusca 


callosa, Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1857 (from fragments) : non Venus cal- 
losa (as of Conr.), Sow., Rve., Desh. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara (Nuttall, Jewett) ; 8S. Pedro (Cooper) ; Cape 
St. Lucas (Xantus). 

This section differs from the typical Ca/liste as does Merce- 
naria from Venus. Whether the other peculiarities of the spe- 
cies (redescribed by Reeve as Cytherea nobilis) are coordinate, 
cannot yet be stated, as it stands aioe. In sculpture and colour 
it resembles Dosinia ; in its ponderous growth, Pachydesma. 


110. Lazaria subquadrata. 


L. testa extus Cardite variegate jun. simili; pallida, castaneo tincta; 
subquadrata, antice truncata, subregulariter ventricosa, dorsaliter 
tumida; costis radiantibus cire. xiv.—xvi., tumidis, nodosis, dia- 
gonalibus majoribus; interstitiis plus minusve insculptis: intus, 
valva dextra dente cardinali triangulari, inter duas fossas sito, haud 
elongato ; dent. lat. a cardine separatis, ant. extante, post. obsoleto, 
calloso: v. sinistrali dent. card. ii. angustis, subeequalibus, radi- 
antibus; lat. ant. et post. extantibus: cicatr. adduct. subrotun- 
datis. Long. °37, lat. °25, alt. °34. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; Monterey, and along the coast to 
S. Pedro (State Coll. no. 403) (Cooper). 


The outside of this remarkable little species is typically Car- 
ditoid; the hinge is intermediate between Lazaria and Cypri- 
Bid: 


132. Modiola fornicata. 


M. testa curta, leevi, latiore, maxime fornicata; pallide carnea, epi- 
dermide rufo-fusea, rugis incrementi et incrustatione densissime 
pilosa induta; umbonibus maximis, spiralibus, antice torsis, per 
tres quadrantes tote latitudinis devectis; area ligamentali curtis- 
sima, arcuata; margine dorsali antice nullo, postice longo, arcuato; 
margine ventrali recto, vix propter byssum hiante; postico lato, 
antico angusto; altitudine dorsaliter valde elevata, ventraliter 
plane declivi, cuneiformi; umbonibus trans marginem anticum per 
sextantem totius longitudinis excurrentibus : intus, sub umbonibus 
excavata ; cicatr. adduct. ant. ventraliter sita. Long. 14, lat. *76, 
alt .°95. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; Monterey (Taylor). 


160. Pecten (? var.) equisulcatus. 


i. testa P. ventricoso simili, sed tenuiore, minus ventricosa; costis 
pluribus angustioribus xx.-xxi.; interstitiis (praecipue valva su- 
periore ) fere eequalibus ; auriculis magis productis, acutis; sinv 
serrato: testa jun interstitis alte inseulptis, lamiet concentricig 


280 





from the West Coast of North America. 3 


erebris, vix extantibus, interstitia, costas auriculasque transeunti- 
bus. Long. 3°2, lat. 3°35, alt. 1°5. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett); S. Diego (Cassidy, Newberry, 
Cooper). 
~ Intermediate between the tropical P. ventricosus and the 
Atlantic P. irradians. 


161. J ecten gaueicostatus. 


P. testa subconvexa, vix eequilacerali; castaneo seu rubido seu elec- 
tri 3 pucta; Costis xi—xv., validis, angustis, rotundatis ; inter- 
stitus multo latioribus, subpianatis; tota superficie minutissime 
concentrice striata; auriculis latis, haud eequalibus, lirulis cire. vi. 
ornatis; sinu paucidentato: intus pallidiore, linea cardinis cos- 
tata, ad suturas auricularum tuberculosa; fossa ligamentali curta, 
transversim lata. Long. 1°7, lat. 1°84, alt. °56. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; Sta. Barbara Island (Cooper). 


Peleen (? var.) squarrosus. (Page 536.) 


P. testa orbiculari, eequilaterali, rubida, albido maculata ; valva dextra 
convexa, costis xvill., eequalibus, testa jun. approximatis, testa 
adulta interstitiis eequalibus ; costis et interstitiis regulariter un- 
datis, striis crebris squamosis rediantibus ubiaue ornata ; auriculis 
magnis, latissimis, subeequalibus: antica anguste fissata, serrata, 
postica sinuata; auriculis ambabus et regione contigua scabrose 
striatis: intus alba, linea cardinali alte sulcata. Long. 1°82, 
Wate 79) alt. 29; 


Hab. “Sta. Barbara,” teste Jewett. 


Resembles a shell in Mus. Cuming., marked “ ezasperatus, 
var.,” but does not agree with the diagnosis of that species. 
All Col. Jewett’s valves were dextral. The locality needs con- 
firmation. 











183. Volvula cylindrica. 


PF. testa eylindracea, alba, nitente, striis spiralibus distantibus cincta ; 
medio planato, marginibus fere parallelis; antice satis effusa, 
postice subito angustata; canali brevissimo; labro acuto; labio 
Indistincto ; plica columellari parva, valde declivi. Long. °17, 
fat. °07. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett). 


265. Phasianella (? compta, var.) punctulata. 


P. testa P. compte simili, sed elatiore; suturis impressis ; anfractibus 
tumentibus ; omnino minutissime fusco punctata; columella laen- 
pata. Long. ‘24, long. spir. *12, lat.°14, div. 50°. 


Hab. S. Diego (Jewett). 
281 








4 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Furms of Mollusca 


265 b. Phasianella (? compta, var.) pulloides. 


P. testa P. pullo simillima; solida, compacta, spira breviore ; suturis 
distinctis. Long. °2, long. spir. °}, lat. 13, div. 59°. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett); Monterey, 20 fathoms (State 
Coll. no. 353). Smaller var., 8-10 fathoms, Catalina Island 
(Cooper). 

265 c. Phasianella (? compta, var.) elatior. 


P. testa perparva ; spira elongata, ut in P. pullo picta ; anfractibus 
subplanatis ; suturis haud impressis; columella haud lacunata. 
Long. °19, long. spir. °12, lat. °11, div. 40°. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett). 


P. compta, with a large proportion of the small shells of the 
genus, is included under P. pudlus in Mr. Reeve’s monograph. 
In so difficult a tribe, it is judged better to name the distinct 
forms, and those from separated localities, until more is known. 


276. Trochiscus convexus. 


T. testa parva, subelevata, purpureo-fusca, tenuiter sculpta; anfr. nucl. 
? sinistralibus, vertice quasi decollato ; norm. iv., convexis, suturis 
impressis ; obtusissime bicarinatis, striolis confertissimis, minimis, 
subobsoletis cinctis ; umbilico majore, costis duabus cincto, quarum 
interior acuta, exterior rotundata, crenata; apertura circulari. 
Long. *15, long. spir. ‘06, lat. -15, div. 90°. 


Hab. Monterey (Jewett). 


The nuclear whorls in this unique little shell and in the typi- 
cal species appear sinistral, as in Phoride and Solariade. The 
operculum also resembles that of Solarium rather than of Tro- 
chus. ‘The genus may prove to belong to the Proboscidifers, 
notwithstanding its nacreous texture. 


317. Hipponyx lumens. 


H. testa normaliter fornicata, rotundata, albida; epidermide rugulosa, 
interstitiis pilulosa ; vertice nucleoso nautiloideo, levi, parum tu- 
mente, apice celato, interdum persistente; dein rapidissime au- 
gente, expansa, undique regulariter arcuata; liris acutis, subele- 
vatis, distantibus, spiralibus, aliis intercalantibus; lineis incre- 
menti minoribus decussantibus; margine acuto; apertura ple- 
ruinqne rotundata: cicatrice musculari a margine parum remota, 
regione capitis valde interrupta. Long. °7, lat.°46, alt.-33, div. 90° 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; S. Pedro (Cooper). 
= i. Asubrufa” + Capulus; 213, Brite wssoc: hep: 16b7, 


p. 230. 289 





from the West Coast of North America. 5 


329. Bittium (? var.) esuriens. 


B. testa B. filoso simili, sed multo minore, graciliore, interdum vald: 
attenuata ; sculptura testee jun. ut in B. ” filoso, testee adultze ne 
obsoleta; interstitiis haud insculptis. Long. °3, long. spir. ° 
Jat. “11, div. 25°. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett); Neeah Bay (Swan) ; Monterey 

(Cooper). 

334. Bittium fastigiatum. 

B. testa parva, gracili, pallide rufo-cinerea, marginibus spire vix 
excurvatis ; anfr. nuel. ii. , leevibus, tumidis, apice acuto; norm. ix., 
planatis, suturis alte impressis ; anfr. primis lil. carinatis, postea 
costis radiantibus circ. xtii., obtusis, satis extantibus, ad suturas 
interruptis, interstitils Sie cP. liris spiralibus iv. in spira se mon- 
strantibus, costas undatim superantibus, quarum antica in testa 
jun. plerumque extat; anfr. ultimo parum contracto, basi elongata, 
liris spiralibus vi. contiguis ornata; apertura gibbosa ; iebee 
acuto, interdum varicoso, antice angulatim emarginato; labio 
tenui. Long. °25, long. spir. °19, lat. U9, div. 20°. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett). 


Genus AMPHITHALAMUS*. 


Testa Rissoidea, nucleo magno; apertura labio producto, labro 
subpostice juncto, subito in adulta contracto. 


395. Amphithalamus inclusus. 


A. testa minuta, lata, solidiore, pallide rufo-fusea ; vertice mamillato; 
anfr. nucl. uno et dimidio, quoad magnitudinem permagnis, mi- 
nutissime et confertissime spiraliter et radiatim striolatis; anfr. 
norm. iii., leevibus, subplanatis, suturis impressis ; basi subangulata ; 
costa peripherica rotundata, haud extante, interdum in spira se 
monstrante ; costa altera circa regionem pseudo-umbilicarem ; labro 
acuto, haud contracto: labio testa adolescente normali, dein a 
par lete separata, sinum posticum suturam versus formante, t. adulta 
valde separata, regionem quasi umbilicarem magnam formante; ad 
labrum subito fere perpendiculariter, subpostice juncto : opercule 
tenuissimo. Long. ‘04, long. spir. °02, lat. -03, div. 69°. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; 8. Diego (Cooper). 


This very remarkable little shell bears the same relation to 
Rissoa that Stoastoma does to Helicina. The peritreme resem- 
bles a figure 6 inverted, as on the face of the type. In the dis- 
proportionate size of the nuclear whorls it resembles Vitrinella. 


373. Drillia mesta. 


D. testa acuminata, leevi, dense olivaceo-fusca, epidermide lzevi ad- 
heerente induta; anfr. nucleosis ?...(decollatis); norm. vill., parum 


* Th. audi, Oadapos, having a chamber on both sides. 


283 








6 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusca 


excurvatis, suturis parum distinetis ; testa adolescente costis radi- 
autibus cire. x., subobsoletis, elongatis, arcuatis, simum versus In- 
terruptis, postice nodosis ; anfr. ult. sculptura nulla; apertura 
elongata; canali brevi, aperto ; columella recta; labio tenui; 
labro acuto, suturam versus sinuato, sinu parvo, expanso ; operculo 
normali. Long. 1-1, long. spir. °65, lat. "360, 0iV.027 6 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; S. Pedro (Cooper). 


386. Mitromorpha filosa. 


M. testa parva, solidiore, atro-purpurea, subconiformi, antice et pes- 
tice subeequaliter tereti; anfr. nucl. iL, albis, laevibus, apice 
mamillato ; norm. iv., planatis, suturis haud distinctis ; omnino 
eequaliter spiraliter lirulata ; lirulis acutioribus, in spira iv., anfr. 
ult. cire. xx., interstitiis majoribus ; apertura lineata; labro parum 
inflexo, rotundato, postice vix sinuato, intus circ. xii.-dentato ; 
labio inconspicuo; columella arcuatim truncata. Long. °26, 
long. spir. ‘1, lat. °12, div. 45°. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; Lower California (teste Trick, in 

Mus. Cuming.). 


=?Daphnelta filosa, Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1863, p. 658, note Ff. 


Mr. A. Adams obtained two similar species from Japan; and 
as the shells do not rank satisfactorily under any established 
group, he proposes the above genus for their reception. M.Crosse 
suggests that Columbella dormitor, Sby., may be congeneric. 


Mangelia variegata. 


M. testa valde attenuata, tenui, parva, pallide carnea, rufo-fusco 
normaliter bizonata, interdum unizonata, seu zouis interruptis ; 
vertice nucleoso conspicuo, anfr. uno et dimidio, apice mamillato ; 
anfr. norm. vi., subrotundatis, suturis valde impressis; costis 
radiantibus ix., angustis; costulis spiralibus crebris, validioribus, 
in spira cire. x., costas superantibus; apertura valde elongata; 
canali brevi, aperto; labro tenui, juxta suturam conspicue arcuato ; 
labio tenui. Long. °31, long. spir. *17, lat.+1 poll., div. 22°. 

Variat costis crebrioribus, sculptura minus expressa. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett). 


Mangelia (? variegata, var.) nitens. 


M. testa M. variegate simili, sed nitentiore, fascia alba et altera 
rufo-fusca attingente spiram ascendentibus. Long. °25, long. 
spir. ‘15, lat. -08, div. 20°. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett), rare. 


Mangelia angulate. 


M. testa parva, rufo-purpurea, vix gracili, epidermide tenui fugact ; 
anfr. nucl. ili., helicoideis, primum leevibus, dein cancellatis, apice 


284 














from the West Coast of North America. a 


mamillato ; anfr. norm. iv., convexis, suturis impressis, in medio 
spire obtusangulatis ; costis radiantibus cire. xii., acutioribus ; cos- 
tula spirali circa angulum, inter costas subobsoleta ; tota superficie 
tenuiter spiraliter crebrisuleata, sulculis sub lente seepius bifidis ; 
apertura pyriformi, canali longiore, recto, aperto; labro acuto, 
postice conspicue sinuato ; columella haud contorta ; labro obso- 
leto. Long. -35, long. spir. °18, lat. °13, div. 30°. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett). 


Myurella simplex. 


M. testa rufo-cinerea, minore, minus tereti, epidermide tenui; 
anfr, xii., planatis ; fascia suturali valida, nodosa, tuberculis ovali- 
bus crebris validioribus (anfr. penult. circa xv.) ornata; testa 
adolescente costulis radiantibus, postea evanescentibus ; striolis 
antice et postice spiralibus, circa peripheriam seepe obsoletis ; 
basi rotundata; canali brevissimo, alte emarginato ; carina supra 
canalem acuta, columellam plicante ; ieprar acuto, vix undato. 
Long. 1:03, long. spir. °76, lat. -27, div. 20°. 

Variat tuberculis subobsoletis. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; 8. Pedro (Cooper). 


Odostomia inflata. 


O. tes*1 majore, tenui, pallide cinerea, epidermide cinerea induta 3; 
vert. nucl. subito immerso ; anfr. norm. iv., rapidissime augenti- 
bus, subplanatis, suturis impressis ; tota superficie minutissime et 
panier tissime spiraliter striolata ; umbilico nullo; basi et apertura 
valde elongatis ; labro acuto ; labio tenuissimo ; plica acuta, trans- 
versa, parietem attingente ; columella valde arcuata, antice effusa. 
Long. *26, long. spir. 09, lat. °14, div. 60°. 

Variat spira elatiore. Long. -24, long. spir. *11, lat. °13, div. 45°. 

Variat quoque striolis aibabealens: 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; Farraleone Islands, in cavities, on 
Haliotis (teste R. D. Darbishire) ; near San Francisco (Rowell) ; 
Neeah Bay (Swan). 


Chemnitzia crebrifilata. 


C. testa satis tereti, subalbida, haud regulari; anfr. nucl. ii., heli- 
coideis, decliviter sitis, margines spiree parum excurvatos paullum 
superantibus ; norm. Vili. +» quorum primi subrotundati, ultimi vix 
planati; suturis valde distinctis; cost. rad. cire. xxiv., subrectis, 
acutioribus, angustis, interdum attingeutibus, anfr. ultimo cre- 
brioribus minus expressis, circa basim prolongatam hand subito 
evanescentibus ; lirulis spiralibus, in spira circ. viil., rotundatis, 
expressis, anfr. ult. supra costas subnodulosis, circa basim crebri- 
oribus ; peritremate continu § ; columella vix torta, haud plicata ; 
labio distincto. Long. *22, long. spir. °17, lat. 07, div. 18° 


Hab. Sta. Barbara, 1 specimen (Jewett). 
285 


8 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusca 


403 b. Chemnitzia (?torquata, var.) styina. 


C. testa C. torquate simili, sed valde teretiore, gracillima, interdum 
subdiaphana; anfr. nucl. i1., decliviter sitis, margines spiree fere 
parallelos vix superantibus ; norm. xii, angustis, subplanatis, su- 
turis distinctis; costis radiantibus cire. xxili., latis, declivibus, 
testa juniore continuis, adulta fascia haud sculpta suprasuturali 
separatis ; interstitiis parvis, haud sculptis; basi rotundata, haud 
ee columella parum torta.. Long. *32, long. spir. *27, lat. °8, 

iv. : 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett); Monterey (Cooper). 


Chemnitzia Virgo. 
C. testa parva, alba, gracili, stylina; anfr. nucl. ii., decliviter sitis, " 
margines spire subparallelos haud superantibus; norm. viil., 
subrotundatis, suturis distinctis; costulis radiantibus cire. xviii., 
angustis, acutioribus, seepe attingentibus, circa peripheriam haud 
subito evanidis, interstitiis subeequalibus alte spiraliter sulcatis, 
sulcis cire. vill., latera costarum crenulantibus, costas haud super- 
antibus ; basi valde rotundata, curta, haud sculpta; axi lacunato; 
peritremate vix continuo; columella recta. Long. °18, long. 
spir. 14, lat. *05, diy. 12°: 


Hab. “Sta. Barbara,” 1 specimen (Jewett). 


Dunkeria laminata. 


D. testa satis elevata, rufo-fusea, fasciis pallidioribus interdum cinctas 
anfr, nucl. ii., helicoideis, valde decliviter sitis, margines spire 
subrectos haud superantibus; norm. vili., subrotundatis, suturis 
impressis ; costis spiralibus rotundatis, in spira iv., aliisque sutu- 
ralibus vix rotundatis, interstitiis minoribus impressis ; super eas 
laminis radiantibus acutioribus cire. xxx., circa basim rotundatam 
tenuiter continuis ; liris spiralibus basalibus cire. viii., obtusis, colu- 
mellam versus subflexuosam obsoletis ; peritremate continuo ; labio 
appresso. Long. °25, long. spir. °18, lat. :07, div. 20°. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; San Diego (Cooper). 


This beautiful Fenelloid species may be regarded as the type 
of the group Dunkeria. 


Eulima Thersites. 


£. testa parva, curtissima, albida, arcuata, valde distorta; margini- 
bus spire dextro subrecto, sinistro valde excurvato; anfr. nuel. 
?.. (decollatis) ; norm. vi., leevibus, subplanatis, suturis distinctis ; 
basi valde arcuata; apertura subovali, dextrorsum producta ; peri- 
tremate contimuo, valde calloso; labro smuato. Long. 21, long. 
spir. °13, lat. 09, div. 40°. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara, 1 specimen (Jewett). 


Preeminent for aberration among the distorted Eulimide. 
A. second specimen occurred from an uncertain source. 


286 





from the West Coast of North America. 9 
Opalia bullata. 


O. testa minore, alba, subdiaphana, turrita, gracili; marginibus spire 

subrectis ; tota superficie minutissime et creberrime  spiraliter 

proiia: vertice nucleoso declivi, celato; dein anfr. ii., globosis, 

| radiatim haud sculptis; dein v. normalibus, pianatis, suturis vix 

| impressis ; lirulis radiantibus cire. xxvi., haud nisi in anfr. primis 
i 
| 
‘ 
{ 








expressis, circa basim irregu-ariter rotundatam ad axim continuis; 
serie bullularum suturalium anfr. primis e lirulis extantibus for- 
mata, postea lirulis haud convenientibus, anfr. penult. cire. xvii., 
planatis, super suturas parieti appressis, aneenatitaa haud infossis ; 
basi subangulata, haud costata; apertura subovali, eat 
subplanata ; peritremate continuo, calloso; labro haud sinuato. 
Long. *3, long. spir. 21, lat. ‘09, div. 20°. 


| Hab. Sta. Barbara, one specimen (Jewett). 


422. Cerithiopsis purpurea. 

) C. testa compacta, haud gracili, marginibus spirze parum excurvatis; 
purpurea seu fusco-purpurea, circa peripheriam pallidiore ; anfr. 
nucl. ti, leevibus ; norm. vii., planatis, suturis impressis ; serle- 
bus i. podaloer minorum supra costulas spirales minores, ad 
intersectiones costularum radiantium circ. xxiil., lineis fere rectis, 
ad suturas interruptis, spiram ascendentium sitis; interstitiis im- 
pressis, quadratis ; costulis suturalibus ii. haud nodulosis ; basi 
rotundata, antice lirulis paucis expressis inter eas et costulas su- 
turales vix sculpta; apertura subquadrata; columeila torta, emar- 
ginata. Long. 29, long. spir. °19) ‘lat: -1, div...20°. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett); Monterey, San Diego (Cooper). 


————————— es 


a 


423. Cerithiopsis fortior. 


C. testa C. purpuree simili, sed sculptura multo fortiore, basi ee 
' seriebus nodulorum spiralibus testa adolescente i1., postea i11.; costis 
radiantibus cire. xiii., interstitiis magnis ; costis suturalibus vaidia! 


subnodosis ; costa basali valida. Long. °3, long. spir. *2, lat. -11 
div. 26°. 


| Hab. Sta. Barbara, 1 specimen (Jewett). 
439. Marginella subtrigona. 


M. testa M. Jewettii simili, sed multo curtiore, latiore ; antice valde 

angustata, pestice valde tumente ; labro postice ae prolong rato; 

| phcis iv., validioribus, parietali una. Long. 14, long. spir. ‘01, 
Bits 11, ai 130°. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett). 


;| 440. Marginella regularis. 


—. 


ce ng a it i, i Sle i TOLL SA LIL TI IIE IT EI IGT 


M. testa M. Jewettii simili, sed multo minore, paullum angustiore ; 
tenui, nitidissima, cry stallina, ormnino cae labio magis oe 
| loso. Long. °13, long. spir. *O1, lat. °09, div. 120°. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; coast of California south from 
287 





10 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusca 


Monterey, beach to 20 fathoms; Catalina Island, 10-20 fa- 
thoms, State Coll. no. 898 a (Cooper). 


453. Amycla tuberosa. 


A. testa A. minori simillima, sed vertice nucleoso tuberoso ; anfr. iv., 
tumidis, rapide augentibus ; apice minimo, margines spire rectos 
parum superante, mierda subdecliviter sito; testa adulta inter- 
dum unicolore, livida seu aurantiaca ; plerumque albida, rufo-fusea 
varie picta, seu maculata, seu nebulosa, seu strigata strigis radi- 
antibus seu flexuosis, seu varie penicillata, seepe fascia tessellata 
subsuturali; anfract. norm. v., planatis, suturis distinctis; basi 
subangulata; apertura pyriformi, canali satis prolongato, arcuato ; 
labro intus acuto, deorsum quasi tumidiore, postice sinuato, intus 
circ. octodentato ; labio parum conspicuo, vix rugulato ; columella 
torta, axi antice striato ; superficie levi, seu interdum minutissime 
sub lente radiatim striolata; epidermide cornea, tenui, subdia- 
phana, spiraliter sub lente minutissime striolata : operculo Nassz- 
formi, parvo, marginibus irregulariter serratis, cicatrice bilobata. 
Long. °32, long. spir. 18, lat. +14, div. 30°. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, recent and fossil (Jewett) ; coast of Cali- 
fornia north to Monterey; Catalina Island, 8-10 fathoms 
(Cooper). 

As this belongs to a group of closely allied species of Nassoid 
Columbelle, a minute diagnosis is given. The fossil specimens 
are larger, and have the remarkable nucleus more perfect, than any 
of the recent shells yet seen. In appearance it scarcely differs 
from the small variety of the Mediterranean A. minor, Scac. ; 
but that (with 4. corniculata) has a Chrysodomoid nucleus, the 
Californian an Alaboid. 


? Anachis penicillata. 


?4. testa parva, Metuloidea, turrita, albida, rufo-fusco plus minusve 
penicillata; anfr. nucleosis ii., tumidis, helicoideis, apice mamil- 
lato ; norm. vi., tumidis, suturis valde impressis; costis radianti- 
bus cire. xil., angustis, expressis; lirulis spiralibus extantibus, 
in spira plertmque vi. supra costas transeuntibus ; apertura pyri- 
formi, antice effusa; labro postice sinuato. Long. °21, long. 
spir. °13, lat. -08, div. 2 
Hab. Sta. Barbara (sega S. Diego, Catalina Island, shore 

to 10 fathoms (Cooper). 

Neither of the specimens sent is quite mature. The mouth 
is that of an adulescent Anachis, but the sculpture is Metuloid. 


Siphonalia fuscotincta, 


S. testa minima, turrita, albida, apicem versus fusco tincta; anfr. 
nucl. ii., compactis, subplanatis, apice mamillato ; norm. iv., con- 
vexis, suturis impressis ; costis radiantibus rotundatis, tumentibus, 
basim versus evanidis, interstitiis undulatis, subeequantibus ; lirulis 


288 





from the West Coast of North America. ll 


erebris spiralibus, costas superantibus; apertura pyriformi, in 
canalem brevem apertum contortum producta; labro acuto; la- 
bio haud conspicuo; columella canalem versus valde contorta. 
Long. °17, long. spir. °1, lat. 08, div. 32°. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett). 


The unique specimen is like a minute edition of Siphonalia 
Kellettii, but does not accord with the young of that or of any 
other species known in the region. It is probably not mature. 

19 289 




















DIAGNOSES 






oF 


“NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSCA, 


COLLECTED BY COL. E. JEWETT 








ON THE 


WEST TROPICAL SHORES OF NORTH AMERICA. 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pz.D. 


From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, Vol. 
XYV., pp. 899—400, May, 1865. 


( 291 ) 





























DIAGNOSES 


OF 


NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSCA 


COLLECTED BY Cot. E. JEWETT 


ON 


THE WEST TROPICAL SHORES OF NORTH AMERICA, 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pu.D. 


Rissoina expansa. 


R. testa magna, lata, tenuisculpta, alba, nitente, subdiaphana; 
marginibus spires parum excurvatis; anfr. nucl. leevibus, vertice 
mamillato ; norm. v., planatis, suturis distinctis ; costulis radianti- 
bus circ. xxiv., obtusis, haud extantibus, interstitia eequantibus, 
peripheriam versus evanidis ; circa basim productam striis spirali- 
bus expressis; medio levi; apertura valde expansa, semilunata; 
labro subantice producto, varicoso, antice et postice alte sinuato, 
labio calloso. Long. °35, long. spir. °18, lat. *17 poll., div. 30°. 


Hab. Mazatlan (teste Jewett). 


This fine species is the largest known in the fauna. It most 
resembles R. infrequens, C. B. Ad., which was described from a 


dead shell. 
Mangelia hamata. 


M. testa carneo-aurantiaca, satis turrita, marginibus spire excurvatis 5 
anfr.nucl.ii. globosis, tenuissime cancellatis, apice mamillato ; norr. 
vi., subelongatis, in spira tumentibus, subangulatis, suturis impressis ; 
costis radiantibus x.—xii., acutioribus, validis, circa basim pro- 
longatam continuis ; interstitiis concavis; lirulis spiralibus filosis, 
distantibus, supra costas transeuntibus, In spira ili.—iv. ; apertura 
subelongata, quasi hamata, intus levi, intense colorata; iabro 


Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusca. 13 


acuto, dorsaliter varicoso, postice valde sinuato. Long. °24, 1ong. 
spir. *13, lat. +1, div. 25°. 
Hab. Panama (teste Jewett). 


This very beautiful species is easily recognized by the varicose 
lip, sloping off to a sharp edge; by the deeply cut posterior 
notch, giving the smooth mouth a hooked appearance ; by the 
sharp ridges, traversed by distant spiral threads; and by the 
flesh-tinted orange colour. 


Mangelia cerea. 


M. testa M. hamate simili, sed textura cerea, aurantiaca, graciliore, 
anfractibus tumidioribus, haud angulatis; anfr. nucl. leevibus; 
normalibus v., costis radiantibus haud acutis, interstitia sequan- 
tibus ; liris spiralibus validioribus, haud filosis, supra costas nodu- 
losis, in interstitiis subobsoletis; apertura, testa adulta,?.... 
Long. °25, long. spir. °14, lat. *1, div. 28% 

Variat testa rufo-fusca. 


Hab. Panama (teste Jewett). 


Col. Jewett’s unique specimen is not mature. It is distin- 
guished from JZ. hamata by the smooth nucleus, waxen texture, 
rounder whorls, more equal distribution of the contour between 
ribs and interstices, and especially by the spiral sculpture, which 
is faint in the hollows, but nodulose on the ribs. Mr. Cuming 
has a specimen with the same texture, but of a rich brown 
colour. 

Chemnitzia celata. 


C. testa satis magna, cinerea, elongata; anfr. nucl.?...; norm. xiii., 

* planatis, suturis vix impressis; costis radiantibus xx.—xxviil., 
rectis, haud semper convenientibus, subacutis, ad peripheriam 
subito truncatis ; sulcis spiralibus in spira iv.-v., valde impressis, 
interstitia et costarum latera transeuntibus, juga haud superanti- 
bus; basi subito angustata, angulata, lirulis spiralibus cire. vi. 
ornata; apertura subquadrata ; columella satis torta. Long. °35, 
long. spir. *3, lat. ‘09, div. 13°. 
Hab. West coast of North America (Jewett). 


This beautiful and unique shell was probably from Panama ; 
but there was no locality-mark. It is remarkable for its deep 
furrows and the suddenly shortened and spirally sculptured 
base. It is much larger and broader than the northern C. Virgo, 
and differs in details of sculpture. 


294 





DIAGNOSES 





MOLLUSQUES NOUVEAUX 


PROVENANT DE CALIFORNIE, 


ET FAISANT PARTIE DU MUSEE DE L’INSTITUTION SMITHSONIENNE. 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pu. D. 


From the Journal de Conchyliologie, Vol. XII. (Third Series, Vol. V.), pp. 
129-149, April, 1865, 


( 295 ) 











Diagnoses de Moliusques nouveaux proyenant 
de Califormie el faisant partie du musée 


de linstitution Smithsonienne, 


PAR Puitie P. Carpenter, B. A., Po. D. 


I. 


D'aprés les lois des Etats-Unis, tous les objets d'histoire 


ralurelle recueillis dans le cours des expéditions faites par 
297 


- — 130 — 

les Etats deviennent la propriété de Vinstitution Smithso- 
nienne, qui est autorisée, de plus, a échanger les doubles. 
Celte institution, si bien dirigée par le professeur Henry, 
qui en est le secrélaire, n’a pas pour objet principal soa 
seul agrandissement; elle est établie pour « laccroisse- 
ment et la propagation de la science parma les hommes, » 
c'est-a-dire qu'elle embrasse toutes les nations, Dans |’é- 
change des doubles, on n’a pas pour but d’oblenir un quid 
pro quo, mais plutot d’envoyer les échantillons 4 quelque 
endroit ou ils seront plus utiles pour l'avancement de la 
science. Le revenu de l’institution ne suftisant pas pour 
avoir a poste fixe des naturalistes chargés de classer et de 
décrire au besoin les objets d'histoire naturelle de ce 
musce, on envoie ces objets en communication a des natu- 
ralistes des Etats-Unis ou d'autres pays, selon leur spécia- 
lité, en vue d’arriver 4 déterminer les espéces et de faire 
choix des échantillons pour leur collection permanente et 
pour les échanges. En conformité de ce principe, les di- 
recteurs de Vinstitulion m’ont transmis en Angleterre 
toutes les coquilles recueillies sur la céle ouest d’Amé- 
rique. Je les ai soigneusement comparées avec les types 
de la collection Cuming et du musée britannique; et, par 
suite de cet examen comparatif joint a celui de mes 
propres matériaux, je me suis trouvé dans la nécessité de 
décrire a peu pres trois cents especes ou variétés locales, 
en dehors de celles que j'ai publiées antérieurement dans 
mon catalogue des coquilles de Mazatlan. 

On trouvera des renseignements sur ces espéces et sur 
toutes les sources originales d’information concernant le 
méme sujet, dans mon «Supplementary Report on the 
present stale of our knowledge of the Mollusca of the 
West coast of N. America, » écrit a la demande de I’ Asso- 


ciation britannique pour l’avancement de la science, et 
298 








— 431 — 


publié dans ses Transactions pour l'année 1863 (p. 517- 
686). Aux pages 656-664, on peut consulter une table dis- 
posce de maniére 4 faire voir d'un coup d’eil toutes les 
especes de Ja région de Vancouver et de Californie, jus- 
qu ici trés-peu connues, avec tous les endroils ou on Jes 
a recueillies, daprés les renseignements fournis par les 
principaux collecteurs. Dans les mémes pages on lrouvera 
une description trés-succincte des especes qui sont nou- 
velles ou peu connues : quant aux diagnoses latines, elles 
ont été publiées dans divers journaux scientifiques, selon 
la source de provenance des espéces qu’elles concernent. 
Ainsi, par exemple. on doit en chercher le plus grand 
nombre, qui ont ¢té draguées par le docteur Cooper, lors 
du Geological Survey de l Etat de Californie, dans les Pro- 
ceedings of the California Academy, 1864-5. Les espéces 
draguées par le docteur Kennerley au Pugef-Sound se 
trouvent décrites dans le Journal of the Philadelphia 
Academy, 4865. Les especes trouvées par le colonel Je- 
wett, en Californie, ont élé publiées dans les Annals of 
natural History, 1864-5; celles qui ont élé recueillies par 
M. Swan et les jeunes Indiens, de l’instruction desquels il 
est chargé, a la baie de Neeah (vis-a-vis l'ile de Vancou- 
ver), et par M. Xantus, au cap St.-Lucas, se trouvent 
décrites dans le méme recueil périodique (4864). Dans 
les Proceedings of the zoological Society (1863, p. 559- 
569), on trouvera nn examen critique du Panama cata- 
logue du professeur C. B. Adams, fait d’aprés ses échan- 
tillons typiques ; et, pendant le cours de la présente an- 
née, le méme journal doit publier les especes nouvelles 
de la région tropicale, recueillies par MM. Reigen, 
C. B. Adams, etc. 

Profitant de Ja bienveillance avec laquelle l’éditeur du 


Journal de Conchyliologie a bien youlu m’ouvrir les co- 
299 


1900 


lonnes de son recueil scientifique, je me propose de don- 
ner, dans cet article, les diagnoses des espéces nouvelies 
de Californie, qui ne se trouvent pas décrites dans les mé- 
moires cités plus haut. Je me trouve dans I impossibilité 
d’en donner en méme temps les figures, attendu que j'ai 
déjarestitué les échantillons typiques a Vinstitution Smith- 
sonienne; mais cette absence de figures est moins regret- 
table, si l'on considére qu'elle n’est que momentanée, et 
que les espéces en question doivent étre prochainement 
dessinées et gravées sur bois par le savant artiste, M. le 
D' W. Stimpson, pour le Manuel des Mollusques de la céte 
ouest d Amérigue, Gue je prépare en ce moment, a la de- 
mande del institution Smithsonienne (4). Lorsqu’il existe 
des doubles de ces diverses espéces, on les trouvera ou 
dans le Musée britannique ou dans la collection Cuming. 
Warrington (Angleterre), 15 février 1865. 


Il. 


4. AncuLus GouLpII. 


A. t. parva, alba, tenui, tumida, subdiaphana, subqua- 
draia; epidermide pallida, tenuissima, induta; levi, li- 
neis incrementi haud exstantibus ; antice et ventraliter in- 
flata , marginibus regulariter excurvatis ; parte postica 
minima, haud angulata; umbonibus prominentibus : in- 
tus, dentibus cardinalibus utraque valva uno simplict 
unoque bifido, validis, obtusis ; laterali antico valva dex- 


(1) Je prie les naturalistes qui trouveraient des erreurs dans 
mes ouvrages deja publiés, ou qui posséderaieut de nouveaux 
matériaux relatifs aux Mollusques de la cdte ouest d’Amérique, 
de vouloir bien me communiquer leurs renseignements, en me 
les adressant chez M. le professeur Henry, Smithsonian institu- 
tion, Washington, D. C., Etats-Unis, afin que je puisse rendre ce 
Manuel aussi complet et ea que possible. Pec, 











— 133 — 
tra curto, valido, exstante ; postico obsoleto; valva sinis- 
trali nullis; nymphis rectis, inconspicuis; sinu pallit 
maximo, subtriangulari, fere cicatricem alteram tenus 
porrecto; cicatricibus adductoribus postica subquadrata, 
antica elongata. — Long. *48, lat. *4, alt. “4 poll. (1). 


Hab. San Diego, Cassidy. L’ile de Cerros, dans la basse 
Californie, Ayres. 

Celte petite coquille porte le nom de « Mera Gouldu, 
Hanl., » dans le musée Cuming et dans les Genera de 
MM. Adams (t. II, p. 396), mais je n’ai pu parvenir aen 
trouver de diagnose publiée. Sur quelques-uns des échan- 
tillons, on peut trouver le commencement d'une dent la- 
térale postérieure. Ainsi la différence entre les sous- 
genres Mara et Angulus de MM. Adams est de trés-peu 
d’importance. Cette espéce offre l’aspect de l'état jeune da 
Lutricola Dombeyi, Lamarck (2), mais elle en différe par 
la charniére. 


(1) Les dimensions des espéces sont données en pouces an- 
glais, dont chacun = 2.53 centimétres. 

(2) Pour cette section de Scrobicularia, MM. Adams proposent 
le vocable Capsa; ce qui fait grandement confusion, Capsa élant 
un nom de Lamarck, synonyme, il est vrai, d’/phigenia, Schuma- 
cher, mais néanmoins trés-usite. Je propose de reconstituer ie 
genre ancien Lutricola, de Blainville, pris dans un sens restreint, 
pour ce groupe, intermédiaire entre les vrais Scrobicularia et les 
Macoma, ainsi qu’il suit ; 

Sous-genre Lutricola. 

= Lutricola, Blainv. pars. 

= Capsa, H. et A. Ad., non Lam. 

— Scrobicularia, seu Macoma, seu Tellina, pars, auct. 

Testa tumida, sepe inequivalvis, irreguluris, subquadrata seu 
antice producta; pars postica undata sew truncata; cartilago fossa 
subinterna sita, ligamento curtiore contigua : dentes cardinales 
utraque valva duo, laterales null. 

Ex. Lutricola ephippium, Solander, L. alta, Conrad; L. Dom- 


bey, Lamarck, etc. 
301 


— 134 — 


OEDALIA, n. g. 


Etym. ofSeaca (une coquille) renflée. 


Testa inflata, tenuis, equivalvis, equilateralis, cycla- 
diformis : margo haud hians, haud sinuatus : ligamentum 
et cartilago externa : dentes cardinales 3-2, bifidi, late- 
rales nulli : sinus pallit magnus. 


2, OEDALIA SUBDIAPHANA. 


OE. t. albida, tenuissima, subdiaphana, submargarita- 
cea, tumente; levi, striulis incrementi exillimis ; epider- 
mide pallide straminea, tenuissima, induta; suborbiculart, 
umbonibus tumentibus, prominentibus ; marginibus om- 
nino satis excurvatis, antico rotundato, postico paululum 
porrecto, lunula nulla: intus, valva sinistrali dentibus 
cardinalibus 3 bifidis, radiantibus, quorum centralis ma- 
jor, valva dextra 2 bifidis, intercalantibus ; nymphis par- 
vis, curtis, tenuibus ; ligamento circa wmbones excurrente; 
lamina cardinali dorsaliter parum claviculata; cicatrici- 
bus adductoribus parvis, marginem dorsalem versus sitis, 
antica ovalt, postica subrotundata; sinu pallii regulariter 
ovali, per duas trientes interstitit incurrente, longitudi- 
naliter tenuissime corrugato; linea pallit antice a mar- 
gine remota, diagonaliter reflexa. — Long. *52, lat. *44, 
alt. *26, poll. 

Hab. San Diego, Cassidy. 

Je nai vu qu'un seul échantillon de cette coquille fort 
remarquable. Aprés lavoir examinée pour la seconde fois 
et avec beaucoup de soin au microscope, pour caractéri- 
ser l’espéce et pour comparer ses caracteres avec ceux du 
Cooperella scintilleformis, j'ai eu le malheur de le laisser 
tomber a terre et de le briser : mais je puis attester l’exac- 


titude de la description. Cette espéece a Vaspect externe 
302 











* See 


— 135 — 


dun Kellia suborbicularis ; Vinflexion palléale d'un Se- 
mele; le ligament circumumbonal des Circe et des Pse- 
phis; et une charniére trés-complexe, contenant cing 
dents, toutes bifides. Avec le sous-genre Cooperella, qui 
en differe comme les Lutricola et les Macoma (le car- 
tilage étant semi-interne) et peut-étre avec les Cycla- 
della, elle constitue un groupe particulier des Tellinide. 


3. PSEPHIS TELLIMYALIS. 


Ps. t. valde transversa, subquadrata, tumidiore, valde 
inequilaterali; umbonibus obtusis, vie prominentibus ; 
pallide carneo-lutescente, purpureo (maxime circa mar- 
ginem dentesque) tincta; epidermide tenuissima induta; 
tota superficie creberrime concentrice striata; margini- 
bus, dorsali et ventrali subparallelis, antico rectiore, pos- 
tico rotundato; lunula inconspicua : intus, dentibus cen- 
tralibus minimis, anticis elongatis, posticis valde elon- 
gatis; sinu pallit viz sinuato. — Long. °09, lat. -07, alti. 
°04, poll. 

Hab. Californie (sur la partie dorsale d'une Haliotide, 
Rowell). 

Le sous-genre Psephis se compose de trés-petites co- 
quilles vénériformes, dont l’animal est ovivipare, comme 
celui des Cyclas, etc., des eaux douces, et des Bryophila 
parmi les Lamellibranches marins. La charniére porte 
trois dents; quelquefois elles ressemblent a celles des 
Chione ; mais ordinairement les dents antérieures et pos- 
térieures se prolongent. Le Psephis tellimyalis se trouve 
sur les limites extrémes du groupe. II a l’aspect extérieur 
dun Zellimya bidentalis et quelque chose aussi de sa 
charnicre, a cause du trés-grand développement des deux 


dents terminales aux dépens de la dent centrale. Je n’en ai 
303 


— 136 — 


vu qu'un seul échantillon, qui appartient au révérend 
J. Rowell, pasteur 4 San Francisco. 


4. TAPES LACINIATA. 


T.t. « T. staminee » simili, sed majore, fragili, multo 
tenuiore; satis tumida, subovali, requlariter excurvata, 
cinerea; lunula linea impressa, parum definita; margini- 
bus, postico viv subquadrato, antico producto; ligamento 
haud prominente; costis radiantibus acutis, distantibus, 
ventraliter dimidium interstitiorum equantibus, postice 
parvis, crebris, antice latis ; laminis concentricis creber- 
rimis, viz erectis, costas transeuntibus, a costis et inter- 
stitris eleganter undatis, haud nodosis : pagina interna al- 
bida; dentibus cicatricibusque ut in «T. staminea» forma 
tis; sinu pallii paulum longiore, acutiore. — Long. 2° 4, 
lat. +2, alt. 4°4, poll. 

Hab. San Diego, Rich, Blake, Cooper. 

Cette espéce est remarquable, en méme temps pour la 
délicatesse de sa sculpture, et pour les caractéres particu- 
liers de sa texture. Elle appartient au méme groupe que 
les T. Adamsii, Reeve, T. fenerrima, Carpenter (décrit 
d’aprés un individu trés-jeune) et T. staminea, Conrad. 
Cette derniére espéce compte parmi ses variélés les V. Pe- 
titi et V. ruderata, Deshayes, V. mundulus, Reeve (= T. 
diversa, Sowerby) et V. tumida, Sowerby. Mais elle se dis- 
tingue facilement de toutes ces formes par ses lames con- 
centriques, disposées au-dessus des rayons et de leurs in- 
terstices bien prononcés, et laciniées au sommet fort 
élégamment. 


5. Keita (LAPEROUSH, var.) CoIRONII. 


K.t. « K. Laperousit» simili; sed tenuiore, minus trans- 


versa, ventraliter excurvata; epidermide pallidiore ; um- 
304 























— 137 — 
bonibus angustioribus : dentibus multo minoribus, haud 
exstantibus. — Long. *76, lat. °62, alt. °41, poll, 
Hab. Neeah Bay, Swan; San Pedro, Cooper. 

Cette variété est assez distincte de la ferme typique du 
K. Laperousii; mais la suite @individus que j'ai eu occa- 
sion d’ examiner comparativement m’a permis de me cun- 
vaincre que l’espéce variait beaucoup. 


6. KELLIA ROTUNDATA. 


K. t. tenuissima, orbiculart, satis convexa, equilate- 
rali, levi; epidermide subnitente, pallide olivacea ; wm- 
bonibus angustis, satis prominentibus ; marginibus omnino 
regulariter excurvatis : intus, dentibus cardinalibus 2 
tenuibus, satis conspicurs, clavicula haud exstante ; denti- 
bus lateralibus satis elongatis.—Long. °6, lat. *5, alt. *28, 
poll. 

Hab. Monterey, Taylor. 

Cette espéce est beaucoup plus grande, mais moins 
renflée que le K. suborbicularis, et se distingue facile- 
ment par sa forme presque complétement arrondie. 


7. OSTREA LURIDA. 


0. t. irregulari, suborbiculart, ellipsoidea, seu pro- 
ducta; superficie interdum laminata, purpurea seu squa- 
lide grisea, haud costata : intus olivacea, interdum pur- 
pureo tincta, seu omnino purpureu, submargaritacea; car- 
‘dine recto; umbonibus haud conspicuis, haud excavatis ; 
margine interno, cardinem versus sepe crenuluto. 

Animal flavore cupreo tinctum. 

Var. laticaudata, Nutt, ms.: t. omnino purpurea, mar- 
gine producto, undato; cardinem versus, denticxlis con- 
Spicuis insiructo. 


Hab: Vancouver Is., 42-5 toises sur fond de vase, Lord; 
20 305 


— 138 — 
Shoalwater Bay, Cooper, Neeah Bay et Tatooche Is., 
Swan (Var.) Monterey, Nutfall. 

?Var. expansa : t. omnino planata, per totam superfi- 
ciem affixa ; extus, marginem versus laminata, purpureo 
radiata; intus, olivaceo-rufa, ligamento parvo, in medio 
undato, solidiore. 

Hab. S. Pedro, Cooper. 

Var. rufoides : t. « O. Virginice » jun. simili; sed te- 
nuissima, luteo-rufa, intus rufo tincta; umbonibus con- 
cavis. 

Hab. S. Diego, Cassidy, Cooper. Fossile 4 San Pablo, 
20 pieds au-dessus de la haute marée, Newberry. 

Les [uttres de Californie, dans leur état ordinaire, 
comme on les trouve au Shoalwater Bay (Oregon), ont a 
peu pres Ja couleur et l’aspect de petites Hiheries. Les 
individus des mers plus chaudes ont Pair d'¢tre trés-dis- 
tincts; mais, d’aprés le docteur Cooper, quia une grande 
expérience de la maticre, ce ne sont que des vari¢tés. Je 

ne pouvais pas prendre pour nom spéccifique celui que le 
professeur Nuttall avait donné en manuscrit a une forme 
accidenielle. Quant aux autres formes, assez constantes 
dans leurs diverses localilés, je leur ai donné des noms 
qui pourront servir a les designer soit comme espcces, 
soit comme variétés, lorsque, plus tard, la connais- 
sance dun plus grand nombre d’individus permettra 
d’avoir une opinion definitive en ce qui les concerne. La 
varidté rufoides a beaucoup de l'aspect de 1'O. Virginica 
(Maz. Cat., n°. 212). Elle était désignée sous le nom « O. 
?rufa » parle docteur Gould; mais je suis porté a croire 
que l’espéce de Lamarck est une variété des Huitres atlan- 
tiqnes, altendu que les coquilles de la haute Californie 


n’élaient pas connues a |’époque ou il a écrit. 
306 














— 139 — 


8. TORNATELLA PUNCTOCALATA. 


T. t. tenui, satis elongata, ovoidea; cinerea, fasctis 
duabus latis fuscis ornata ; vertice nucleoso decliviter cw- 
lato; anfractibus normalibus 4 vix converis, suturis 
distinctis; tola superficie sulcis subdistantibus celata, 
punctis impressis seriatim dispositis, quarum 7-9, in 
spira monstrantur ; bast ovali; apertura latiore; lahro 
acuto, antice sinuato; labio indistincto ; plica acuta de- 
clivi juxtaparietem, haudexstante; columella antice torta. 
Long. °2, long. spir. *06, lat. -09, poll.: div. 50°. 

Hab. Santa-Crux, Rowell. — San Diego, Cooper. 

Cette espéce est un peu aberrante, a cause de son eu- 
verture large, de son pli reporté prés du bord pariétal et 
de sa columelle tordue commie celle des Bullina. La cise- 
lure des tours ressemble aux impressions que Jaisserait une 
série de petits colliers. 


9. CYLICHNA PLANATA. 


C. t. parva, cylindracea, subelongata, alba, levi, epi- 
dermide straminea induta; marginibus fere parallelis ; 
spira planata, haud umbilicata, haud mamillata; anfrac- 
tibus 4 convolutis, suturis parum impressis; bast modice 
effusa; labro tenui, in medio satis producto, antice late 
arcuato, postice parum sinuato, haud canaliculato, sutu- 
ram versus satis rotundato ; labio distincto, postice sub- 
calloso ; columella plica satis exstante, axi basim circum- 
gyrante. Long. “A\, lat. °055, poll. : div. 180°. 

Hab. San Diego, Cassidy. 

On n’a trouvé qu'un seul échantillon de cette petite 
espéece, qui est intermédiaire entre les Cylichna et les 
Tornatina. 


307 


h 


— 140 — 
| Genus LOTTIA. 


= Lottia, Gray, pars. 

= Acmea, seu Tectura, seu Patella, pars, auct. 

= Tecturella, Cpr. Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1861, p. 157; 
nen Stimpson, Invert., Grand-Manan. \ 





) Testa Patellis quibusdam seu Helcioni similis; ple- 
| rumque planata, solida, apice anteriort. 

j Animal margine pallii intus papillis lamellosis circa 
dorsum lateraque instructo, regione capitis interruptis ; 
pede elongato, ovali, planato ; branchia minima. 


Ce genre est intermédiaire entre les 4cmea et les Scur- 
i ria. Dans les Acmea, Je manteau est simple; dans les 
| Scurria, il est garni, sur toute sa circonférence, de papilles 
} qui, a premiére vue, offrent l’apparence des branchies des 
vraies Pafelles; chez les Lottia, on trouve ces papilles sur 
le corps, mais non sur la téte de l’animal. De plus, la 
branchie, qui est ordinairement allongée et en forme de 
plume chez les Acmea, et triangulaire chez les Scurria, 
est trés-petite dans le genre qui nous occupe. II serait 
prématuré de vouloir fixer définitivement les caractéres 
-conchyliologiques dau genre Lottia, quoique le type soit 
trés-différent des Patelles ordinaires ; car il est possible 
que quelques-unes des espcces que l'on considére actuel- 
lement comme des Pafelles se trouvent étre des Lotta, 
lorsqu’on aura eu l'occasion d’ observer leurs animaux. 
On sait qu'il y a quatre noms employés pour désigner 
les Patelles A branchie de petite dimension. Acmaa est le 
premier en date, ayant été publié dans l'appendice du 
voyage de Kotzebue. J’aurais voulu conserver pour ce 
groupe fe vocable générique Teclura, employé (apres 


| Milne-Edwards) par Gray et MM. Adams: mais je trouve 
308 

















= iii 


que Sowerby sen., dans son Gen-ra, a figuré Vespéece 
originale comme type de son « Lottia, Gray. » 

C’est le docteur Cooper qui, le premier, a observé et 
signalé les particularités de l'animal; mais la diagnose 
que ie viens de donner est le résultat des études du doc- 
teur Alcock, qui a succédé au capitaine Brown comme 
curateur du Musée de Manchester. Il a fait Vanatomie de 
presque toutes les Patelles de la cote ouest d’ Amérique; 
mais je ne veux pas anticiper sur ses découvertes. Voici la 
diagnose de !’espéce typique. 


10. Lorria Giganrea, Gray. 


L. t.magna, crassiore, planata, expansa, textura smpius 
extus spongiosa; nucleo minore, corneo, nigro-fusco, an- 
cyliformi, vertice mamillato, subelevato; dein elongata, 
postice grisea, undulata ; €. adolescente verrucosa, radits 
obscuris, antice haud verrucosis; t. adulta plus minusve 
lata, plus minusve radiata sew verrucosa; apice plus 
minusve amargine remoto; parte antica seu haud exstante, 
seu circiter per quintam totius longitudinis projiciente, 
parte postica plus minusve elevata, convera; extus ut in 
« Acmea pelta » picta, albido-grisea, fusco-olivaceo coniose 
irregulariter strigata : intus, plerumque testudinaria, 
margine lato, nigro; spectro definito, seu rarius albido, 
cicatrice musculari fortiore, mterdum purpureo sew vio- 
laceo tincta. 

Long. (sp. normalis) 2°6, lat. 2°05, alt. *7, poll. A. 

Long. (sp. variantis) 2°95, lat. 235, all. °8, poll, B. 

On mesure de lapex jusqu’au bord anteéricur, dans le 
sp. A, °45. 

On mesure de Vapex jusqu’an bord antérieur, dans fe 
sp. B, ‘05. 

309 


Laltitude de Vapex en sp. A est de 6. 

Laltitude de apex en sp. B n'est que de °55. 

= Tecturella grandis, Cpr. Brit. Assoc. Rep., loc. cit., 
ou l'on peut voir quelques détails sur les variations de 
celle espece remarquable. 


41. Birricm (?van.) ESURIENS. 


B. t. « B. filoso » simili, sed multo minore, graciliore, 
interdum valde attenuata; sculptura t. juniore ut in 
« B. filoso; » sed t. udulta subobsoleta, interstitiis haud 
insculpiis. Long. *27, long. spir.°19, lat. °085, poll. : 
aw. 25°. . 

Hab. Neeah Bay, Swan. Sta.-Barbara, Jewell. — Mon- 
terey, San Pedro, Cooper. 

Bien que j'aie vu beaucoup dindividus de cette forme, 
et un plus grand nombre encore du B, filosum, Gld. 
(= Turritella Eschrichti, Midd. = Acirsa Eschrichti, 
Adams. Genera), je ne puis pas décider avec une certitude 
complete si c'est une véritable espece, ou seulement une 
varidlé dégradée et, pour ainsi dire, affamée (esuriens) du 
hb. filosum, qui, Wailleurs, ne varie pas. Comme le B. fi- 
losum ne s’élend pas aussi loin au sud, il est probable que 
les échanti!lons californiens doivent éire considérés comme 
di-tincls, tandis que les individus de la région Vancouvé- 
rienne peuvent étre réunis au B. filosum. Tous Jes indi- 
vidus qu’op a envoy.’s ¢laient tres-roulés. 


42. BirTiuMm ATTENUATUM. 


B. t. valde gracili, attenuata; anfr. nucl... (detritis) ; 
normalibus 10 planatis, suturis haudimpressis ; t. juniore 
lirulis spiralibus 2 anticts conspicuts, aliis posticis parum 


conspicuis, supra costulas circiter 11. radiantes transeun- 


310 


























— 143 — 

tibus; t. adulta costulis et lirulis anticis obsoletis; lirulis 
2. suturalibus ; basi prolongata, striis circiter 6 ornata; 
apertura ovali; columella intorta, parum emarginata. 
Long. *4., long. spir. 31, lat. (1, poll. : div. 18°. 

Hab. Monterey, Taylor. — Neeah Bay, Swan. 

Je nai vu qu'un seul échantiilon en bon état de cette 
espece. Elle a la taille du B. plicatum, 4. Ad., mais la 
sculpture de la base est différente. 


45. ?BITTIUM QUADRIFILATUM. 


2B. t. satis tereti, pallide cinerea, tenuisculpta; anfr. 
nucleosis, primo omnino ceelato, 2sinistrali, dein 2 levibus, 
rotundatis, apice quasi mamillato; anfr. normalibus 7 
subplanatis; suturis valde impressis, haud sculptis; cos- 
tulis radiantibus circ. 16-22, angustis, subrectis, anfr. 
ult. crebrioribus, suturam versus evanidis; filis spiralibus 
semper cequalibus, supra spiram & angustis, expressis, 
costulas transeuntibus, haud nodulosis; filis duabus alteris, 
inter quas sutura sita est; basi tenue striata; columella 
intorta, parum effusa; apertura ovata; labio parvo, labro 
tenui, parum arcuato. Long. °26, long. spir. *18, lat. -09, 
poll.: div. 25° 

Hib. S. Pedro, Cooper. —S. Divgo, Cassidy. 

Dans cette espéce et dans quelques autres trés voi- 
sines, les B. asperum et B- armulla‘um, par exemple, le 
nucléus est trés-différent de celui des Bittiwm typiques. 
Il est probable qu’elles n’appartiennent pas au méme 
genre. 

14. BARLEEIA SUBTENUIS. 


B. t. parva, tenut, interdum subdiaphana, rufo-cornea, 
anfr. nucleosis normalibus, apice submamillato; normali- 


bus 4, planatis, suturis distinctis ; bast rotundata; aper- 
oll 





— {44 — 


tura subovata, peritremate continuo; labro acuto; labio 
distincio, lacunam umbilicalem formante; columella sub- 
angulata operculo semilunato, dense rufo-vinoso, subho- 
mogeneo, haud spirali, rudi; apophyst prelonga antice 
columellam versus exstante. Long. *\1, long. spir. °07, 
lat. °06, poll. : div. 40°. 

Hab. S. Diego, Cassidy; sur lherbe, Cooper. — Cape 
St.-Lucas, Xanfus.— Mazatlan, Regen. 

Sil’on juge seulement d’apres ta coquille, on ne peut 
gucre séparer cette espéce des petites variclés dégradées de 
lV Hydrobia ulve d Europe. J’avais rapporté a cette espece 
quelques individus, en trés-mauvais ¢lat, de la collection 
Reigen (Maz. Cat., n° 417). Mais les individus frais qui 
ont éle recueillis, grace au zele du docteur Cooper, pos- 
sedent l’opercule remargquable des Barleeia, 


43. BARLEEIA (?SUBTENUIS, VAR.) RIMATA. 


B.t. « B. subtenui » simili; sed paulum tumidiore ; 
anfractibus minus planatis; rima umbilicali conspicua. 

Hab. S. Diego, Cassidy, Cooper. 

Peut-étre cette forme se trouvera-t-elle constituer une 
espéce distincte, lorsqu’elle sera mieux connue. 


46. BaRLEEIA HALIOTIPHILA. 


B. t. parva, turrita, levi, angusta, tenui, rufo-fusca; 
marginibus spire subrectis; anfr. nucleosis normalibus, 
vertice submamillato; norm. 5 subplanatis, suturis dis- 
tinctis; basi subplanata, obsolete angulata; aperturuovata, 
peritremati haud continuo; labro tenui; labio parum cal- 
loso; columella vir arcuata; operculo ut in« B. subtenui » 
Long. *A, long. spir. 06, lat. °05, div. 30°. 

Hab. Basse Californie, sur la partie dorsale d'une Ha- 
hioude, Rowell. 

312 








1 


f 
; 
; 
| 
; 





— 145 — 
Cette espéce est voisine du B. sublenu’s ; elle sen dis- 


lingue par sa taille beaucoup plus petite, et sa forme plus 
élancée. 


47. DRILLIA TOROSA. 


D. t. acuminata, levi, aurantio-fusca, epidermide au- 
rantio-olivacea induta; anfr. nucleosis ?...(detritis); nor- 
malibus 7 tumidioribus, suturis planatis; serie una tuber- 
culorum validorum, subrotundatorum, anfractu penul- 
timo 8, anfr. ultimo haud obsoletis; regione sinus parvi, 
rotundati paulum excavata; regione suturali haud 
sculpta; canali longiore; columella recta; labio tenui; labro 
acuto, postice sinuato. Long. *95, long. spur. °55, lat. °3, 
poll. : div. 30°. 

Hab. Monterey, Taylor, Cooper. 


Cette espéce, ainsi que d’autres Plewrofomide califor- 
niens, appartient a un groupe particulier, dont le D. cner- 
mis, Hinds, peut étre considéré comme le type. Peut-étre 
ces formes seraient-elles mieux placées dans le sous-genre 
Chonella, qui est vraiment marin, d’apres les observations 
du docteur Stimpson sur les espéces du cap de Bonne- 
Espérance, et non pas Mélanien, comme |’a supposé le 
docteur Gray, et comme l’ont dit, aprés lui, MM. Adams 
et Chenu. | 


48. Drivyra (?7TOROSA, var.) AURANTIA. 


D. t. « D. torose » simili, sed aurantia ; linea suturali 
expressa; interdum spiraliter sculpta. Long. °6, long. 
spir. °32, lut. -28, poll.: div. 38°. 

Hab. San Diego, Cassidy. — San Pedro, Cooper. 

Les individus des localités méridionales étaient tous en 


mauvais état, et je ne suis pas encore convaincu qu ils ap- 


parliennent a la méme espéce. 
313. 


— 146 — 


49. DRiLLiA PENICILLATA, 


D. t. « D. inermi » forma et indole simili; sed cinerea, 
rufo-fusco dense penicillata; lineolis creberrimis, inter- 
dum diagonalibus, seu zic-zacformibus, seu varie inter= 
ruptws ; anfractibus planatis, plicato-costatis, costulis cir- 
citer 1h, regione sinus minimi, lati, expansi interrupltis, 
postice nodosis ; canali effusa.—Long. 4°35, long. spir. “75, 
lat. 42, poll. : div. 25°. 

Hab. Cerros Is., basse Californie, Veatch. 


Tous les individus que j'ai vus de cette espéce étaient 
excessivement roulés, mais on peut la reconnailre trés- 
facilement a sa coloration élégante. 


90. ? DAPHNELLA ASPERA. 


?D. t. parva, tenui, rufo-fusca, gracili, angusta, fusi- 
formi, epidermide tenus induta; anfr. nucleosis 2 levibus, 
vertice contorlo; normalibus (t. adolescente) 4 elongatis, 
fenestratis, suturis distinctis ; costulis radiantibus circi- 
ter 13 angustis, acutis, et costulis spiralibus, in spira 
3, unfractu ultimo circiter 10, angustis, acutis, radiantes 
superantibus, eleganter decussata ; intersectionibus subno- 
dulosis, interstitiis quadratis ; apertura elongata, an- 
gusta, antice effusa; labro postice vix sinuato. — Long. 
“11, long. spir. 09, lat. :08, poll.: div. 33°. 

Hab. Monterey, Taylor. 

Je n'ai vu de cette charmante petite coquille qu'un 
seul échantillon trés-frais, mais incomplétement adulte. 
Peut-étre se trouvera-t-elle mieux placée dans le genre 
Mitromorpha, A. Adams? 


91. ODOSTOMIA STRAMINEA. 


O. t. « O. inflate, var. elutiort » simili, sed multo ela- 
314 














— 147 — 

tiore; haud inflata, epidermide striminea, haud striu- 
lata. — Long. °18, long. spir. °08, lat. 1, poll. : div. 40. 

Hab. basse Californie (sur la partie dorsale d’une [a- 
liotide’, Rowell. — Cap St.-Lucas, Xantus. 

On peut facilement distinguer cette espéce de celles du 
Nord par sa spire allongée et son épiderme d’un jaune 
de paille. 


22. CHEMNITZIA TRIDENTATA. 


Ch. t. (quoad genus) magna, compacta, latiore; casta- 
nea, interdum fasciis pallidioribus; anfr. nucleosis 3 heli- 
coideis, apice conspicuo, marginibus spire rectis parum 
superantibus ; normalibus (4 subplanatis, suturis distinc- 
tis; costis rectis acutis, interdum 19, interdum 24 tenus, 
haud attingentibus, circa peripheriam haud subito evani- 
dis; interstitiis undatis, eleganter spiraliter sulcatis ; 
sulculis circiter 8-10, costis haud superantibus ; apertura 
subquadrata; labro intus tridentato; columella tortuosa; 
basi rotundata.g—Long. *45, long. spir. *35, lat. 12, poll.: 
div. 16°. 

Hab. Santa Barbara, Jewett. — Puget Sound, Kenner- 
ley — Monterey, San Pedro, Cooper. | 


Les trois dents de cette belle esptce, cachées tout a fait 
a l’intérieur de louverture, comme dans plusieurs especes 
du genre Obeliscus, ont été, pour la premiére fois, ob- 
servées sur un individu cassé et roulé de Santa Barbara. 
Celui-ci a 22 cétes ; celui de Monterey, 20; celui du nord, 
19; et ceux de San Diego, 24. 


25. CHEMNITZIA (?var.) AURANTIA. 


Ch. t.« Ch. chocolate » simili, sed multo minore, latiore, 
haud tereti, aurantia; anfr. nucleosis ?... (detritis); nor- 


malibus T,planatis, suturis impressis; costulis radiant?s 
ald 


— 148 — 
bus circiter 26, haud expressis, ad peripheriam evanidis, 
interstitiis late undatis ; lineolis spiralibus castaneis cre- 
berrimis tota superficie ornata; basi subrotundata; colu- 
mella parum torta; apertura ovata; labro tenui, acuto ; 
labio haud conspicuo.—Long. *23, long. spir. 16, lat. -07, 
poll.: div. 20°. 


Hab. Santa Barbara, Jewelt.—Puget Sound, Kennerley. 


Il est possible qu’on reconnaisse plus tard que cette 
espéce est le jeune age du Ch. tridentata ; elle est inter- 
médiaire entre elle et le Ch. chocolata. 


2h. VOLUTELLA PYRIFORMIS. 


V.t. parva, « V. margaritule » simili, sed aurantiaco 
pallide tincta; antice angustiore, magis elongata; labio 
conspicuo; labro postice parum sinuato, intus denticulis 
minus expressis ornato; plicis columellaribus normalibus, 
acutioribuse—Long. *\, lat. *065, poll. 

Hab. San Diego, Cooper. —California, « Pacific Rail- 
way exploring Expedition. » . 

Cette espéce ressemble au V. margaritula (Maz. Cat., 
n° 589), mais elle est plus allongée en avant. Le genre 
Vowutelia, Swainson (non d’Orbigny), correspond au genre 
Ciosva de Gray. 


25. Ocrnesra Potrsont (Nutt. ms.). 


O. t. turrita, solidu, tuteo-albida, rufo-sanguineo spi- 
raliter lineata; vertice nucleoso parvo, levi, parum tu- 
mente: t. guniore rhomboidea, haud varicosa, spira pla- 
nata, peripheria subangulata, canali recta, longiore, la- 
bro intus dentato, labio distincto, subcalloso : t. adulta, 
anfr. 7 primis planatis, posticis tumidis; suturis pla- 


natis, sedarea posticaconcava; costis subvaricosts crebris, 
316 




















= Ag a= 

tumentibus, irregularibus, anfractu ultimo 7, circiter 
quinquies subnodosis; tola superficie spiraliter crebre ine 
sculpta ; sulcis punctatis, rufo-sanguineis ; apertura ovali; 
labro acutiore, dorsaliter tumido, varicoso, intus dentibus 
validis circiter 6 munito; labio solido, sub suturam dente 
valido parietali munito, super columellam calloso; canali 
breviore, aperto. — Long. 1°85, long. spir. *96, lat. 93, 
poll. : div. 38». 

Hab. San Diego, Nuttall. —-Cerros Is., Veatch. — 
Santa Barbara, Jewett. 


Je n'ai vu que trois individus de cette belle espéce : 
Pun deux, qui est typique, porte le nom de «- Buccinum 
Poulsont » dans la collection Nuttall qui fait partie du 
Musée britannique : un second, trés-jeune, et d’un as- 
pect fort particulier, bien qu'il appartienne évidemment 
a la méme espcce, a élé recueilli par le colonel Jewett, 
probablement a Santa Barbara (mais, d’apreés son étiquette, 
a Panama): enfin celui du docteur Veatch provient de la 
basse Californie, et i] est en trés-mauvais état. Le premier 
a été dessiné sur bois pour Jinstitution Smithsonienne 
par M. Sowerby. Comme cette espéce intéressante est 
presque inconnue en France, j’ai cru devoir en donnez 
une description suffisamment précise. Pip Gs 

317 ‘ 








a 
ie 





| THE PLEISTOCENE FOSSILS 


COLLECTED BY 


COL. E. JEWETT, AT STA. BARBARA, CALIFORNIA; 


WITH 


DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pu.D. 


_ From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, Vol. 
| XVII., pp. 274—278, April, 1866. 


( 319 ) 








L 





[From the ANNALS AND Macazine or Natura Utstory 
for April 1866. | 


—e 


ON 


THE PLEISTOCENE FOSSILS 
COLLECTED BY Cox. E. JEWETT AT Sra. BARBARA, CALIFORNIAg 


WITH 
DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 


BY 


PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pa.D. 


Tue study of the recent and tertiary mollusks of the west coast 
of America is peculiarly interesting and instructive, for the fol- 
lowing reasons. It is the largest unbroken line of coast in the 
world, extending from 60° N. to 55° S., without any material 
salience exeept the promontory of Lower California. Being 
flanked by an almost continuous series of mountain-ranges, the 
highest in the New World, it might reasonably be supposed that 
the coast-line had been separated from the Atlantic from remote 
ages. The almost entire dissimilarity of its faunas from those 
of the Pacific Islands, from which it is separated by an immense 
breadth of deep ocean from north to south, marks it out as con- 
taining the most isolated of all existing groups of species, both in 
its tropical and its temperate regions. When we go back in time, 
we are struck by the entire absence of anything like the boreal 
drift, which has left its ice-scratchings and arctic shells over so 
large a portion of the remaining temperate regions of the northern 
hemisphere, and also by the very limited remains of what can 
fairly be assigned to the Eocene age. The great bulk of the 
land on the Pacific slope of North America (so far as it is not 
of volcanic origin) appears to have been deposited during the 
Miocene epoch. Here and there only are found beds whose 
fossils agree in the main with those now living in the neigh- 
bouring seas. To trace the correspondences and differences 
21 : 321 


2 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on Pleistocene Fossils 


between these and their existing representatives may be expected 
to present results analogous to those now being worked out 
with such discerning accuracy from the various newer beds of 
modern Europe. 

The first collection of Californian ae seen in the east was 
made near Sta. Barbara by Col. E. Jewett in 1849; but no ac- 
count was published of them before the list in the British Asso- 
ciation Report (1863), p.539. They consist of forty-six species, 
of which twenty-nine are known to be now living in the Cali- 
fornian seas, and others may yet be found there. The followi ing 
ten are Vancouver species, some of which may travel down to 
the northern part of California :— 


Margarita pupilla, Priene Oregonensis, 
Galerus fastigiatus, Trophon Orpheus, 
Bittium filosum, Chrysodomus carinatus, 
Lacuna solidula, C. tabulatus, and 
Natica clausa, C. dirus. 


Some of these are distinctly boreal shells, as are also Crepidula 
grandis (of which Col. Jewett obtained a giant, 35 inches long, 
and which now lives on a smaller scale in Kamtschatka) and 
Trophon tenuisculptus (whose relations will be presently poimted 
out). So far, then, we have a condition of things differing from 
that of the present seas, somewhat as the Red Crag differs from 
the Coralline. But in the very same bed (and the shells are in 
such beautiful condition that they all appear to have lived on 
the spot, which was perhaps suddenly caused to emerge by 
voleanic agency) are found not only tropical species which even 
yet struggle northwards into the same latitudes (as Chione 
suecincta), ‘but also species now found only in southern regions, 
as Cardium graniferum and Pecten floridus. Besides these, 
the following, unknown except in this bed, are of a distinctly 


tropical type, viz. : 


Opalia, var. insculpta. Pisania fortis. 
Chrysallida, sp. 

From a single collection made only at one spot, in a few 
weeks, and from the very fragmentary information to be derived 
from the collections of the Pacific Railway surveys (described by 
Mr. Conrad, and tabulated in the Brit. Assoc. Report, 1863, 
pp. 589- -596), it would be premature to draw inferences. We 
shall await with great interest the more complete account to be 
given by Mr. Gabb in the Report of the California Geological 
Survey. With the greatest urbanity, that gentleman has ‘sent 
his doubtful Pleistocene fossils to the writer, to be compared 
with the living fauna; but it would be unfair here to give any 


22 





























from Sta. Barbara, California. 3 


account of them, except that they confirm the foregoing state- 
ments in their general character. 
The following are diagnoses of the new species in Col. Jewett’s 
collection. 
Turritella Jewettit. 


T. testa satis tereti, haud tenui, cinerea rufo-fuseo tincta; anfr. 
subplanatis, suturis distinctis ; lirulis distantibus (quarum t. jun. 
duze extantiores) et striolis subobsoletis spiralibus cincta; basi 
parum angulata; apertura subquadrata; labro tenui, modice si- 
nuato. 


Hab, Sta. Barbara, Pleistocene formation (Jewett). San Diego, 
on beach (Cassidy). 

This species comes nearest to 7. sanguinea, Rve., from the 
Gulf, but differs in the faintness of the sculpture. Mr. Cassidy’s 


specimens may be washed fossils, or very poor recent shells. 


Bittium Pasperum. 

B. testa B. quadrifilato forma, magnitudine, et indole simili, sed 
sculptura intensiore ; eodem vertice nucleoso abnormali; sed, vice 
filorum, costulis spiralibus costas spirales superantibus, subnodu- 
losis; t. jun. costulis 11. anticis majoribus, alteris minimis ; postea 
plerumque iv. subzequalibus, interdum ii. interdum aliis inter- 
ealantibus; sculptura basali intensiore; costis radiantibus sub- 
arcuatis. 


?== Turbonilla aspera, Gabb, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Se. Phila- 
delphia, 1861, p. 368. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara, fossil in Pleistocene beds; abundant (Jeweft). 
S. Pedro, S. Diego, Catalina Is. 30-40 fms. (Cooper), State Col. 
no. 591. 


Mr. Gabb informs me that his Turbonilla aspera is a Bittium. 
Unfortunately the type is not accessible; and as the diagnosis 
would fit several closely allied species, it cannot be said with 
precision to which it rightfully applies. As this is the com- 
monest of the group, it is presumed that it is the “ Turbonilla” 
intended. Should the type, however, be recovered, and prove 
distinct, this shell should take the name of B. rugatum, under 
which I wrote the diagnosis, and which was unfortunately 
printed in the Brit. Assoc. Report, p.539. The fossil specimens 
are in much better condition than the recent shells as yet dis- 
covered. 

Bittium armillatum. 


B. testa B. aspero simili; anfr. nucl. ii. levibus, tumentibus, vertice 

declivi, celato ; dein anfr. ix. normalibus planatis, suturis impressis ; 

t. adolescente seriebus nodulorum tribus spiralibus extantibus, 

supra costas instructis; costis radiantibus cire. xiii. fere parallelis, 
323 


4. Dr. P. P. Carpenter on Pleistocene Fossils 


seriebus, a suturis separatis, spiram ascendentibus; t. adulta, 
costulis spiralibus, interdum iv., intercalantibus ; costulis radianti- 
bus creberrimis; costis suturalibus 11. validis, haud nodosis; basi 
effusa, liris cire. vi. ornata; apertura subquadrata; labro labioque 
tenuibus ; columella vix torsa, effusa, vix emarginata. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara, Pleistocene, 1 sp. (Jewett). S. Pedro, 
S. Diego (Cooper). 

The sculpture resembles Cerithiopsis; but the columella is 
pinched, not notched. 


Opalia (?erenatoides, var.) insculpta. 


O. testa O. crenatoidei simili; sed costis radiantibus pluribus, xiii.— 
xVi., in spira validis; anfr. ult. obsoletis; sculptura spirali nulla; 
punctis suturalibus minus impressis, circa fasciam basalem lever 
postice, non antice continuis. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara, Pleistocene, 1 sp. (Jewett). 


Very closely related to O. erenatoides, now living at Cape 
St. Lucas, and, with it, to the Portuguese O. crenata. It 1s 
. a ’ = . . 
quite possible that the three forms had a common origin. 


Trophon tenuisculptus. 


T. testa 7. Barvicensi simili, sed sculptura minus extante; vertice 
yucleoso minimu ; anfractibus uno et dimidio leevibus, apice acuto; 
normalibus v., tumidis, postice subangulatis, suturis impressis ; 
costis radiantibus x.—xiv., plerumque xu., haud varicosis, angustis, 
obtusis ; liris spiralibus majoribus, distantibus, quarum u.-in. m 
spira monstrantur, aliis interea‘antibus, supra costas radiantes 
undatim transeuntibus; tota superficie lirulis incrementi, supra 
liras spirales squamosis, eleganter ornata; canali longiore, sub- 
recta, vix clausa; labro acutiore, postice et intus incrassato, denti- 
bus cire. v. munito; labio conspicuo, levi; columeila torsa. 


Hab. Sta. Barbara, Pleistocene formation (Jewett). 


This very elegant shell is like the least-sculptured forms of 
T. Barvicensis, trom which it appears to differ in its extremely 
small nucleus. It is very closely related to 7. fimbriatulus, A. Ad., 
from Japan, but differs in texture, and is regarded by Mr. Adams 
as distinct. It stands on the confines of the genus, there being 
a slight columellar twist, as in Peristernia. 


Pisania fortis. 


P. testa P. insigni simili, sed solidiore; crassissima, sculptura valde 
impressa ; anfr. norm. v., parum rotundatis, suturis distinctis ; 
costis radiantibus t. juniore circ. xii., obtusis, parum expressis, 
postea obsoletis; liris spiralibus validis, crebris (quarum t. juniore 
V., postea X., in spira monstrantur), subeequalibus, anticis majorie 


324 











from Sta. Barbara, California. 5 


bus; canali recurvata; lacuna umbilicali magna; labro intus 
erebrilirato ; labio conspicuo, spiraliter rugose lirato. 


Hab. Sta Barbara, Pleistocene formation (Jewett). 


Col. Jewett’s single specimen is in very fine condition, and is 
confirmed by a frazment obtained by Mr. Gabb, the paleeonto- 
logist to the California State Survey. Although resembling 
Purpura aperta and congeners in the irregular rugose folds of 
the labium, and Siphonalia in the strongly bent canal, Mr. H. 
Adams considers that its affinities are closest with the Cantharus 
eroup of Pisania. That genus is extremely abundant in the 
tropical fauna, but does not now live in California. It is the 
only distinctly tropical shell in the whole collection; and its 
presence, along with so many boreal species and ty pes, appears 
somewhat anomalous, like the appearance of Voluta and Cassi- 
daria in the Crag ame It is distinguished from the extreme 
forms of P. insignis by having the spiral liree pretty equally dis- 
tributed over the early whorls, by the close internal ribbing of 
the labrum, by the absence of the stout posterior parietal tooth, 
and by the great development of the columellar folds. 





Note.— Unfortunately, during the long interval which has elapsed 
between the transmission of the MS. and receipt of the proof, the 
types have been returned to the owner, and (with the remainder of 
Col. Jewett’s invaluable collection of fossils) have become the pro- 
perty of a college in New York State. As they are packed in boxes, 
and at present inaccessible, I am unable to give the measurements ; 
but the unique specimens were drawn on wood by Mr. eeyerby for 
the Smithsonian Institution.—P. P. C., Montreal, Feb. 22, 1866. 
325 





_ ia 























Acanthochites \ 

Acanthochiton 
achates, 72. 
avicula, 98, 136. 


INDEX OF SPECIES. 


N. B. The numbers without capitals refer to the foot-paging in this volume : 
those with capitals to the original works quoted in the list, O-X. 


Acirsa 
borealis, 245. 
Eschrichtii, 310. 
menesthoides; 104, 217. 


arragonites, 108, O 252, O 318, | Aclis 


P 198. 
Acanthopleura 
Californica, 135- 
fluxa, 98, 135. 
muscosa, 16. 
Acar 
gradata, 69. 
Achatina 
Albersi, P 175, O 287. 
Californica, 59. 
conularis, O 287. 
coronata, O 295. 
cylindracea, 0 286. 
fusiformis, O 285. 
Isabellina, O 286. 
Liebmanni, O 295. 
octona, 44. 
pulchella, P 177. 
Sowerbyana, O 286. 
streptostyla, O 295. 
tortillana, O 286. 
turris, 59, P 175. 
zebra, P 176. 
Acicula 
turris, P 175. 
Acila 
insignis, 73- 
castrensis, 
165. 
Lyalli, 130. 


88, 91, 98, 


130, 


ascaris, P 438. 

fusiformis, O 260, O 335, P 437- 

tumens, O 260, O 335, P 438. 

Acmeza 

eruginosa, 19, 84, O 283, O 
319. 

ancylus, O 174, O 215, P 208, 
V 221. 

?ancyloides, 19, O 215. 

Antillarum, P 203, O 364. 

Asmi, 19, 23, 136. 

atrata, 27, 104, 152, 213. 

biradiata, 268 

cantharus, 214. 

cassis, 7, O 173, O 178, O 290, 
O 319, O 348. 

var. cinis, O 233. 

ceca, 19. 

cribraria, 16, O 211, O 319. 

diaphana, O 319. 

digitalis, 7, 136, O 174, O 319. 

discors, 60. 

dorsuosa, 72. 

fascicularis, 108, 268, O 233, 
O 239, O 252, O 319, O 351, 
O 364, P 203, P 206, P 210, 
P 546. 

fimbriata, O 319. 

floceata, 268. 

(?floccata, var.) filosa, 267. 


(13) 


INDEX OF SPECIES. 


Acmeza 


(?floceata, var.) subrotunda, 37, 
268. 

gigantea, O 229, O 233, O 297. 

grandis, O 282, O 283, O 297, 
O 319, O 351. 

instabilis, O 212. 

Kochii, O 229, O 233. 

var. limulata, 26, 136, 151. 

livescens, O 319. 

mamillata, 7, O 173, O 199, 
O 215, V 222. 

marmorea, O 173, O 199, O 215, 
Vi222: 

Mazatlandica, O 319. 

mesoleuca, 16, 24, 27, 104, 197, 
214, O 208, O 209, O 229, 
O 233, O 239, O 241, O 252, 
O 276, O 283, O 319, O 348, 
O 352, O 366, P 203, P 206, 
P 208, P 210, P 546. 

mitella, 24, 92, 108, 0 236, O 319, 
O 252, O 291, O 364, P 2I0, 
P 538. 

mitra, 0 173, 0177, 0 199, O 212, 
O 213, O 215, V 222. 

monticola, 72. 

var. monticula, 72. 

mutabilis, O 239, 0 252, P 203, 
P 205, P 206, P 546. 

Oregona, 170, O 229, 0 233, O 240. 

paleacea, O 227, O 229, U 204. 

patina, 16, 23, 48, 48, 49, 69, 72, 
92, 104, 136, 170, 214, O 173, 
O 174, 0 190, O 198, 0 1909, 
O 209, 0 215, O 219, 0 229, 
O 233, 0 252,90 290,0 291, 
O 319,90 347,09 348, 9 351, 
O 353, P 203, P 207, V 221. 

pelta, 16, 19, 23, 26, 48, 49, 84, 
92, 136, 214, 309, O 1629011735 
O 199, O 223,09 291,0 319, 
V 221. 

persona, 16, 19, 23, 26, 84, 136, 
151, 170, O 174, O 175, O 199, 
© 229,0 233,90 252,90 291, 





Acmea 
O 348, 0 351,0 353, P 208, 
Vi221. 
personoides, O 215, O 319, iP 
203. 


pileolus, 0 215, O 319. 
(?pileolus, var.) rosacea, 136. 
pintadina, 92, O 229, O 233. 
radiata, O 174, O 215, P 208, 
V 221. 
rosacea, 100, 136. 
scabra, 13, 23, 26, 84, 136, 151, 
O 199, 0 213, 0 229, 0 233; 
O 252, O 282, O 319, 0 349, 
O 351, O 352, 0 353, V 222. 
scurra, 0 190, O 215, V 222. 
scutum, 19, 170,90 173, O 190, 
O 215, O 219, P 207, P 209, 
V 221, V 222. 
ISieboldi, 69. 
spectrum, 16, 23, 26, 84, 136, 
151, O 199, O 213, O 229, 
O 233, 0 319, O 351, V 222. 
striata, O 319, O 360. 
strigatella, 152, 214, 268. 
strigillata, 104. 
subrotundata, 268. 
tessellata, O 229, O 233- 
testudinalis, 92,0 219, O 366, 
P 203. 
textilina, O 213, O 319. 
var. textilis, 151. 
toreuma, O 319, O 349- 
var. umbonata, 136. 
vernicosa, 24, 268. 
verriculata, O 229, O 233- 
vespertina, 268, O 319. 
(?vespertina, var.) vernicosa, 
37- 
virginea, 136. 
Acroloxus 
Nuttalli, 161. 
Acrybia 
aperta, 71. 
Actinia 
candida, Q 235. 








INDEX OF SPECIES. 15 


Actinocyclus 
Sandiegensis, 94. 
Actinobolus 
borealis, 70. 
ventricosus, 17. 
Acus 
luctuosus, P 387. 
Adamsiella 
Osberti, 44. 
Adeorbis 
abjectus, 188, 190, O 273. 
scaber, O 295, O 322, P 354. 
Verrauxii, 62. 
Admete 
arctica, 71, O 329. 
erispa, O 217. 
viridula, 71, O 329 
Adrana 
lanceolata, 131. 
Adula 
cinnamomea, 38, 237. 
falcata, 21, 26, 130, 237. 
parasitica, 237. 
soleniformis, 236. 
stylina, 85, 113, 130, 155, 237. 
Zgopsis ~ 
cultellata, 159. 
4Eneta 
harpa, 110. 
Zzolis 
iodinea, 94, 95. 
Barbarensis, 95. 
opalescens, 94, 95- 
pinnata, O 313. 
Agaronia 
hiatula, O 177, O 366, P 472, 
P 473. 
Steeriw, O 366. 
testacea, 24, 28, 153, 155, 178, 
O 340,0 282, 0 366, P 272, 
P 473. 
Aglaia 
fidelis, 157. 
infumata, 157. 
Akera 
culcitella, O 227, U 203. 





Alaba 
alabastrites, O 257, O 327, P 
308. 
Conica O25 7mOm327-6be Vile. 
P 368. 
laguncula, O 257, O 328, P 
369. 
mutans) © 257-sOme2oye bes 7, 
P 369; P. 370. 
scalata, O 257, O 327, P 368. 
supralirata, 109, 259, O 257, 
O 327, O 364, P 366, P 367, 
P3695 P 530: 
terebralis, 109, O 257, O 327, 
P2676 
tervaricosa, O 364. 
violacea, O 257, O 327, P 367. 
Alasmodon 
Alasmodonta i 
arcuata, O 211. 
falcata, 85, 120, O 210, O 2rt, 
O 212, O 213, O 234, O 310. 
margarifera, var. O 210. 
Yubaénsis, 117, 120, 
Aletes 
centiquadrus, 24, 27, 37, 42, 43, 
108, 194, O 324, O 255, O 275, 
P! Zor, P3062 
?fcentiquadrus, var. imbricatus, 
42, O 255, P 303. 
margaritarum, 42,0 255, O 324, 
E3082 
Peronii, O 282, O 324. 
squamigerus, 43, O 200, O 233, 
O 324,90 349, P 303, P 304, 
V 226. 
Alora 
Gouldii, 24, 40. 
Alvania 
effusa, O 257, O 327, P 359. 
excurvata, O 257, O 327, P 359, 
P 360. 
filosa, 114, 142, 241. 
inconspicua, O 327. 
reticulata, 114, 142, 241. 
terebellum, O 327. 


16 


Alvania 

tumida, 36, 109, 189, O 327, 
O 357, P 359, P 360. 
turrita, O 327. 

4malia 
columbiana, 159. 

Amalthea 
effodiens, R 5. 

Grayana, P 299, R 4. 
Panamensis, P 297, R 3. 

Amiartis 

callosa, 22, 26, 39, 106, 126, 151, 
279. 

Amicula 
vestita, 71. 

Amnicola 
Hindsii, 90. 
longinqua, 79, 162, O 283, 325. 
Nuttalliana, 84, 162, 
protea, 79, 162, O 283, O 325. 
seminalis $4. 

Amphidesma (—Semele) 
bicolor, 203, O 279. 
Californicum, O 289. 
corbuloides, O 222. 
corrugatum, 62. 
decisum, O 195, O 228, V 213. 
ellipticum, 39, 203, O 279. 
flavescens, O 226, U 199. 
nucleolus, P 108. 
physoides, P 105. : 
proximum, 39, 62, 203, O 279, 

O 289, P 28. 
pulchrum, 203, O 188, O 280. 
punctatum, O 182. 
roseum, O 195, O 228, V 213. 
rubrolineatum, O 195, V 212. 
rupium, O 182. 
striosum, 39, 203, O 280, 
tortuosum, 203, O 280. 
venustum, P 28. 
ventricosum, 39, 203, O 280. 

Amphichena 
Kindermanni, O 297. 
regularis, 104, 210, 








INDEX OF SPECIES. 


Amphithalamus 
inclusus, 23, 100, 142, 283. 
lacunatus, 99, 143. 
Ampullaria 
cerasum, O 291. 
Columbiensis, 155, O 291. 
Cumingii, O 179, O 291, O 326, 
malleata, O 295, O 326. 
Amusium 
caurinum, 22, 70, 73, 74, 81, 131, 
165, 169. 
Amycla 
Californiana, 23, 148, 
chrysalloidea, 99, 148. 
corniculata, 288. 
gausapata, 23, 25, 76, 114, 148, 
149. 
Gouldiana, 53. 
minor, 288. 
tuberosa, 23, 25, 114, 148, 288. 
undata, 99, 148. 
Anachis 
albonodosa, O 263, O 343, P 512. 
atramentaria, 180, O 361, O 344. 
auriflua, 112. 
azora, O 225. 
Californica, 25. 
conspicua, 180, O 269, O 344. 
coronata, 25, 112, 151,155, 0 263, 
O 171, O 343, P 508, P 513. 
costellata, 25, 180,O0 210, O 225, 
O 263, O 343, O 364 P 506, 
P 507. 
2costellata, var. O 263. 
(?costellata, var.) pachyderma, 
O 263, P 507. 
costulata, O 363. 
diminuta, 25, 180, O 269, 0 344. 
fulva, 180, O 263, O 283, O 343, 
P 509. 
fluctuata, 25, 59, 61, 180, O 344. 
fuscostrigata, 105, 221. 
Gaskoinei, 20, 53, 112, 260, 0 263, 
O 343, P 511. 
gracilis, 180, O 344. 























INDEX OF SPECIES. 17 


Anachis 


Guatemalensis, 35, 181. 

lentiginosa, O 344. 

lyrata, 25, 53, 180, O 344. 

maculosa, O 263. 

mesta, 181, O 270, O 344, P 509. 

nigricans, 25, 181, O 344, O 361, 
P 509. 

nigrofusea, O 263, O 343, P 509. 

nucleolus, O 343. 

pallida, 112, O 343. 

parva, O 344. 

fpenicillata, 23, 150, 288. 

pygmeza, 25, 35,112, 181, O 263, 
O 343, O 363, P 510, P 511. 

pygmea, var. O 284, P 510. 

pulchrior, 112. 

rufotincta, 34,0 263, O 343, 
peo tits 

rugosa, 25,59, 181, O 283, 0 344. 

rugulosa, O 361, O 344. 

sealarina, 35, 180, O 263, O 343, 
P 505. 

serrata, 112, 260, O 343, O 263, 
P 509. 

subturrita, 99, 150. 

terpsichore, O 364. 

tesselata, O 270, O 344. 

tincta, 105, 221. 

teniata, 112, 260, O 343. 

varia, 25, 181, O 344, P 507. 


Anatina 


alta, 39, 204, O 280. 
argentaria, O 231. 


Anculosus 


Nuttalli, 162. 


Ancylus 


caurinus, 85, 161. 
crassus, I6I. 

fragilis, 161. 
Kootaniensis, 90, 161. 
Newberryi, 161. 
Nuttalli, 85. 
patelloides, 120, 161. 


Anellum 


annulatum, X 442, 


2 





Anellum 


clathratum, O 256, O 324, X 442. 

elegantissimum, X 443. 

felegantissimum, var. Searles— 
Woodii, X 443. 

elongatum, O 256, O 324, X 442. 

var. semileve, X 442. 

firmatum, O 256, O 324, X 442. 

Floridanum, X 442. 

gracile, X 443. 

gurgulio, X 442. 

?parvum, O 324. 

pulchellum, X 442. 

quadratum, O 256, O 324, X 442. 

? var. compactum, X 442. 

regulare, X 443. 

subimpressum, O 256, O 324, 
X 442. 

trachea, X 442. 

? var. obsoletum, X 442. 

tumidum, X 442. 

undatum, O 256, O 324, X 443. 











Angulus 


amplectans, 155, 272. 
decumbens, 271. 

Gouldii, 125, 151, 300. 
modestus, 88, 125, 167. 
obtusus, 125, 235. 

tener, 88, 125, 167. 
variegatus, 97, 113, 125, 235. 


Anodon (=—Anodonta) 


angulata, 17, 18, 86, 92, 120, 
164, O 206, O 210, O 212, 
O 297, O 309. 

anatina, O 222. 

anserina, P 117. 

atrovirens, O 295, O 309. ; 

Californiensis, 77. 

cellensis, O 222. 

ciconia, O 170, O 232, O 227, 
O 309, O 248, P 117, U 202. 

cognata, 17, 91, O 210, O 212, 
O 310. 

cornea, O 295, O 309. 

feminalis, 17, 86, 120, O 210, 
O 212, O 213, O 309. 


18 


Anodonta 
glauca, 27, 30, O 170, O 227, 
O 248, O 309, P 117, P 550. 
herculea, O 222. 
implicata, P 117. 
Montezuma, O 265. 
Nicarague, O 295, O 309. 
Nuttalliana, 91, 164, O 
O 211, O 309, V 218. 
17, 86, 91, 164, 
213, O 309, V 


197; 


Oregonensis, 
O 197, O 
218, 

Randalli, 117, 120. 

rotundovata, 117, 120. 

sinuata, P 117. 

sinuosa, P 117. 

triangularis, 117. 

triangulata, 120. 

Wahlamatensis, 86, 91, 92, 120, 
164, O 197, 0 309, V 218. 

Anomala 

Cumingii, O 287. 

inflata, O 287. 

insignis, O 287. 

Anomalocardia 

flexuosa, O 364, P 79. 

subimbricata, 23, 27, 38, 43, 55, 
106, 201, O 170, O 247, O 282, 
©) 306, P79; B80. 

subrugosa, 23, 201, O 229, O 232, 
O 241,0 247, 0 282, O 306, 
O 364, P 79. 

Anomia 

Adamas, O 186, O 312, O 359. 

ephippium, O 222. 

fidenas, O 186, O 312. 

lampe, 24, 27, 38, 132, 151, 154, 

195, 198, O 192, O 208, O 241, 
O 250,0 277,0 281,0 286, 
Ogr2, P 167: 

macroschisma, 85, O 203, O 218, 
Oj221, O 222. 

olivacea, 72. 

patelliformis, O 218, 

Ruffini, 76. 

subcostata, 76, 81. 


INDEX OF SPECIES. 


Anomia 
tenuis, 38, 198, O 277, O 312. 
Aplexa 
aurantia, P 179, P 180. 
elata, P 180. 
hypnorum, P 179. 
Maugere, P 180. 
Peruviana, P 180. 
Aphrodite 
columba, 47. 
Aplysia 
Californica, 95. 
Arca 
equilatera, O I. 
alternata, 200, O 229, O 277. 
Americana, O 249, P 139. 
arata, 75. 
auriculata, O 277. 
aviculoides, 38, 200, O 277. 
barbata, var. P 140. 
bicolorata, P 140. 
bifrons, O 249, O 310, P 134. 
Braziliana, O 289. 
brevifrons, 136, O 249, O 310. 
canalis, So. ‘ 
cardiiformis, O 285, 0 289, O 310, 
clathrata, O 249, P 142, P 143. 
coucinna, O 183, O 229, O 310. 
congesta, 80. 
devincta, O 367. 
Domingensis, O 249, P 142. 
donaciformis, O 249, P 142. . 
emarginata, 200, O 183, O 249, 
0 277, O'310, P1375 
formosa, O 183, O 234, O 310. 
fusca, O 243, P 140. 
gradata, 200, O 175,0 229, O 278, 


IPATATs 
grandis, 23, 85, 153, 200, 260, 
O 1,0 160, O , 175; 0517183" 


O 208,00 226,0 229, O 234, 
O 249, O 278, 0 366, P 132, 
P34: 

hemicardium, O 234, O 249 
01278, P 136. 

Helbingii, 62, O 278. 




















INDEX OF SPECIES. 19 


Arca 


illota, var. O 278. 
imbricata, O 249, P 139. 
incongrua, O 249, P 134, P 135. | 


Arcturus 


rudis, 9. 


Argina 


brevifrons, 31, 154. 


labiata, O 183,0 249,0 310, Argobuccinum 


O 363, P 134. 

labiosa, O 249, P 134. 

?lurida, O 226. 

microdonta, 75. 

multicostata, 27, 85, 102, 107, 
130, 260, O 183, O 234, O 249, 
ORs Tow Piie4. Pgs 

mutabilis, 200, P 139. 

nux, O 229, O 310. 

Obispoana, 81. 

fovata, O 236, P 538. 

Pacifica, O 229, O 282. 

pectiniformis, 10, O 178, O 289. 

pernoides, O 283, O 351. 

pholadiformis, 38, 200, O 278. 

pusilla, P 142. 

quadrilatera, 0 183. 

Reeviana, 62, 200, O 278, O 310. 

reversa, 200, O 234, O 278, 
O 249, O 310, P 136. 

senilis, 31, O 366, P 132. 

setigera, P 140. 

similis, 38, 200, O 229, O 249, 
OF278, Ps135¢ 

solida, O 226, O 278. 

squamosa, P 142. 

%squamosa, 62, O 240. 

Tabogensis, 200, 0 249,0 278, 
erat. 

trilineata, 80. 

trapezia, 14,0 202, 0 249, P 550. 

tuberculosa, 14, 23, 38, 200, 
Q 183, O 202,0 229,0 234, 
O 249, O 278, O 310, P 135. 

umbonata, P 142. 

vespertilio, O 226. 


Arcopagia 


biplicata, 80, $1. 
lamellata, 97, 125. 
medialis, $0. 
unda, 81. 


cancellatum, 33, O 338. 

Chemnitzii, O 338. 

nodosum, 182, O 261, O 270, 
O 367, O 338, P 454, V 209. 

Oregonense, O 338. 

scabrum, O 338. 


Argonauta 


argo, 99, 112, 150. 
hians, 153. 
var. papyracea, I12. 


Arianta 


arrosa, 157. 
Ayresiana, 158. 
Bridgesii, 158. 
Californiensis, 158. 
Carpenteri, 158. 
Dupetithouarsi, 158. 
exarata, 155. 
intercisa, 158. 
levis, 158. 
Mormonum, 158. 
Nickliniana, 157. 
ramentosa, 158. 
redimita, 157. 
reticulata, 158. 
Townsendiana, 157. 
Traskei, 158. 
tudiculata, 157. 


Aricia 


Arabica, 11, P 374. 

arabicula, 27, 109, 176, O 258, 
O 328, P 373, P 374. 

caput-serpentis, P 374. 

obvelata, P 374. 

punetulata, 24, 109, 155, 176, 
O 328. 


Arion 


foliatus, 159, O 313. 
foliolatus, O 210. 


Artemis 


Dunkeri, 201, O 224, 0 278, P 61. 


20 


Artemis 
gigantea, 60, O 352. 
Pacifica, O 278. 
ponderosa, 60, O 289, P 60. 
saccata, 201, O 227, 0 246, 0 278, 
P 62, § 161, U 201. 
simplex, O 186, O 246,0 278, 
O 287, P 61. 
subquadrata, O 186, P 62. 
tenuis, O 281. 
? Assiminea 
dubiosa, O 275. 
subrotundata, 114, 142, 241. 
Astarte 
Banksii, O 178. 
borealis, O 219. 
compacta, 88,.128, 168, 
compressa, 88, 128, O 223, P 162. 
corbis, 236. 
corrugata, O 219, O 223, O 306, 
O 347- 
crassidens, O 175, O 347. 
Danmoniensis, O 223. 
Esquimalti, 128. 
fluctuata, 97, 128. 
Garensis, O 221. 
lactea, 20, 71, 72, O 175, O 219, 
© 2210 347. 
Omailii, 128. 
omaria, 97. 
orbicularis, 128, 236. 
Scotica, 20, O 219, O 221, O 223. 
semisulcata, O 219, O 221, 0 347. 
’striata, O 178. 
triangularis, O 336. 
Asteronotus 
alabastrina, 94. 
sanguinea, 94. 
Asthenotherus 
villosior, 104, 209. 
?Atys 
casta, 104, 212. 
Aulus 
grandis, 12. 
Auricula 
acuta, O 275. 








INDEX OF SPECIES. 


Auricula 
coucinna, O 275. 
infrequens, O 275. 
Panawmensis, O 275. 
papillifera, O 275. 
stagnalis, O 275. 
Tabogensis, O 275. 
trilineata, O 275. 
Autonoe 
rubra, P 108. 
Avicula 
Atlantica, O 227, O 236, 0 249, 
O 364, P 148, P 538. 
barbata, 50. 
Cumingii, 50. 
fimbriata, O 296, P 550. 
heteroptera, 50. 
libela, 31, 199. 
margaritifera, O 277, O 295. 
Peruviana, 107, 153. 
sterna, 24, 50, 199, O 1, O 227, 
O 229, 0 233,90 249, O 277, 
0 364, P148,P 155, U 203. 
Axinezea 
Barbarensis, 80, 82, 97, 130, 170. 
inequalis, 154. 
intermedia, 82, 97, 130, 170. 
gigantea, 107. 
multicosta, 154, 155. 
parcipicta, 154. 
pectenoides, 154. 
septentrionalis, var. 
leta, 113, 130, 237. 


subobso- 


Bankivia 
varians, O 253, 0 320, O 365, 
P.226, 
Barbatia 
alternata, 24, 31, 200, 256. 
aviculoides, 24. 
gradata, 24, 69, 97, 107, 139, 
152: 
illota, 24, 107, 200. 
mutabilis, 155. 
pernoides, 102. 
Reeviana, 27, 107, 200. 








INDEX OF SPECIES. 


Barbatia 
solida, 24, 27, 107. 
Tabogensis, 31. 
vespertilio, 107. 
Barleeia 
haliotiphila, 142, 312. 
lirata, 109, O 257, O 327, P 552. 
rubra, 32, P 552. 
subtenuis, 32, 109, 142,155, 313. 
(?subtenuis, var.) rimata, 142, 
Biz: 
Barnea 
candida, 205. 
Bela 
decussata, 71. 
excurvata, 89, 144, 169. 
fidicula, 17, 144, 169, O 331. 
harpularia, 71. 
rufa, 71. 
turgida, 73. 
turricula, 70, 144, O 348. 
Berenecia 
trispinosa, P 3. 
Bezoardica 
abbreviata, 24,27, 110, 151, 151, 
181. 
inflata, 35. 
Binneya 
notabilis, 95, 157. 
Bithinia 
nuclea, 162, O 326. 
similis, 144, O 326, 
Bittium 
armillatum, 25, 99, 141, 311, 323. 
asperum, 99, 141, 311, 323. 
attenuatum, 141, 310. 
Escrichtii, 141. 





21 


| Bivonia 


albida, 24, 43, P 307, O 255, 
O 324. 
compacta, 114, 140, 239. 
contorta, 24, 43, 108, 153, 0 235, 
O 237, O 255, O 324, P 305. 
fcontorta, var. indentata, P 307, 
O 255. 
glomerata, 194, P 309, W 310. 
indentata, 43, O 233. 
Panamensis, O 324. 
Quoyi, 43. 
subcancellata, W 315. 
sutilis, 43. 
triquetra, 43. 
var. typica, 43. 
var. Variegata, 43. 
Bornia 
inflata, P 105. 
luticola, 15, O 203. 
semilunum, P 108. 
Brochina 
glabra, X 413, XK 414, X 415, 
X 416, X 417, X 418, X 434, 
X 435, X 436, X 436, X 437, 
X 440, X 443. 
glabriformis, X 437, X 443. 
Brochus 
annulatus, X 414, X 423. 
arcuatus, X 436, X 437. 
glaber, X 436. 
levis, X 436. 
reticulatus, X 423. 
striatus, X 425. 
treechiformis, X 416, X 425. 
Bryophila (=Philobrya) 
setosa, 24, 98, 104, 131, 212. 


(?var.) esuriens, 23, 114, 141, ‘Buccinum 


283, 310. 
fastigiatum, 23, 141, 283. 
filosum, 19, 25, 84, I41, 310, 
322. 
nitens, 104, 218. 
plicatum, 141, 311. 
quadrifilatum, 141, 311, 323. 
rugatum, 25, 323. 


aciculatum, P 389. 

angulosum, 71, 0 177, O 347. 
Antoni, O 225. 

aplustre, 4. 

armatum, 10, 0 177, O 294. 
biliratum, O 188, O 361, P 515. 
boreale, O 176, O 218. 

Boysii, 35. 


22 


INDEX OF SPECIRS. 


Buccinum 


brevidentatum, 10,O 177,0178. 

cancellatum, 20, O 218, 

cinis, O 188. 

cingulatum, P 458. 

compositum, 4. 

Coromandelianum, O 188, P 516. 

corrugatum, 49, 84, O 342, O 
27M. 

erassum, 179, O 268. 

cribrarium, O 181, P 487. 

crispatum, 4, 5. 

eyaneum, O 217. 

decussatum, 

denticulatum, to, O 177, O 178. 

devinctum, O 367 

dirum, 18, 49. 

distortum, 10, 179, O 268, 

elegans, 48, O 285. 

elongatum, I0, 41. 

fossatum, 17, 48, O 209. 

fusiforme, O 218. 

gemmatum, O 238, P 515, P 542. 

gemmulatum, O 236, O 238, 
0.263, P5125, P 536. 

Geversianum, 7. 

gilvum, O 236,0 263, P 508, 
P 536 

glaciale, 70, 71, O 218. 

Groenlandicum, O 218. 

hemastoma, P 477, P 517. 

hydrophanum, O 218. 

insigne, 179, O 268, P 514. 

interstriatum, 77. 

Janelii, 0 204, O 263,0 269, 
Pr5 7% 

lamellosum, 5. 

leicheilosos, O 177. 

lima, 4. 

liratum, 4, 5, 83. 

lugubre, 179, O 268. 

luteostoma, O 238, P 495, P 542. 

?metula, O 206. 

minus, O 179. 

modestuin, O 185, O 270, 

modificatum, 49. 


Buccinum 


mutabile, O 204, O 263, O 268, 
P 516. 

nigrocostatum, O 188, 

nodatum, 10. 

Northiz, O 293, 

nucleolus, O 225, P 535. 

Ochotense, 19, 71, O 218, O 221. 

ooides, 19, O 218. 

ovoides, O 221. 

ovum, O 218, O 223, O 342. 

pagodus, 179, O 268, O 293, 
P55 

Panamense, O 296. 

parvulum, O 262, O 269, P 487. 

pastinaca, O 188. 

patulum, P 474. 

var. pelagica, 71. 

planaxis, 10, O 178, O 268, 

plicatum, 4, 5. 

plumbum, 6, 

polaris, O 177, O 218, O 347. 

Poulsoni, 317, O 201, O 342, 
Wir2275 

prismaticum, O 225. 

pristis, 179, O 238, O 268, O 293, 
P 542. 

pseudodon, O 188. 

pulchrum, O 188, O 270, O 
361. 

pusio, O 293. 

ringens, 179, O 171, O 178, 
O 238, O 269, P 518. 

roseum, O 179. 

Rudolphi, O 178. 

Sabinii, O 217. 

sanguinolentum, 179, O 236, 
O 269, P 51%, P 536. 

saturum, 4. 

scabrum, O 218, 

scalariforme + vars. 70. 

serratum, 48, O 238, O 268, 
O 293, O 204. 

sericatum, O 218, 

simplex, 19, O 218, O 221. 

Stimpsoni, 73. 





Buccinum 





INDEX OF SPECIES. 23 


Stimpsonianum, 73, 179, O 269. 

striatum, 28. 

strombiforme,’O 178, P 4o1. 

subrostratum, 9, O 176, O 293. 

tectum, 10, U 178. 

tenebrosum, O 223. 

tenue, 10, 71, 0 177, O 347. 

tiarula, O 262, P 496. 

tortuosum, 70. 

undatum, 19." 715) 73) On 217, 
0 221, O 223. 

undosum, O 263, P 515, P 516. 

undulatum, O 217. 

veutricosum, O 218. 

zebra, P 176. 


Bulimulus 


artemisia, 158. 
Californicus, 158. 
elatus, 158. 
excelsus, 158. 
inscendens, 158. 
Mexicanus, 158. 
pallidior, 158. 
pilula, 158. 
sufflatus, 158. 
undulatus, O 288. 
vegetus, 158. 
vesicalis, 158. 
Xantusi, 158. 
Ziegleri, 158. 


Bulimus 


achatinellinus, O 240, O 315, 
O 359. 

alternans, O 181. 

alternatus, O 240, O 315. 

artemisia, 116, 

Bovinus, 59. 

Californicus, 59. 

calvus, O 183,0 240, O 315, 
O 359. 

Chemnitzoides,O 240, O 315, 
O 359. 

chordatus, 59. 

corneus, O 183, 315, O 359. 

Darwinii, O 286, O 315, O 359.° 

22 


Bulimus 


discrepans, 44, O 183, O 315. 

Dysoni, 44. 

eschariferus, O 188, O 240, O 315, 
O 359 

excelsus, 27, 116, O 227, O 234, 
U 203. 

fenestratus, O 286, O 290. 

fimbriatus, O 240, O 315. 

Gallapaganus, O 315, O 359. 

Gruneri, O 286, O 290, 

Honduratinus, 44. 

Humboldti, 59, 162. 

incendens, 116. 

incrassatus, O 315, 359." 

Jacobi, O 315, O 359, O 183, 
O 188. 

Laurentii, 162. 

Liebmanni, O 295. 

longus, 59. 

Manini, O 315, O 359. 

melania, 59. 

melanocheilus, 59, O 251, P 
176, 

Mexicanus, 6, 59, O 170, O 314, 
Paz 

Moricandi, 44, O 286. 

nucula, O 287, O 315, O 359. 

nux, O 181, O 240, O 315, 0 359. 

obscurus, 0 222. 

pallidior, 27, 116, O 227, O 233, 
O 314, O 351, O 352, U 203. 

Panamensis, O 181, O 315. 

Prazianus, 44. 

pilula, 116. - 

princeps, O 188, 59, O 251, 
O 314, P 176. 

proteus, 116. 

punctalissimus, O 265. 

rudis, O 290. 

rugiferus, O 183, O 315. 

rugulosus, O 188, O 240, O 315, 
O 359- 

Schiedeanus, O 265. 

sculpturatus, O 286, O 315, 
O 359. 


94 INDEX OF SPECIES. 





Buiimus Bulla 


semipellucidus, 44. 

striatus, 162. 

sufflatus, 21, 27, 116. 

translucens, O 181,0 315. 

undatus, 7, 59, 119, O 170, 
O 251, P 176: 

unicolor, O 183, O 315. 

unifasciatus, 45,0 183, O 240, 
07288; O' 315,,.0 350: 

ustulatus, O 183, O 188, O 315, 
O 359. 

vegetus, 116, O 227, O 233, 
Wr202% 

verrucosus, O 287, 0 359. 

vesicalis, 21, 116, O 227, O 234, 
U 203. 

vexillum, O 181, O 315. 

xanthostoma, O 265. 

Xantusi, 116. 

zebra, 59, O 251, O 314, P 176, 
P 540. 

Ziegleri, 59, O 314, P 177. 

zigzag, O 251, P 176, 


Bulinus 


aurantius, 161. 
elatus, 161. 
hypnorum, 161. 


Bulla 


Adamsi, 24, 31, 37, 107, 194, 
237, O 282, 0 313, O 364, 
P 173, P 540. 

australis, P 172. 

Californica, 35. 

calyculata, O 175. 

cerealis, 0 227, O 229, U 203. 

constricta, U 203. 

crassula, 160. 

culcitella, O 227, O 229, U 203. 

decussata, O 179, O 261, O 271, 
P 454. 

exarata, O 250, P 173, O 313. 

fontinalis, 160. 

fluviatilis, 161. 

var. fulminosa, 132. 

fusiformis. U 203. 


Bullina 


Bursa 





?Busycon 


gracilis,O 237,0 250, P 171, 
P 540. 

inculta, 79, @ 227, U 203. 

infrequens, O 237, O 250, O 275, 
Pri7iie 

jugularis, 77. 

longinqua, O 284, O 313. 

luticola, 194, O 274, P 170. 

major, P 172. 

media, P 172, 

nebulosa, 22, 26, 79, 85, 107, 132, 
151, 153, 0 198, O 233, O 234, 
O 237,0 284, 0 289, O 313, 

; O 353, P 172, P 540, 
V 22 

’nebulosa, O 250, O 296, P VI., 
P 173. . 

Panamensis, O 295, O 313, P 172, 

petrosa, 165,°O 367. 

punctata, 194, O 189, 0 274, 

puncticulata, 194, O 274. 

punctulata, 31, 37, 194, 0 229, 
O313. 

Quoyii, 5, 24, 100, 107, 132 
O 189, 0 250, O 313, O 359, 
Barz. 

rotundata, U 204. 

rufolabris, O 189, O 313, O 359. 

striata, 5, O 364. 

tenella, 85. 

velutina, O 216. 

vesicula, 79, O 227, 0 284, U 204. 

virescens, 48, 79, O 284, O 313. 

zebra, P 176. 


° 


Bullia 


ampullacea, 19, 70, O 218, O 221, 
O 223, O 342, O 348. 
Perryi, 74. 


eximia, 90. 


bitubercularis, 41. 
fusco-costata, 41. 


Blakei, 75. 














INDEX OF SPECIES. os 


Byssoarca 


alternata, O 310, P 137. 

Americana, O 364. 

aviculoides, O 310. 

divaricata, O 249, P 142. 

?Domingensis, O 364. 

fusca, O 310, O 249, O 364, P 140. 

gradata,O 249,0 310,0 364, 
O 366, P 141, U 203. 

plota.O) 1835807 249.70) 310; 
REA anya: 

lactea, P 141, P 143, O 366. 

mutabilis, 24, 107 200, 0 249, 
OBilowe 1369. 

Pacifica, 24, 107, 153, O 249, 
O 310, P 138, P 139, P 296. 
pernoides, O 227, O 310, U 202. 
pholadiformis, 200, O 278, O 310. 

pusilla, O 249, P 142. 

solida, O 249, O 310, 0 364, O 366, 
P 142, P 143, U 203. 

Tabogensis, 200, O 278, O 310, 
P i4i. 

tetragona, O 366, P 139. 

truncata, O 183, O 310, O 359. 

vespertilio, O 249, O 310, P 140. 


Cadium 


dentatum, O 238. 
ringens, O 238. 


Czcum: See also under sections 


Anellum, Elephantulum, 
and Fartulum. 
abnormale, P 316, X 420. 
annulatum, X 417, X 423. 
bimarginatum, X 421, X 440, 
Clarkii, X 443. 
clathratum, 39, P 322, X 428. 
var. compactum, O 256, P 322. 
Cooperi, 95, 141. 
corrngulatum, X 433, P 327. 
crebricinctum, 98, I41. 
diminutum, 186, 0 4,0 166, 
O56) 012725 321, 427. 
dextroversum, P 328, X 433. 
(dextroversum, var.) Antilla- 
rum, X 433. 


Czecum 


eburneum, 186,,0 4, O 166, 
O 272, X 427. 

elegantissimum, X 429, X 430. 

(elegantissimum, var.) Searles- 
Woodii, X 430. 

elongatum, P 320, X 424. 

elongatum, var. semileve, X 429. 

farcimen, X 431. 

firmatum, 186, 0 4,0 166, O 256, 
O 272,0 357, P 319, P 320, 
321) Ph324, IPis26s XeA27. 

firmatum, var., O 272, 273. 

Floridanum, X 428, X 429. 

glabriforme, O 366, P 327, P 
328. 

glabrum, O 366, P 313, P 214, 
P 327, X 413, X 426, X 432, 
X 436. 

gracile, X 429, } 

gurgulio, X 426. 

heptagonum, P 319, X 422. 

imbricatum, X 422. 

imperforatum, P 321, X 413, 
X 425. 

incurvatum, X 434, X 436.; 

insculptum, P 315, X 420. 

leeve; (1555, 186, 10),2272,, P’ 314, 
Bo3 259k 3205) a4 ol. 

laqueatum, 186, O 272, P 315, 
P 328, X 420. 

liratocinctum, 155, P 315, P 316, 
Sse ao nex 2 The 

liratum, X 421. 

mamillatum, X 427, X 434, 
X 436. 

mamillatum, var. subulatum, X 
434- 

mammillum, X 434. 

monstrosum, O 4, O 166, O 256, 
O72; Rig Is we s2ip ex 427. 

nitidum, X 439. 

obtusum, P 317, X 421. 

parvum, 186, O 256, O 273, 
12 27 

plicatum, X 421. 


INDEX OF SPECIES. 


Cecum 


pollicare,-X 429, X 432. 

pulchellum, P 312, P 313, X 415, 
X 424. 

pygmeum, 186,0 4 O 166, 
O 256, O 273; P3213, X.427 

quadratum, X 428. 

regulare, X 417, X 423, X 428. 

reversum, P 329, X 434. 

Searles-Woodii, X 430. 

?var. semilave, 39,0 256, P319. 

var. subconicum, O 256. 

subimpressum, 108, P 320, 
P 322) X 424. 

subspirale, P 315, P 316, X 410. 

subquadratum, 39, X 433. 

var. tenuiliratum, O 256, 

teres, P 329, X 434, X 440. 

trachea, P 313, X 413, X 414, 
X 415, X 416, X 417, X 418, 
P 424, X 425, X 426, X 427, 
X 429. 

(?trachea, var.) 
X 426. 

tumidum, X 426. 

undatum, 36, 186, O 4,0 272, 
09357, FP 314,)R? 321,uP 323; 
P 325, P 326, X 429, X 430, 
X 431. 

vitreum, X 429, X 432. 

(?vitreum, var.) Clarkii, X 433. 


obsoletum, 


Calcar 


erythrophthalmus, O 296, P 227. 
olivaceus, O 238, P 541. 
Melchersi, O 238, P 227, P 541. 
stellaris, O 238, P 541. 


Calliostoma 


Callicstoma 


eximium, 40, 108, 272. 
filosum, 3, 13, 138. 
gemmulatum, 98, 139. 
imbricatum, 196. 
Leanum, 24, 32, 40, 154, IQI. 
ligatum, 3. 

lima, 24, 53, 154, 272. 
M’Andree, 32, 36, 40. 
modestum, 3. 
splendens, 98, 139. 
supragranosum, 98, 139. 
variegatum, 89, 138. 
versicolor, 152, 272. 
virgineum, 138. 


Callista 


affinis, 30. 

alternata, 30, 106. 

aurantia, 23, 106, 201. 

callosa, 39, 57- 

chionza, 23, 27, 57, 106, 151, 201. 

circinata, 23, 30, 154. 

concinna, 27, 30, 201. 

consanguinea, 201. 

Dione, 57. 

lupinaria, 6, 23, 57. 

pannosa, 9I, 170. 

(?pannosa, var.) puella, 23, 58, 
IOA, 170, 201. 

petechialis, 30. 

pollicaris, 58, 104, 210, 

prora, var. 104. 

rosea, 23, 57, 58. 

semilamellosa, 153, 154+ 

spinosissima, 154. 

tortuosa, 23, 30. 

vulnerata, I51. 


(?lima, var.) equisculpta, 154, | Callochiton 


272. ; 
annulatum, 13, 27, 138. 
Antonii, 36, 191. 


Elenensis, 198. 
interstinctus, O 317, O 348. 
pulchellus, 198, 267, O 317. 


canaliculatum, 6, 13, 23, 27,| Callopoma 


113, 138. 
castaneum, 3. 
costatum, 13, 19, 23, 25, 27, 138. 
dolarium, 13, 138. 


fluctuatum, 153, O 253, O 348, 
P- 223, Q; 234. 

(?fluctuatum, var.) depressum, 
41, O 253, O 288, P 223, Q 234. 














_ auriculata, O 190, P 287, P 


INDEX OF SPECIES. at 


Callopoma 


fluctuosum, 27, 192, @ 224, 
Ol2535 O'320nr 222 57Ri224° 

Fokkesii, 31, 108, 151, O 320. 

phasianella, O 320 [vide 550]. 

saxosum, 24, 192, O 282, O 288, 
O 320. 

tessellatum, 31, I51, 192. 


Calypeopsis 


auriculata, O 3, P 290. 
Byronensis, O 3. 

hispida, O 3, O 275, P 290. 
imbricata, P 287. 

lignaria, O 3, O 184, P 290. 
maculata, O 3, P 290. 
quiriquina, O 3, O 190, P 291. 
rugosa, O 3, O 190, P 287, P 291. 
serrata, O 184. 

tenuis, O 3, O 184, P 290. 
tubifera, 61. 


Calyptrea 


aberrans, 37, 195. 

Adolphei, O 172. 

alveolata, 51. 

amygdalus, O 204, O 254, P 278. 
Araucana, P 265. 

arenata, O 184. 

aspersa, 37, 195. 

auricularis, P 287, P 289. 


to 


99, 
P 292. 

Byronensis, O 255, P 2o0t. 

cepacea, 37, 195, O 235, O 239, 
O 255, O 275, O 323, P 295, 
P 546. 

cinerea, 48. ; 

conica, 37, 195, O 239,0 275, 
P 265, P 266, P 545., 

cornea, P 295. 

corrugata, 52, O 184, O 323. 

dentata, 195, O 236, O 255, 
O75 1b 257, P 538; 

dilatata, P 265. 

dorsata, P 273. 

echinus, O 2, P 268. 

equestris, P 295. 





Calyptrea 


excavata, O 184, P 274. 

?extinctorum, 47, O 3, 0 174, 
0) 226, P267.P 287%. 

fastigiata, O 209. 

foliacea, P 272. 

gemmacea, O 204, P 288. 

hispida, 79, 195, O 255, 0 275, 
01283, 0284 P) 200PR20Ns 

hystrix, O 2, P 268. 

imbricata, 47, 48, 195, O 184, 
O 190, O 236; © 275; P 287, 
P 288, P' 291, P 292, P 538 
Pi551, Lb 169. 


?imbricata, var.  Broderipii, 
EZo2. 
??imbricata, var. Cumingii, 


P2875) be2o2. 

incurva, P 276. 

intermedia, P 292. 

levigata, P 267. 

Lamarckii, O 236, O 239, O 254, 
P 266, P'538,)P 54)5- 

Lessonii, O 2, P 28o. 

lichen, O 254, P 265. 

lignaria, O 184, O 190, O 255, 
F290, 2201, P2925 

lorica, P 292. 

maculata, 195,0 255, O 275, 
P 200; P 2091, 1.167. 

mamillaris,O 190, O 230, P 260, 
P 267, P 292. 

marginalis, O 184. 

perforans, O 204, O 255, P 281. 

peziza, O 255. 

pileiformis, O 212. 

pileolus, P 292. 

planulata, 37, 
O 318. 

quiriquina, O 190, O 255, P 291, 
P 292. 

radians, P 264, P 265. 

radiata, 195, P 275, P 201. 

regularis, 195, O 230,0 233, 
O 254, O 276, P 266. 

rudis, O 184, P 292, P 295. 


195, O 275, 


28 


Calyptrea 

rugosa, 48, 0 3, O 190, O 204, 
O° 236, © 255510) 275. Pia2s7 
P 290, P 291, P 292. 

serrata, O 184. 

sordida, P 267. 

spinosa, 47, 48, O 174,0 2309, 
O 352, P 290, P 201, P 202, 
P 546. 

squama, O 2, O 184, P 280. 

striata, U 205. 

strigata, P 272. 

tenuis, O 184, O 255, P 290, 
P2901, 2202. 

tortilis, 51. 

trigonalis, O 224. 

trochiformis, O 190, P 265. 

tubifera, O 3, O 204, O 255, 
P 20900; P 202: 

umbrella, 195, O 276, P 290, 
P 292. 

unguis, 37, 196, O 276, P 267. 


varia, O 184, O 323, O 360, 
IP 205. 
Campylea 
sportella, 157. 
Cancellaria 


acuminata, O 181, O 329. 

affinis, 35, 183, O 271. 

albida, O 206, O 329. 

arctica, O 223. 

bicolor, P 381. 

bifasciata, O 265, O 329. 

brevis, O 230, O 294, O 3209, 
P 380, P 381. 

buccinoides, O 
329. 

bulbulus, 24, O 181, O 329. 

bullata, O 181. 

candida, 27, O 235, O 329. 

cassidiformis, 27, O 181, O 235, 
O 238, O 329, O 352, P 543. 

chrysostoma, O 181, O 294, 
O 329, O 360. 

clavatula, 24, 0 181,0 230,0 271, 
O 329. 


183, QO) 217, O 


INDEX OF SPECIES. 


Cancellaria 

cogrugata, O 206, 

costata, P 380. 

costellifera, O 217. 

Couthouyi, O 217. 

crenata, O 206, O 329. 

decussata, 24, O 181, O 2732, 
O 329. 

elata, O 206, O 329. 

funiculata, 51, O 206, O 329, 

gemmulata, O 181, O 329. 

goniostoma, 24, 27, 36, 152, 183, 
O 181, 0.233%) 0123550) 2385 
O 258, 0 271, O 2094, 01 32908 
P 380, P 381, P 435, P 543. 

hemastoma, O 181,0 329, O 360. 

indentata, O 181, O 206, O 329. 

lyrata, 51. 

mitriformis, 24, O 271, O 329. 

modesta, 114, 146, 245. 

obesa, 27, O 181, O 235, O 352, 
O 329, P 380. 

oblonga, O 265. 

ovata, P 380, P 543. 

pulchra, O 271. 

pygmea, 36, 183, O 271, O 329. 

reticulata, 61, O 192. 

rigida, P 381. 

solida, 27, O 181, O 235, O 271, 
0320510352: 

tezsellata, 24, O 271, O 320. 

uniplicata, O 182, O 271, O 329. 

urceolata, 35, 152, 183, 206, O 
192, 0 238, O 258, 0 329, P 
380. 

ventricosa, O 206, O 329. 

viridula, O 217. 


Cantharus 


gemmatus, P 516. 
ringens, 518, 
sanguinolentus, P 517. 


Capsa 


altior, 202, O 182, O 279. 
Braziliensis, O 364. 
deflorata, 63. 

levigata, O 364, P 42. 











INDEX OF SPECIES. 29 


Capulus 


militaris, P 300. 
mitrula, P 297, R 3. 
subrufus, R 4. 


Cardita 


affinis, 201, O 182, O 229, O 232, 
O234, ON 286.50) 247750278, 
O 282,0 297, O 300, P 84, 
P 85, P 539. 

arcella, 14. 

borealis, 9, 70, O 210, O 219, 
O 221, O 223. 

Californica, O 232, 0 234, O 236, 
OW287-101 352, Pid4 

corbis, 128. 

crassa, O 178, O 306. 

Cuvieri, 10, O 181, O 208, O 
300. 

laticostata, 201,O 182, O 278, 
O 300. 

incrassata, 0 287, O 306, O 359. 

Michelini, 10, 14. 

modulosa, 14, O 278. 

monilicosta, 118. 

nodulosa, O 278. 

occidentalis, 17, 80. 

planicosta, 75. 

radiata, 201, O 182, O 278, O 
306. 

spurca, O 221. 

subtenta, 17, 165, O 367. 

turgida, 14. 

varia, O 181, O 306, O 359. 

variegata, 128, 280. 

ventricosa, 17, 80, 91, O 2009, 
O 210, O 213, O 306. 

volucris, O 229. 


Cardium 


aculeatum, 154, O 285. 

alabastrum, O 247, O 307, P 94, 
5st. 

arenatum, P 93. 

asperum, O 364. 

Belcheri, 0 175, O 297, O 307. 

biangulatum, 27, O 175, O 187, 
O 229, O 307. 








Cardium 


blandum, 14, 17, 49, 70, 91, 128, 
OL 21ON OR 21250) 2125 O8307, 
O 348. 

boreale, O 175. 

bullatum, O 364. 

Californianum, 13, 14, 17, 49, 
TIO}, O) 51974 On 20258 OF 2125 
O21) O29) Va27e 

Californiense, 14, 17, 70, 91, 128, 
OF 197105202708 210% On 221% 
O 223,0 232,0 234, 0 283, 
O 307, O 347. 

carneosum, P 40, 

centifilosum, 97, 128, 

consors, 23, 27, 106, 153, O 187, 
O 234, O 282, O 307, O 364. 

corbis, 5, 13, 17, 91, 128. 

costatum, 45, P 95. 

crucntatumss) 2167S.) 227, 
O 284, O 307, O 352, U 201. 

Cumingii, O 183, O 307. 

Dionzum, O 175. 

discors, 60. 

elatum, 153, O 232,0 247, O 307, 
O 351, O 352,0 364, P 91, 
W218: 

Elenense, P 91, U 201. 

Gabbii, 119. 

gemmatum, O 229, 

graniferum, 25, 30, 154, 201, 
322, 0175, 0187, 0 229, 0 248, 
O78 ORO AR Shp ksO5. 

Grenlandicum, 47, 70. 

Icelandicum, O 210. 

Indicum, 45. O 288. 

Laperousii, 14, O 203, O 307. 

laticostatum, O 247, P 92. 

linteum, 75. 

lucinoides, O 248, P 96. 

luteolabrum, 13, 21, 128, O 197, 
Oh2275 O87 OF351,2Unzor. 

maculatum, 45, O 282, O 285. 

maculosum, 45,0 229, O 285, 
O 307. 

magnificum, O 187. 


30 INDEX OF SPECIES. 


Cardium _Carocolla 


modestum, 75, 97, 128. 


| 
Mortoni, U 201, V 218. 


quadridentata, O 1So. 
uncigera, O 290. 


muricatum, 0175, O 236,0 247, Cassidaria 


O 364, P 93, P 539. | 
Nicolleti, 75. 
Nuttallianum, O 192. | 


setosa, O 261 O 367, P 455. 


Cassidulus 


patulus, P 5or. 


Nuttallii, 4, 13, 14, 26, 71, 86, Cassis 


O: 197,0' 203,- 0) 2185, 0 (210, 
O) 223,( 0 282; O: 240, :On284, | 
O 307, O 347, O 351, V 217. 
obovale, 23, 201, O 229, O 278, 
O 307. 

Panamense, 0 178, O 183, 02